Imperial College London

Dr Frédéric B. Piel

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 3346f.piel




Praed StreetSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Kassebaum, NJ and Arora, M and Barber, RM and Bhutta, ZA and Brown, J and Carter, A and Casey, DC and Charlson, FJ and Coates, MM and Coggeshall, M and Cornaby, L and Dandona, L and Dicker, DJ and Erskine, HE and Ferrari, AJ and Fitzmaurice, C and Foreman, K and Forouzanfar, MH and Fullman, N and Gething, PW and Goldberg, EM and Graetz, N and Haagsma, JA and Johnson, CO and Kemmer, L and Khalil, IA and Kinfu, Y and Kutz, MJ and Kyu, HH and Leung, J and Liang, X and Lim, SS and Lozano, R and Mensah, GA and Mikesell, J and Mokdad, AH and Mooney, MD and Naghavi, M and Nguyen, G and Nsoesie, E and Pigott, DM and Pinho, C and Rankin, Z and Reinig, N and Salomon, JA and Sandar, L and Smith, A and Sorensen, RJD and Stanaway, J and Steiner, C and Teeple, S and Thomas, BA and Troeger, C and VanderZanden, A and Wagner, JA and Wanga, V and Whiteford, HA and Zhou, M and Zoeckler, L and Abajobir, AA and Abate, KH and Abbafati, C and Abbas, KM and Abd-Allah, F and Abraham, B and Abubakar, I and Abu-},
doi = {10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31460-X},
journal = {The Lancet},
pages = {1603--1658},
title = {Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015},
url = {},
volume = {388},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - SummaryBackground Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Findings Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY
AU - Kassebaum,NJ
AU - Arora,M
AU - Barber,RM
AU - Bhutta,ZA
AU - Brown,J
AU - Carter,A
AU - Casey,DC
AU - Charlson,FJ
AU - Coates,MM
AU - Coggeshall,M
AU - Cornaby,L
AU - Dandona,L
AU - Dicker,DJ
AU - Erskine,HE
AU - Ferrari,AJ
AU - Fitzmaurice,C
AU - Foreman,K
AU - Forouzanfar,MH
AU - Fullman,N
AU - Gething,PW
AU - Goldberg,EM
AU - Graetz,N
AU - Haagsma,JA
AU - Johnson,CO
AU - Kemmer,L
AU - Khalil,IA
AU - Kinfu,Y
AU - Kutz,MJ
AU - Kyu,HH
AU - Leung,J
AU - Liang,X
AU - Lim,SS
AU - Lozano,R
AU - Mensah,GA
AU - Mikesell,J
AU - Mokdad,AH
AU - Mooney,MD
AU - Naghavi,M
AU - Nguyen,G
AU - Nsoesie,E
AU - Pigott,DM
AU - Pinho,C
AU - Rankin,Z
AU - Reinig,N
AU - Salomon,JA
AU - Sandar,L
AU - Smith,A
AU - Sorensen,RJD
AU - Stanaway,J
AU - Steiner,C
AU - Teeple,S
AU - Thomas,BA
AU - Troeger,C
AU - VanderZanden,A
AU - Wagner,JA
AU - Wanga,V
AU - Whiteford,HA
AU - Zhou,M
AU - Zoeckler,L
AU - Abajobir,AA
AU - Abate,KH
AU - Abbafati,C
AU - Abbas,KM
AU - Abd-Allah,F
AU - Abraham,B
AU - Abubakar,I
AU - Abu-Raddad,LJ
AU - Abu-Rmeileh,NME
AU - Achoki,T
AU - Ackerman,IN
AU - Adebiyi,AO
AU - Adedeji,IA
AU - Adsuar,JC
AU - Afanvi,KA
AU - Afshin,A
AU - Agardh,EE
AU - Agarwal,A
AU - Agarwal,SK
AU - Ahmed,MB
AU - Kiadaliri,AA
AU - Ahmadieh,H
AU - Akseer,N
AU - Al-Aly,Z
AU - Alam,K
AU - Alam,NKM
AU - Aldhahri,SF
AU - Alegretti,MA
AU - Aleman,AV
AU - Alemu,ZA
AU - Alexander,LT
AU - Ali,R
AU - Alkerwi,A
AU - Alla,F
AU - Allebeck,P
AU - Alsharif,U
AU - Altirkawi,KA
AU - Martin,EA
AU - Alvis-Guzman,N
AU - Amare,AT
AU - Amberbir,A
AU - Amegah,AK
AU - Amini,H
AU - Ammar,W
AU - Amrock,SM
AU - Anderson,GM
AU - Anderson,BO
AU - Antonio,CAT
AU - Anwari,P
AU - Ärnlöv,J
AU - Arsenijevic,VSA
AU - Artaman,A
AU - Asayesh,H
AU - Asghar,RJ
AU - Avokpaho,EFGA
AU - Awasthi,A
AU - Quintanilla,BPA
AU - Azzopardi,P
AU - Bacha,U
AU - Badawi,A
AU - Balakrishnan,K
AU - Banerjee,A
AU - Barac,A
AU - Barker-Collo,SL
AU - Bärnighausen,T
AU - Barregard,L
AU - Barrero,LH
AU - Basu,S
AU - Bayou,TA
AU - Beardsley,J
AU - Bedi,N
AU - Beghi,E
AU - Bell,B
AU - Bell,ML
AU - Benjet,C
AU - Bennett,DA
AU - Bensenor,IM
AU - Berhane,A
AU - Bernabé,E
AU - Betsu,BD
AU - Beyene,AS
AU - Bhala,N
AU - Bhansali,A
AU - Bhatt,S
AU - Biadgilign,S
AU - Bienhoff,K
AU - Bikbov,B
AU - Abdulhak,AAB
AU - Bisanzio,D
AU - Bjertness,E
AU - Blore,JD
AU - Borschmann,R
AU - Boufous,S
AU - Bourne,RRA
AU - Brainin,M
AU - Brazinova,A
AU - Breitborde,NJK
AU - Brugha,TS
AU - Buchbinder,R
AU - Buckle,GC
AU - Butt,ZA
AU - Calabria,B
AU - Campos-Nonato,IR
AU - Campuzano,JC
AU - Carabin,H
AU - Carapetis,JR
AU - Cárdenas,R
AU - Carrero,JJ
AU - Castañeda-Orjuela,CA
AU - Rivas,JC
AU - Catalá-López,F
AU - Cavalleri,F
AU - Chang,J
AU - Chiang,PP C
DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31460-X
EP - 1658
PY - 2016///
SN - 0140-6736
SP - 1603
TI - Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
T2 - The Lancet
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 388
ER -