Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Research Postgraduate



faheem16 Website CV




Electrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Zafari, F and Gkelias, A and Leung, K},
title = {A Survey of Indoor Localization Systems and Technologies},
url = {},

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Indoor localization has recently witnessed an increase in interest, due tothe potential wide range of services it can provide by leveraging Internet ofThings (IoT), and ubiquitous connectivity. Different techniques, wirelesstechnologies and mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to provideindoor localization services in order to improve the services provided to theusers. However, there is a lack of an up-to-date survey paper that incorporatessome of the recently proposed accurate and reliable localization systems. Inthis paper, we aim to provide a detailed survey of different indoorlocalization techniques such as Angle of Arrival (AoA), Time of Flight (ToF),Return Time of Flight (RTOF), Received Signal Strength (RSS); based ontechnologies such as WiFi, Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), UltraWideband (UWB), Bluetooth and systems that have been proposed in theliterature. The paper primarily discusses localization and positioning of humanusers and their devices. We highlight the strengths of the existing systemsproposed in the literature. In contrast with the existing surveys, we alsoevaluate different systems from the perspective of energy efficiency,availability, cost, reception range, latency, scalability and trackingaccuracy. Rather than comparing the technologies or techniques, we compare thelocalization systems and summarize their working principle. We also discussremaining challenges to accurate indoor localization.
AU - Zafari,F
AU - Gkelias,A
AU - Leung,K
TI - A Survey of Indoor Localization Systems and Technologies
UR -
ER -