Imperial College London

ProfessorGaryFrost

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Chair in Nutrition and Dietetics
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 0959g.frost Website

 
 
//

Location

 

Commonwealth BiuldingHammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

384 results found

Chambers E, Byrne C, Rugyendo A, Morrison D, Preston T, Tedford C, Bell J, Thomas L, Akbar A, Riddell N, Sharma R, Thursz M, Manousou P, Frost Get al., 2019, The effects of dietary supplementation with inulin and inulin-propionate ester on hepatic steatosis in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Vol: 21, Pages: 372-376, ISSN: 1462-8902

The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) propionate, produced through fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, has been shown to alter hepatic metabolic processes that reduce lipid storage. We aimed to investigate the impact of raising colonic propionate production on hepatic steatosis in adults with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Eighteen adults were randomised to receive 20g/day of an inulin‐propionate ester (IPE), designed to deliver propionate to the colon, or an inulin‐control for 42‐days in a parallel design. The change in intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) following the supplementation period was not different between groups (P=0.082), however IHCL significantly increased within the inulin‐control group (20.9±2.9 to 26.8±3.9%; P=0.012; n=9), which was not observed within the IPE group (22.6±6.9 to 23.5±6.8%; P=0.635; n=9). The predominant SCFA from colonic fermentation of inulin is acetate, which in a background of NAFLD and a hepatic metabolic profile that promotes fat accretion, may provide surplus lipogenic substrate to the liver. The increased colonic delivery of propionate from IPE appears to attenuate this acetate‐mediated increase in IHCL.

Journal article

Maitland K, Olupot-Olupot P, Kiguli S, Chagaluka G, Alaroker F, Opoka RO, Mpoya A, Engoru C, Nteziyaremye J, Mallewa M, Kennedy N, Nakuya M, Namayanja C, Kayaga J, Uyoga S, Byabazaire DK, M'baya B, Wabwire B, Frost G, Bates I, Evans JA, Williams TN, Goncalves PS, George EC, Gibb DM, Walker ASet al., 2019, Transfusion Volume for Children with Severe Anemia in Africa, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 381, Pages: 420-431, ISSN: 0028-4793

BackgroundSevere anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level.MethodsIn this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality.ResultsA total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P=0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with

Journal article

Maitland K, Kiguli S, Olupot-Olupot P, Engoru C, Mallewa M, Goncalves PS, Opoka RO, Mpoya A, Alaroker F, Nteziyaremye J, Chagaluka G, Kennedy N, Nabawanuka E, Nakuya M, Namayanja C, Uyoga S, Byabazaire DK, M'baya B, Wabwire B, Frost G, Bates I, Evans JA, Williams TN, George EC, Gibb DM, Walker ASet al., 2019, Immediate transfusion in African children with uncomplicated severe anemia, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 381, Pages: 407-419, ISSN: 0028-4793

BackgroundThe World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes.MethodsIn this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole.ResultsA total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P=0.19) and by 180 days in

Journal article

Sukkar A, Lett A, Frost G, Chambers Eet al., 2019, Regulation of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by short chain fatty acids, Journal of Endocrinology, Vol: 242, Pages: R1-R8, ISSN: 1479-6805

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced from the fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota. High-fibre diets have been associated with lower weight gain and a number of reports have therefore investigated if these positive effects of a dietary fibre on body weight can be replicated through the direct administration of SCFAs. Many of these studies have reported that SCFAs can prevent or attenuate long-term body weight gain by increasing energy expenditure through increased lipid oxidation. The aim of the present review is to therefore evaluate the current evidence for an effect of SCFAs on whole-body energy expenditure and to assess the potential underlying mechanisms. The available data highlights that SCFAs can exert multiple effects at various organ and tissue sites that would cumulatively raise energy expenditure via a promotion of lipid oxidation. In conclusion, the present review proposes that dietary interventions and other therapies that augment gut-derived SCFAs and systemic availability may present an effective strategy to improve long-term energy balance and body weight management.

Journal article

Greenwood D, Frost GS, Elliott P, Riboli E, Cade JEet al., 2019, Validation of the Oxford WebQ Online 24-hour dietary questionnaire using biomarkers., American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 1476-6256

Oxford WebQ is an online dietary questionnaire covering 24 hours, appropriate for repeated administration in large-scale prospective studies including UK Biobank and the Million Women Study. We compared performance of the Oxford WebQ and a traditional interviewer-administered multi-pass 24-hour recall against biomarkers for protein, potassium and total sugar intake, and total energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. 160 participants were recruited between 2014 and 2016 in London, UK, and measured at 3 non-consecutive time-points. The measurement error model simultaneously compared all 3 methods. Attenuation factors for protein, potassium, sugars and total energy intake estimated by the mean of 2 Oxford WebQs were 0.37, 0.42, 0.45, and 0.31 respectively, with performance improving incrementally for the mean of more measures. Correlation between the mean of 2 Oxford WebQs and estimated true intakes, reflecting attenuation when intake is categorised or ranked, was 0.47, 0.39, 0.40, and 0.38 respectively, also improving with repeated administration. These were similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based recall. Using objective biomarkers as the standard, Oxford WebQ performs well across key nutrients in comparison with more administratively burdensome interviewer-based 24-hour recalls. Attenuation improves when the average is taken over repeated administration, reducing measurement error bias in assessment of diet-disease associations.

Journal article

Eriksen R, Gibson R, Aresu M, Heard A, Chan Q, Evangelou E, Gao H, Elliott P, Frost Get al., 2019, Gene-diet quality interactions on HbA1c and type 2 diabetes risk: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study, Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN: 2398-9238

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is multi-factorial involving lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors. This study aims to investigate the impact of genetic interactions with alcohol and diet quality on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) independent of obesity, in a British population.Methods: Cross-sectional study of 14,089 white British participants from Airwave Health Monitoring Study, and a sub-sample of 3,733 participants with dietary data. A T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed and its interactions with diet on HbA1c were assessed.Results: GRS was associated with a higher HbA1c% ( 0.03, p<0.0001) and a higher risk of pre-diabetes (OR 1.09, p<0.0001) and T2D (OR 1.14, p 0.006). The genetic effect on HbA1c% was significantly higher in obese participants ( 1.88, pinteraction 0.03). A high intake of wholegrain attenuated the effect on HbA1c% in high-risk individuals pinteraction 0.04. Conclusion: The genetic effect on HbA1c was almost doubled in obese individuals, compared with those with a healthy weight, and independent of weight there was a modest offset on HbA1c in high-genetic risk individuals consuming a diet high in wholegrain. This supports the importance of a healthy diet high in wholegrains and along with maintaining a healthy weight in controlling HbA1c amongst high genetic risk groups.

Journal article

Wilson T, Garcia-Perez I, Posma JM, Lloyd AJ, Chambers ES, Tailliart K, Zubair H, Beckmann M, Mathers JC, Holmes E, Frost G, Draper Jet al., 2019, Spot and cumulative urine samples are suitable replacements for 24-hour urine collections for objective measures of dietary exposure in adults using metabolite biomarkers, Journal of Nutrition, ISSN: 0022-3166

BACKGROUND: Measurement of multiple food intake exposure biomarkers in urine may offer an objective method for monitoring diet. The potential of spot and cumulative urine samples that have reduced burden on participants as replacements for 24-h urine collections has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of spot and cumulative urine samples for classifying the metabolic profiles of people according to dietary intake when compared with 24-h urine collections in a controlled dietary intervention study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy individuals (10 male, 9 female, aged 21-65 y, BMI 20-35 kg/m2) each consumed 4 distinctly different diets, each for 1 wk. Spot urine samples were collected ∼2 h post meals on 3 intervention days/wk. Cumulative urine samples were collected daily over 3 separate temporal periods. A 24-h urine collection was created by combining the 3 cumulative urine samples. Urine samples were analyzed with metabolite fingerprinting by both high-resolution flow infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). Concentrations of dietary intake biomarkers were measured with liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and by integration of 1H-NMR data. RESULTS: Cross-validation modeling with 1H-NMR and FIE-HRMS data demonstrated the power of spot and cumulative urine samples in predicting dietary patterns in 24-h urine collections. Particularly, there was no significant loss of information when post-dinner (PD) spot or overnight cumulative samples were substituted for 24-h urine collections (classification accuracies of 0.891 and 0.938, respectively). Quantitative analysis of urine samples also demonstrated the relation between PD spot samples and 24-h urines for dietary exposure biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PD spot urine samples are suitable replacements for 24-h urine collections. Alternatively, cumulative samples collected overn

Journal article

van Bussel IPG, Fazelzadeh P, Frost GS, Rundle M, Afman LAet al., Measuring phenotypic flexibility by transcriptome time-course analyses during challenge tests before and after energy restriction., FASEB J, Pages: fj201900148R-fj201900148R

Metabolic challenge tests may be a valuable tool to magnify the effects of diet on health. The use of transcriptomics enables a more extensive characterization of the effects of diet. The question remains whether transcriptome time-course analyses during challenge tests will deliver more information on the effect of diet than a static fasting measurement. A dietary intervention known to improve health is energy restriction (ER). Seventy-two healthy, overweight men and women aged 50-65 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a mixed-meal test (MMT) before and after 12 wk of a 20% ER diet or control diet. Whole-genome gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed before and after the intervention. This was done during fasting, during the OGTT at 30, 60, and 120 min, and during the MMT at 60, 120, 240, and 360 min. Upon ER, the OGTT resulted in a faster and more pronounced down-regulation in gene expression of oxidative phosphorylation, cell adhesion, and DNA replication compared with the control. The MMT showed less-consistent effects. The OGTT combined with transcriptomics can be used to measure dynamic cellular adaptation upon an intervention that cannot be determined with a static fasting measurement.-Van Bussel, I. P. G., Fazelzadeh, P., Frost, G. S., Rundle, M., Afman, L. A., NutriTech Consortium. Measuring phenotypic flexibility by transcriptome time-course analyses during challenge tests before and after energy restriction.

Journal article

Koivula RW, Forgie IM, Kurbasic A, Viñuela A, Heggie A, Giordano GN, Hansen TH, Hudson M, Koopman ADM, Rutters F, Siloaho M, Allin KH, Brage S, Brorsson CA, Dawed AY, De Masi F, Groves CJ, Kokkola T, Mahajan A, Perry MH, Rauh SP, Ridderstråle M, Teare HJA, Thomas EL, Tura A, Vestergaard H, White T, Adamski J, Bell JD, Beulens JW, Brunak S, Dermitzakis ET, Froguel P, Frost G, Gupta R, Hansen T, Hattersley A, Jablonka B, Kaye J, Laakso M, McDonald TJ, Pedersen O, Schwenk JM, Pavo I, Mari A, McCarthy MI, Ruetten H, Walker M, Pearson E, Franks PW, IMI DIRECT Consortiumet al., 2019, Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes: descriptive characteristics of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium., Diabetologia, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0012-186X

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up). METHODS: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at ~18 months (both cohorts) and at ~48 months (cohort 1) or ~36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe. RESULTS: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean ± SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enro

Journal article

Behary P, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, Johnson N, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, Kenkre J, Cuenco J, Hope D, Anyiam O, Choudhury S, Alessimii H, Poddar A, Minnion J, Doyle C, Frost G, Le Roux C, Purkayastha S, Moorthy K, Dhillo W, Holst JJ, Ahmed AR, Prevost AT, Bloom SR, Tan TMet al., 2019, Combined GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, and peptide YY improves body weight and glycemia in obesity and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes: a randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study, Diabetes Care, ISSN: 0149-5992

OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) augments postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY). Subcutaneous infusion of these hormones ("GOP"), mimicking postprandial levels, reduces energy intake. Our objective was to study the effects of GOP on glycemia and body weight when given for 4 weeks to patients with diabetes and obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded mechanistic study, obese patients with prediabetes/diabetes were randomized to GOP (n = 15) or saline (n = 11) infusion for 4 weeks. We also studied 21 patients who had undergone RYGB and 22 patients who followed a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) as unblinded comparators. Outcomes measured were 1) body weight, 2) fructosamine levels, 3) glucose and insulin during a mixed meal test (MMT), 4) energy expenditure (EE), 5) energy intake (EI), and 6) mean glucose and measures of glucose variability during continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: GOP infusion was well tolerated over the 4-week period. There was a greater weight loss (P = 0.025) with GOP (mean change -4.4 [95% CI -5.3, -3.5] kg) versus saline (-2.5 [-4.1, -0.9] kg). GOP led to a greater improvement (P = 0.0026) in fructosamine (-44.1 [-62.7, -25.5] µmol/L) versus saline (-11.7 [-18.9, -4.5] µmol/L). Despite a smaller weight loss compared with RYGB and VLCD, GOP led to superior glucose tolerance after a mixed-meal stimulus and reduced glycemic variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. CONCLUSIONS: GOP infusion improves glycemia and reduces body weight. It achieves superior glucose tolerance and reduced glucose variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. GOP is a viable alternative for the treatment of diabetes with favorable effects on body weight.

Journal article

Wijeyesekera A, Wagner J, De Goffau M, Thurston S, Rodrigues Sabino A, Zaher S, White D, Ridout J, Peters MJ, Ramnarayan P, Branco RG, Torok ME, Valla F, Meyer R, Klein N, Frost G, Parkhill J, Holmes E, Pathan Net al., 2019, Multi-compartment profiling of bacterial and host metabolites identifies intestinal dysbiosis and its functional consequences in the critically ill child, Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 0090-3493

OBJECTIVES: Adverse physiology and antibiotic exposure devastate the intestinal microbiome in critical illness. Time and cost implications limit the immediate clinical potential of microbial sequencing to identify or treat intestinal dysbiosis. Here, we examined whether metabolic profiling is a feasible method of monitoring intestinal dysbiosis in critically ill children. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Three U.K.-based PICUs. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated critically ill (n = 60) and age-matched healthy children (n = 55). INTERVENTIONS: Collection of urine and fecal samples in children admitted to the PICU. A single fecal and urine sample was collected in healthy controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or urine and fecal samples. This was integrated with analysis of fecal bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA profiles and clinical disease severity indicators. We observed separation of global urinary and fecal metabolic profiles in critically ill compared with healthy children. Urinary excretion of mammalian-microbial co-metabolites hippurate, 4-cresol sulphate, and formate were reduced in critical illness compared with healthy children. Reduced fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (including butyrate, propionate, and acetate) were observed in the patient cohort, demonstrating that these metabolites also distinguished between critical illness and health. Dysregulation of intestinal bile metabolism was evidenced by increased primary and reduced secondary fecal bile acid excretion. Fecal butyrate correlated with days free of intensive care at 30 days (r = 0.38; p = 0.03), while urinary formate correlated inversely with vasopressor requirement (r = -0.2; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Disruption to the functional activity of the intestinal microbiome may result in worsening organ failure in the critically ill child. P

Journal article

McCrory M, Sun M, Sazonov E, Frost G, Anderson A, Jia W, Jobarteh ML, Maitland K, Steiner-Asiedu M, Ghosh T, Higgins JA, Baranowski T, Lo Bet al., 2019, Methodology for objective, passive, image- and sensor-based assessment of dietary intake, meal-timing, and food-related activity in Ghana and Kenya (P13-028-19)., Current Developments in Nutrition, Vol: 3, Pages: 1247-1247, ISSN: 2475-2991

Objectives: Herein we describe a new system we have developed for assessment of dietary intake, meal timing, and food-related activities, adapted for use in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: System components include one or more wearable cameras (the Automatic Ingestion Monitor-2 (AIM), an eyeglasses-mounted wearable chewing sensor and micro-camera; ear-worn camera; the eButton, a camera attached to clothes; and eHat, a camera attached to a visor worn by the mother when feeding infants and toddlers), and custom software for evaluation of dietary intake from food-based images and sensor-detected food intake. General protocol: The primary caregiver of the family uses one or more wearable cameras during all waking hours. The cameras aim directly in front of the participant and capture images every few seconds, thereby providing multiple images of all food-related activities throughout the day. The camera may be temporarily removed for short periods to preserve privacy, such as during bathing and personal care. For analysis, images and sensor signals are processed by the study team in custom software. The images are time-stamped, arranged in chronological order, and linked with sensor-detected eating occasions. The software also incorporates food composition databases of choice such as the West African Foods Database, a Kenyan Foods Database, and the USDA Food Composition Database, allowing for image-based dietary assessment by trained nutritionists. Images can be linked with nutritional analysis and tagged with an activity label (e.g., food shopping, child feeding, cooking, eating). Assessment of food-related activities such as food-shopping, food gathering from gardens, cooking, and feeding of other family members by the primary caregiver can help provide context for dietary intake and additional information to increase accuracy of dietary assessment and analysis of eating behavior. Examples of the latter include assessment of specific ingredients in prepared

Journal article

Maitland K, Kiguli S, Olupot-Olupot P, Engoru C, Mellewa M, Goncalves PS, Opoka RO, Mpoya A, Alaroker F, Nteziyaremye J, Chagaluka G, Kennedy N, Nabawanuka E, Nakuya M, Namayanja C, Uyoga S, Byabazaire DK, Mbaya B, Wabwire B, Frost G, Bates I, Evans JA, Williams T, George EC, Gibb DM, Walker ASet al., Transfusion in African Children with Uncomplicated Severe Anemia, New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN: 0028-4793

Journal article

Rahman MS, Vorkas P, Frost G, Morrison D, Haskard D, Woollard KJet al., 2019, OUTLINING THE HUMAN MONOCYTE INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RESPONSE TO DIETARY FAT INTAKE, Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A159-A160, ISSN: 1355-6037

Conference paper

Byrne C, Chambers E, Brignardello J, Garcia-Perez I, Holmes E, Gareth W, Tom P, Catriona T, Douglas M, Gary S Fet al., 2019, Effects of inulin propionate ester incorporated into palatable food products on appetite and resting energy expenditure: a randomised crossover study, Nutrients, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6643

Supplementation with inulin-propionate ester (IPE), which delivers propionate to the colon, suppresses ad libitum energy intake and stimulates the release of satiety hormones acutely in humans, and prevents weight gain. In order to determine whether IPE remains effective when incorporated into food products (FP), IPE needs to be added to a widely accepted food system. A bread roll and fruit smoothie were produced. Twenty-one healthy overweight and obese humans participated. Participants attended an acclimatisation visit and a control visit where they consumed un-supplemented food products (FP). Participants then consumed supplemented-FP, containing 10 g/d inulin or IPE for six days followed by a post-supplementation visit in a randomised crossover design. On study visits, supplemented-FP were consumed for the seventh time and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 420 min later. Blood samples were collected to assess hormones and metabolites. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Taste and appearance ratings were similar between FP. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different between treatments, due to a decreased intake following IPE-FP. These observations were not related to changes in blood hormones and metabolites. There was an increase in REE following IPE-FP. However, this effect was lost after correcting for changes in fat free mass. Our results suggest that IPE suppresses appetite and may alter REE following its incorporation into palatable food products.

Journal article

Chambers E, Byrne C, Morrison D, Murphy K, Preston T, Tedford MC, Garcia Perez I, Fountana S, Serrano Contreras J, Holmes E, Roberts J, Reynolds C, Boyton R, Altmann D, McDonald J, Marchesi J, Akbar A, Riddell N, Wallis G, Frost Get al., 2019, Dietary supplementation with inulin-propionate ester or inulin improves insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity with distinct effects on the gut microbiota, plasma metabolome and systemic inflammatory responses: a randomised crossover trial, Gut, ISSN: 0017-5749

Objective: To investigate the underlying mechanisms behind changes in glucose homeostasis with delivery of propionate to the human colon by comprehensive and coordinated analysis of gut bacterial composition, plasma metabolome and immune responses.Design: Twelve non-diabetic adults with overweight and obesity received 20g/day of inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to selectively deliver propionate to the colon, a high-fermentable fibre control (inulin) and a low-fermentable fibre control (cellulose) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design. Outcome measurements of metabolic responses, inflammatory markers and gut bacterial composition were analysed at the end of each 42-day supplementation period.Results: Both IPE and inulin supplementation improved insulin resistance compared to cellulose supplementation, measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 2 (Mean±SEM 1.23±0.17 IPE vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.001; 1.17±0.15 inulin vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.009), with no differences between IPE and inulin (P=0.272). Fasting insulin was only associated positively with plasma tyrosine and negatively with plasma glycine following inulin supplementation. IPE supplementation decreased pro-inflammatory IL-8 levels compared to cellulose, whilst inulin had no impact on the systemic inflammatory markers studied. Inulin promoted changes in gut bacterial populations at the class level (increased Actinobacteria and decreased Clostridia) and order level (decreased Clostridales) compared to cellulose, with small differences at the species level observed between IPE and cellulose. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a distinctive physiological impact of raising colonic propionate delivery in humans, as improvements in insulin sensitivity promoted by IPE and inulin were accompanied with different effects on the plasma metabolome, gut bacterial populations and markers of systemic inflammation.

Journal article

Byrne C, Blunt D, Burn J, Chambers E, Dagbasi A, Franco Becker G, Gibson G, Mendoza L, Murphy K, Poveda C, Ramgulam A, Tashkova M, Walton G, Washirasaksiri C, Frost Get al., 2019, A study protocol for a randomised crossover study evaluating the effect of diets differing in carbohydrate quality on ileal content and appetite regulation in healthy humans, F1000Research, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2046-1402

Introduction: A major component of the digesta reaching the colon from the distal ileum is carbohydrate. This carbohydrate is subject to microbial fermentation and can radically change bacterial populations in the colon and the metabolites they produce, particularly short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). However, very little is currently known about the forms and levels of carbohydrate in the ileum and the composition of the ileal microbiota in humans. Most of our current understanding of carbohydrate that is not absorbed by the small intestine comes from ileostomy models, which may not reflect the physiology of an intact gastrointestinal tract. Methods: We will investigate how ileal content changes depending on diet using a randomised crossover study in healthy humans. Participants will be inpatients at the research facility for three separate 4-day visits. During each visit, participants will consume one of three diets, which differ in carbohydrate quality: 1) low-fibre refined diet; 2) high-fibre diet with intact cellular structures; 3) high-fibre diet where the cellular structures have been disrupted (e.g. milling, blending). On day 1, a nasoenteric tube will be placed into the distal ileum and its position confirmed under fluoroscopy. Ileal samples will be collected via the nasoenteric tube and metabolically profiled, which will determine the amount and type of carbohydrate present, and the composition of the ileal microbiota will be measured. Blood samples will be collected to assess circulating hormones and metabolites. Stool samples will be collected to assess faecal microbiota composition. Subjective appetite measures will be collected using visual analogue scales. Breath hydrogen will be measured in real-time as a marker of intestinal fermentation. Finally, an in vitro continuous fermentation model will be inoculated with ileal fluid in order to understand the shift in microbial composition and SCFA produced in the colon following the different diets. Registratio

Journal article

Brown AC, Taheri S, Dornhorst A, McGowan B, Leeds AR, Omar O, Frost Get al., 2019, The impact of a formula low energy diet on weight outcomes and insulin use in insulin-treated obese Type 2 diabetes patients, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 92-93, ISSN: 0742-3071

Conference paper

Chambers ES, Byrne CS, Frost G, 2019, Carbohydrate and human health: is it all about quality?, LANCET, Vol: 393, Pages: 384-386, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Pingitore A, Gonzalez-Abuin N, Ruz-Maldonado I, Huang GC, Frost G, Persaud SJet al., 2019, Short chain fatty acids stimulate insulin secretion and reduce apoptosis in mouse and human islets in vitro: Role of free fatty acid receptor 2, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 21, Pages: 330-339, ISSN: 1462-8902

Journal article

Gibson R, Frost G, Chan Q, Elliott P, Singh D, Eriksen R, Heard A, Vergnaud ACet al., 2018, A cross-sectional investigation into the occupational and socio-demographic characteristics of British police force employees reporting a dietary pattern associated with cardiometabolic risk: Findings from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 57, Pages: 2913-2926, ISSN: 0044-264X

PurposeThe aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern.MethodsBritish police employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses. Dietary intakes were measured using 7-day food records. DASH score was calculated to determine diet quality. Logistic regression evaluated associations between (1) diet quality and increased cardiometabolic risk (defined as ≥ 3 risk markers: dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, CRP or HbA1c), and (2) poor diet quality (lowest fifth of DASH score distribution) and employee characteristics.ResultsEmployees recording a poor diet quality had greater odds (OR) of increased cardiometabolic risk independent of established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and occupational) and BMI: men OR 1.50 (95% CI 1.12–2.00), women: OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19–2.97) compared to the healthiest diet group. Characteristics associated with reporting a poor quality diet were employment in Scotland vs. England: men OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.53–2.32), women: OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11–2.00), longer working hours (≥ 49 vs. ≤40 h) men: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.21–1.92) women: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.12–2.09). For men, job strain (high vs. low) was associated with reporting a poor diet quality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.30–2.12).ConclusionsThe general population disparities in diet quality between England and Scotland were reflected in British police employees. The association of longer working hours and job strain with diet quality supports the targeting of workplace nutritional interventions.

Journal article

Griffin BA, Walker CG, Jebb SA, Moore C, Frost GS, Goff L, Sanders TAB, Lewis F, Griffin M, Gitau R, Lovegrove JAet al., 2018, APOE4 Genotype Exerts Greater Benefit in Lowering Plasma Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B than Wild Type (E3/E3), after Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fats with Low Glycaemic Index Carbohydrates, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2072-6643

Journal article

Fiamoncini J, Rundle M, Gibbons H, Thomas EL, Geillinger-Kaestle K, Bunzel D, Trezzi J-P, Kiselova-Kaneva Y, Wopereis S, Wahrheit J, Kulling SE, Hiller K, Sonntag D, Ivanova D, van Ommen B, Frost G, Brennan L, Bell J, Daniel Het al., 2018, Plasma metabolome analysis identifies distinct human metabotypes in the postprandial state with different susceptibility to weight loss-mediated metabolic improvements, FASEB Journal, Vol: 32, Pages: 5447-5458, ISSN: 0892-6638

Health has been defined as the capability of the organism to adapt to challenges. In this study, we tested to what extent comprehensively phenotyped individuals reveal differences in metabolic responses to a standardized mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) and how these responses change when individuals experience moderate weight loss. Metabolome analysis was used in 70 healthy individuals. with profiling of ∼300 plasma metabolites during an MMTT over 8 h. Multivariate analysis of plasma markers of fatty acid catabolism identified 2 distinct metabotype clusters (A and B). Individuals from metabotype B showed slower glucose clearance, had increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue mass and higher hepatic lipid levels when compared with individuals from metabotype A. An NMR-based urine analysis revealed that these individuals also to have a less healthy dietary pattern. After a weight loss of ∼5.6 kg over 12 wk, only the subjects from metabotype B showed positive changes in the glycemic response during the MMTT and in markers of metabolic diseases. Our study in healthy individuals demonstrates that more comprehensive phenotyping can reveal discrete metabotypes with different outcomes in a dietary intervention and that markers of lipid catabolism in plasma could allow early detection of the metabolic syndrome.—Fiamoncini, J., Rundle, M., Gibbons, H., Thomas, E. L., Geillinger-Kästle, K., Bunzel, D., Trezzi, J.-P., Kiselova-Kaneva, Y., Wopereis, S., Wahrheit, J., Kulling, S. E., Hiller, K., Sonntag, D., Ivanova, D., van Ommen, B., Frost, G., Brennan, L., Bell, J. Daniel, H. Plasma metabolome analysis identifies distinct human metabotypes in the postprandial state with different susceptibility to weight loss–mediated metabolic improvements.One of the key features of human metabolism is its plasticity and capacity to regain homeostasis upon a disturbance such as acute stress, starvation, or food intake (1). In this regard it has been proposed that heal

Journal article

Byrne C, Preston T, Brignardello J, Garcia-Perez I, Holmes E, Frost G, Morrison Det al., 2018, The effect of L-rhamnose on intestinal transit time, short chain fatty acids and appetite regulation: a pilot human study using combined 13CO2 / H2 breath tests, Journal of Breath Research, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1752-7155

Background: The appetite-regulating effects of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) have in part previously been attributed to their effects on intestinal transit rates as well as microbial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate has been shown to reduce energy intake and stimulate gut hormone secretion acutely in humans. Objective: We investigated the effect of the propiogenic NDC, L-rhamnose, on gastrointestinal transit times using a combined 13CO2/H2 breath test. We hypothesised that L-rhamnose would increase plasma propionate leading to a reduction in appetite, independent of changes in gastrointestinal transit times.Design: We used a dual 13C-octanoic acid/lactose 13C-ureide breath test combined with breath H2 to measure intestinal transit times following the consumption of 25g/d L-rhamnose, compared with inulin and cellulose, in 10 healthy humans in a randomised cross-over design pilot study. Gastric emptying (GE) and oro-caecal transit times (OCTT) were derived from the breath 13C data and compared with breath H2. Plasma SCFA and peptide YY (PYY) were also measured alongside subjective measures of appetite. Results: L-rhamnose significantly slowed GE rates (by 19.5min) but there was no difference in OCTT between treatments. However, breath H2 indicated fermentation of L-rhamnose before it reached the caecum. OCTT was highly correlated with breath H2 for inulin but not for L-rhamnose or cellulose. L-rhamnose consumption significantly increased plasma propionate and PYY but did not significantly reduce subjective appetite measures. Conclusions: The NDCs tested had a minimal effect on intestinal transit time. Our data suggest that L-rhamnose is partially fermented in the small intestine and that breath H2 reflects the site of gastrointestinal fermentation and is only a reliable marker of OCTT for certain NDCs (e.g. inulin). Future studies should focus on investigating the appetite-suppressing potential of L

Journal article

Chambers ES, Preston T, Frost G, Morrison DJet al., 2018, Role of Gut Microbiota-Generated Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health., Curr Nutr Rep, Vol: 7, Pages: 198-206

PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: SCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk. SCFA produced primarily from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibre appear to be key mediators of the beneficial effects elicited by the gut microbiome. Not only does dietary fibre fermentation regulate microbial activity in the gut, SCFA also directly modulate host health through a range of tissue-specific mechanisms related to gut barrier function, glucose homeostasis, immunomodulation, appetite regulation and obesity. With the increasing burden of obesity worldwide, the role for gut microbiota-generated SCFA in protecting against the effects of energy dense diets offers an intriguing new avenue for regulating metabolic health and CVD risk.

Journal article

Wark P, Frost G, Elliott P, Ford HE, Riboli E, Hardie LJ, Alwan NA, Carter M, Hancock N, Morris M, Mulla UZ, Noorwali EA, Petropoulou K, Murphy D, Potter GDM, Greenwood DC, Cade JEet al., 2018, An online 24-hour recall tool (myfood24) is valid for dietary assessment in population studies: comparison with biomarkers and standard interviews., BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundOnline dietary assessment tools can reduce administrative costs and facilitate repeated dietary assessment during follow-up in large-scale studies. However, information on bias due to measurement error of such tools is limited. We developed an online 24-h recall (myfood24) and compared its performance with a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall, assessing both against biomarkers.MethodsMetabolically stable adults were recruited and completed the new online dietary recall, an interviewer-based multiple pass recall and a suite of reference measures. Longer-term dietary intake was estimated from up to 3 × 24-h recalls taken 2 weeks apart. Estimated intakes of protein, potassium and sodium were compared with urinary biomarker concentrations. Estimated total sugar intake was compared with a predictive biomarker and estimated energy intake compared with energy expenditure measured by accelerometry and calorimetry. Nutrient intakes were also compared to those derived from an interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall.ResultsBiomarker samples were received from 212 participants on at least one occasion. Both self-reported dietary assessment tools led to attenuation compared to biomarkers. The online tools resulted in attenuation factors of around 0.2–0.3 and partial correlation coefficients, reflecting ranking intakes, of approximately 0.3–0.4. This was broadly similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based tool. Other nutrient estimates derived from myfood24 were around 10–20% lower than those from the interviewer-based tool, with wide limits of agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients were approximately 0.4–0.5, indicating consistent moderate agreement.ConclusionsOur findings show that, whilst results from both measures of self-reported diet are attenuated compared to biomarker measures, the myfood24 online 24-h recall is comparable to the more time-consuming a

Journal article

Wark PA, Hardie LJ, Frost GS, Alwan NA, Carter M, Elliott P, Ford HE, Hancock N, Morris MA, Mulla UZ, Noorwali EA, Petropoulou K, Murphy D, Potter GDM, Riboli E, Greenwood DC, Cade JEet al., 2018, Validity of an online 24-h recall tool (myfood24) for dietary assessment in population studies: comparison with biomarkers and standard interviews, BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundOnline dietary assessment tools can reduce administrative costs and facilitate repeated dietary assessment during follow-up in large-scale studies. However, information on bias due to measurement error of such tools is limited. We developed an online 24-h recall (myfood24) and compared its performance with a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall, assessing both against biomarkers.MethodsMetabolically stable adults were recruited and completed the new online dietary recall, an interviewer-based multiple pass recall and a suite of reference measures. Longer-term dietary intake was estimated from up to 3 × 24-h recalls taken 2 weeks apart. Estimated intakes of protein, potassium and sodium were compared with urinary biomarker concentrations. Estimated total sugar intake was compared with a predictive biomarker and estimated energy intake compared with energy expenditure measured by accelerometry and calorimetry. Nutrient intakes were also compared to those derived from an interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall.ResultsBiomarker samples were received from 212 participants on at least one occasion. Both self-reported dietary assessment tools led to attenuation compared to biomarkers. The online tools resulted in attenuation factors of around 0.2–0.3 and partial correlation coefficients, reflecting ranking intakes, of approximately 0.3–0.4. This was broadly similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based tool. Other nutrient estimates derived from myfood24 were around 10–20% lower than those from the interviewer-based tool, with wide limits of agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients were approximately 0.4–0.5, indicating consistent moderate agreement.ConclusionsOur findings show that, whilst results from both measures of self-reported diet are attenuated compared to biomarker measures, the myfood24 online 24-h recall is comparable to the more time-consuming a

Journal article

Walsh K, Calder N, Olupot-Olupot P, Ssenyondo T, Okiror W, Okalebo CB, Muhindo R, Mpoya A, Holmes E, Marchesi J, Delamare de la Villenaise de Chenevarin G, Frost G, Maitland Ket al., 2018, Modifying Intestinal Integrity and Micro Biome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial [version 1; referees: 2 approved], Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 3, Pages: 95-95, ISSN: 2398-502X

Background: Changes in intestinal mucosal integrity and gut microbial balance occur in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), resulting in treatment failure and adverse clinical outcomes (gram-negative sepsis, diarrhoea and high case-fatality). Transient lactose intolerance, due to loss of intestinal brush border lactase, also complicates SAM, thus milk based feeds may not be optimal for nutritional rehabilitation. Since the gut epithelial barrier can be supported by short chain fatty acids, derived from microbiota fermentation by particular fermentable carbohydrates, we postulated that an energy-dense nutritional feed comprising of legume-based fermentable carbohydrates, incorporated with lactose-free versions of standard World Health Organization (WHO) F75/F100 nutritional feeds will enhance epithelial barrier function in malnourished children, reduce and promote resolution of diarrhoea and improve overall outcome. Methods: We will investigate in an open-label trial in 160 Ugandan children with SAM, defined by mid-upper arm circumference <11.5cm and/or presence of kwashiorkor. Children will be randomised to a lactose-free, chickpea-enriched feed containing 2 kcal/ml, provided in quantities to match usual energy provision (experimental) or WHO standard treatment F75 (0.75 kcal/ml) and F100 (1 kcal/ml) feeds on a 1:1 basis, conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital nutritional rehabilitation unit. The primary outcomes are change in MUAC at day 90 and survival to day 90. Secondary outcomes include: i) moderate to good weight gain (>5 g/kg/day), ii) de novo development of diarrhoea (>3 loose stools/day), iii) time to diarrhoea resolution (if >3 loose stools/day), and iv) time to oedema resolution (if kwashiorkor) and change in intestinal biomarkers (faecal calprotectin). Discussion: We hypothesize that, if introduced early in the management of malnutrition, such lactose-free, fermentable carbohydrate-based feeds, could safely and cheaply improve global outco

Journal article

Walsh K, Calder N, Olupot-Olupot P, Ssenyondo T, Okiror W, Okalebo CB, Muhindo R, Mpoya A, Holmes E, Marchesi J, Delamare de la Villenaise de Chenevarin G, Frost G, Maitland Ket al., 2018, Modifying Intestinal Integrity and MicroBiome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2398-502X

Background: Changes in intestinal mucosal integrity and gut microbial balance occur in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), resulting in treatment failure and adverse clinical outcomes (gram-negative sepsis, diarrhoea and high case-fatality). Transient lactose intolerance, due to loss of intestinal brush border lactase, also complicates SAM, thus milk based feeds may not be optimal for nutritional rehabilitation. Since the gut epithelial barrier can be supported by short chain fatty acids, derived from microbiota fermentation by particular fermentable carbohydrates, we postulated that an energy-dense nutritional feed comprising of legume-based fermentable carbohydrates, incorporated with lactose-free versions of standard World Health Organization (WHO) F75/F100 nutritional feeds will enhance epithelial barrier function in malnourished children, reduce and promote resolution of diarrhoea and improve overall outcome. Methods: We will investigate in an open-label trial in 160 Ugandan children with SAM, defined by mid-upper arm circumference <11.5cm and/or presence of kwashiorkor. Children will be randomised to a lactose-free, chickpea-enriched feed containing 2 kcal/ml, provided in quantities to match usual energy provision (experimental) or WHO standard treatment F75 (0.75 kcal/ml) and F100 (1 kcal/ml) feeds on a 1:1 basis, conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital nutritional rehabilitation unit. The primary outcomes are change in MUAC at day 90 and survival to day 90. Secondary outcomes include: i) moderate to good weight gain (>5 g/kg/day), ii) de novo development of diarrhoea (>3 loose stools/day), iii) time to diarrhoea resolution (if >3 loose stools/day), and iv) time to oedema resolution (if kwashiorkor) and change in intestinal biomarkers (faecal calprotectin). Discussion: We hypothesize that, if introduced early in the management of malnutrition, such lactose-free, fermentable carbohydrate-based feeds, could safely and cheaply improve global outco

Journal article

Eriksen R, Gibson R, Lamb K, McMeel Y, Vergnuad A-C, Aresu M, Spear J, Chan Q, Elliott P, Frost Get al., 2018, Nutrient profiling and adherence to components of the UK national dietary guidelines association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Airwave Health Monitoring Study, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 119, Pages: 695-705, ISSN: 1475-2662

CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848). Dietary intake was measured by 7-d food diary and metabolic risk using waist circumference, BMI, blood lipid profile, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and blood pressure measurements. Diet quality was assessed using the novel DRV index and NP model. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk were analysed via multivariate linear models and logistic regression. A two-point increase in NP score was associated with total cholesterol (β −0·33 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·01 %, P<0·0001). A two-point increase in DRV score was associated with waist circumference (β −0·56 cm, P<0·0001), BMI (β −0·15 kg/m2, P<0·0001), total cholesterol (β −0·06 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·02 %, P=0·002). A one-point increase in DRV score was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR 0·94, P=0·01) and obesity (OR 0·95, P<0·0001). The DRV index is associated with overall diet quality and risk factors for CVD and T2D, supporting its application in nutritional epidemiological studies investigating CVD risk in a UK population.

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00330288&limit=30&person=true