358 results found
Byrne CS, Preston T, Brignardello J, et al., 2018, The effect of L-rhamnose on intestinal transit time, short chain fatty acids and appetite regulation: a pilot human study using combined (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath tests, JOURNAL OF BREATH RESEARCH, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1752-7155
Chambers ES, Byrne CS, Aspey K, et al., 2018, Acute oral sodium propionate supplementation raises resting energy expenditure and lipid oxidation in fasted humans, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 20, Pages: 1034-1039, ISSN: 1462-8902
Chambers ES, Byrne CS, Rugyendo A, et al., 2018, The effects of dietary supplementation with inulin and inulin-propionate ester on hepatic steatosis in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease., Diabetes Obes Metab
The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) propionate, produced through fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, has been shown to alter hepatic metabolic processes that reduce lipid storage. We aimed to investigate the impact of raising colonic propionate production on hepatic steatosis in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Eighteen adults were randomised to receive 20g/day of an inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to deliver propionate to the colon, or an inulin-control for 42-days in a parallel design. The change in intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) following the supplementation period was not different between groups (P=0.082), however IHCL significantly increased within the inulin-control group (20.9±2.9 to 26.8±3.9%; P=0.012; n=9), which was not observed within the IPE group (22.6±6.9 to 23.5±6.8%; P=0.635; n=9). The predominant SCFA from colonic fermentation of inulin is acetate, which in a background of NAFLD and a hepatic metabolic profile that promotes fat accretion, may provide surplus lipogenic substrate to the liver. The increased colonic delivery of propionate from IPE appears to attenuate this acetate-mediated increase in IHCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Eriksen R, Gibson R, Lamb K, et al., 2018, Nutrient profiling and adherence to components of the UK national dietary guidelines association with metabolic risk factors for CVD and diabetes: Airwave Health Monitoring Study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 119, Pages: 695-705, ISSN: 0007-1145
Ezekwe SI, Gibson R, Frost G, et al., 2018, A comparison of glycaemic variability in healthy shift workers during night and day shift work using mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 80-80, ISSN: 0742-3071
Fiamoncini J, Rundle M, Gibbons H, et al., 2018, Plasma metabolome analysis identifies distinct human metabotypes in the postprandial state with different susceptibility to weight loss-mediated metabolic improvements., FASEB J
Health has been defined as the capability of the organism to adapt to challenges. In this study, we tested to what extent comprehensively phenotyped individuals reveal differences in metabolic responses to a standardized mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) and how these responses change when individuals experience moderate weight loss. Metabolome analysis was used in 70 healthy individuals. with profiling of ∼300 plasma metabolites during an MMTT over 8 h. Multivariate analysis of plasma markers of fatty acid catabolism identified 2 distinct metabotype clusters (A and B). Individuals from metabotype B showed slower glucose clearance, had increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue mass and higher hepatic lipid levels when compared with individuals from metabotype A. An NMR-based urine analysis revealed that these individuals also to have a less healthy dietary pattern. After a weight loss of ∼5.6 kg over 12 wk, only the subjects from metabotype B showed positive changes in the glycemic response during the MMTT and in markers of metabolic diseases. Our study in healthy individuals demonstrates that more comprehensive phenotyping can reveal discrete metabotypes with different outcomes in a dietary intervention and that markers of lipid catabolism in plasma could allow early detection of the metabolic syndrome.-Fiamoncini, J., Rundle, M., Gibbons, H., Thomas, L. E., Geillinger-Kästle, K., Bunzel, D., Trezzi, J.-P., Kiselova-Kaneva, Y., Wopereis, S., Wahrheit, J., Kulling, S. E., Hiller, K., Sonntag, D., Ivanova, D., van Ommen, B., Frost, G., Brennan, L., Bell, J. Daniel, H. Plasma metabolome analysis identifies distinct human metabotypes in the postprandial state with different susceptibility to weight loss-mediated metabolic improvements.
Infante JR, Korn RL, Rosen LS, et al., 2018, Phase 1 trials of PEGylated recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 in patients with advanced solid tumours (vol 118, pg 156, 2018), BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 118, ISSN: 0007-0920
Pingitore A, Maldonado IR, Abuin NG, et al., 2018, A role for Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFAR2) in the beneficial effects of diet-derived short-chain fatty acids on glucose homeostasis, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 41-41, ISSN: 0742-3071
Walsh K, Calder N, Olupot-Olupot P, et al., 2018, Modifying Intestinal Integrity and MicroBiome in Severe Malnutrition with Legume-Based Feeds (MIMBLE 2.0): protocol for a phase II refined feed and intervention trial
Background: Changes in intestinal mucosal integrity and gut microbial balance occur in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), resulting in treatment failure and adverse clinical outcomes (gram-negative sepsis, diarrhoea and high case-fatality). Transient lactose intolerance, due to loss of intestinal brush border lactase, also complicates SAM, thus milk based feeds may not be optimal for nutritional rehabilitation. Since the gut epithelial barrier can be supported by short chain fatty acids, derived from microbiota fermentation by particular fermentable carbohydrates, we postulated that an energy-dense nutritional feed comprising of legume-based fermentable carbohydrates, incorporated with lactose-free versions of standard World Health Organization (WHO) F75/F100 nutritional feeds will enhance epithelial barrier function in malnourished children, reduce and promote resolution of diarrhoea and improve overall outcome. Methods: We will investigate in an open-label trial in 160 Ugandan children with SAM, defined by mid-upper arm circumference <11.5cm and/or presence of kwashiorkor. Children will be randomised to a lactose-free, chickpea-enriched feed containing 2 kcal/ml, provided in quantities to match usual energy provision (experimental) or WHO standard treatment F75 (0.75 kcal/ml) and F100 (1 kcal/ml) feeds on a 1:1 basis, conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital nutritional rehabilitation unit. The primary outcomes are change in MUAC at day 90 and survival to day 90. Secondary outcomes include: i) moderate to good weight gain (>5 g/kg/day), ii) de novo development of diarrhoea (>3 loose stools/day), iii) time to diarrhoea resolution (if >3 loose stools/day), and iv) time to oedema resolution (if kwashiorkor) and change in intestinal biomarkers (faecal calprotectin). Discussion: We hypothesize that, if introduced early in the management of malnutrition, such lactose-free, fermentable carbohydrate-based feeds, could safely and cheaply improve global outco
Wark P, Frost G, Elliott P, et al., 2018, An online 24-hour recall tool (myfood24) is valid for dietary assessment in population studies: comparison with biomarkers and standard interviews., BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundOnline dietary assessment tools can reduce administrative costs and facilitate repeated dietary assessment during follow-up in large-scale studies. However, information on bias due to measurement error of such tools is limited. We developed an online 24-h recall (myfood24) and compared its performance with a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall, assessing both against biomarkers.MethodsMetabolically stable adults were recruited and completed the new online dietary recall, an interviewer-based multiple pass recall and a suite of reference measures. Longer-term dietary intake was estimated from up to 3 × 24-h recalls taken 2 weeks apart. Estimated intakes of protein, potassium and sodium were compared with urinary biomarker concentrations. Estimated total sugar intake was compared with a predictive biomarker and estimated energy intake compared with energy expenditure measured by accelerometry and calorimetry. Nutrient intakes were also compared to those derived from an interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall.ResultsBiomarker samples were received from 212 participants on at least one occasion. Both self-reported dietary assessment tools led to attenuation compared to biomarkers. The online tools resulted in attenuation factors of around 0.2–0.3 and partial correlation coefficients, reflecting ranking intakes, of approximately 0.3–0.4. This was broadly similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based tool. Other nutrient estimates derived from myfood24 were around 10–20% lower than those from the interviewer-based tool, with wide limits of agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients were approximately 0.4–0.5, indicating consistent moderate agreement.ConclusionsOur findings show that, whilst results from both measures of self-reported diet are attenuated compared to biomarker measures, the myfood24 online 24-h recall is comparable to the more time-consuming a
Brooks L, Viardot A, Tsakmaki A, et al., 2017, Fermentable carbohydrate stimulates FFAR2-dependent colonic PYY cell expansion to increase satiety, MOLECULAR METABOLISM, Vol: 6, Pages: 48-60, ISSN: 2212-8778
Brown A, Guess N, Dornhorst A, et al., 2017, Insulin-associated weight gain in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: What can be done?, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 19, Pages: 1655-1668, ISSN: 1462-8902
Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al., 2017, A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 105, Pages: 600-608, ISSN: 0002-9165
Clar C, Al-Khudairy L, Loveman E, et al., 2017, Low glycaemic index diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS, ISSN: 1469-493X
Fiamoncini J, Yiorkas AM, Gedrich K, et al., 2017, Determinants of postprandial plasma bile acid kinetics in human volunteers, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 313, Pages: G300-G312, ISSN: 0193-1857
Garcia Perez I, Posma JM, Gibson R, et al., 2017, MODERNIZING DIETARY ASSESSMENT, Publisher: KARGER, Pages: 286-287, ISSN: 0250-6807
Garcia-Perez I, Posma JM, Gibson R, et al., 2017, Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping: a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 184-195, ISSN: 2213-8587
Gibbons H, Michielsen CJR, Rundle M, et al., 2017, Demonstration of the utility of biomarkers for dietary intake assessment; proline betaine as an example, MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1613-4125
Gibson R, Eriksen R, Lamb K, et al., 2017, Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study), BMJ OPEN, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-6055
Gibson R, Eriksen R, Singh D, et al., 2017, A cross-sectional investigation into the occupational and socio-demographic characteristics of British police force employees reporting a dietary pattern associated with cardiometabolic risk: findings from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study., Eur J Nutr
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern. METHODS: British police employees enrolled (2007-2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses. Dietary intakes were measured using 7-day food records. DASH score was calculated to determine diet quality. Logistic regression evaluated associations between (1) diet quality and increased cardiometabolic risk (defined as ≥ 3 risk markers: dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, CRP or HbA1c), and (2) poor diet quality (lowest fifth of DASH score distribution) and employee characteristics. RESULTS: Employees recording a poor diet quality had greater odds (OR) of increased cardiometabolic risk independent of established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and occupational) and BMI: men OR 1.50 (95% CI 1.12-2.00), women: OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.97) compared to the healthiest diet group. Characteristics associated with reporting a poor quality diet were employment in Scotland vs. England: men OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.53-2.32), women: OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11-2.00), longer working hours (≥ 49 vs. ≤40 h) men: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.21-1.92) women: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.09). For men, job strain (high vs. low) was associated with reporting a poor diet quality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.30-2.12). CONCLUSIONS: The general population disparities in diet quality between England and Scotland were reflected in British police employees. The association of longer working hours and job strain with diet quality supports the targeting of workplace nutritional interventions.
Kelly SAM, Hartley L, Loveman E, et al., 2017, Whole grain cereals for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS, ISSN: 1469-493X
O'Gorman A, Gibbons H, Ryan MF, et al., 2017, Exploring the Links between Diet and Health in an Irish Cohort: A Lipidomic Approach, JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol: 16, Pages: 1280-1287, ISSN: 1535-3893
Petropoulou K, Salt L, Warren F, et al., 2017, A seed trait studied by gregor mendel in pisum Sativum L. (PEA): Potential prevention of type 2 diabetes, Legumes for Global Food Security, Pages: 129-156, ISBN: 9781536122794
© 2017 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Pulses have been attracting much interest in recent years from academia, industry and the general public. The attraction has been driven largely by the health benefits that pulses offer compared with refined, processed cereal based foods, coupled with the clear low environmental impact of these crops [1, 2]. Although the consumption of pulses is only a small fraction of that of staple crops such as wheat, maize and rice, the popularity of pulse foods is increasing, particularly in developed countries . In the UK, consumer trends are moving towards a more varied diet, bringing in alternative sources of protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients and a move away from conventional cereals. Although some of these trends are based upon little or no rigorous scientific evidence, there are some clear health benefits associated with consumption of certain pulses. In this article, we will describe one such benefit that is the focus of a collaborative research programme which aims to improve our knowledge from basic plant science and genetics, through processing and consumption of foods and the physiological basis of associated health benefits. The programme aims to study how the type of starch contained in naturally occurring variants of pea seeds can help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. The specific aim is to understand how, through manipulating starch biosynthesis, the amount of fermentable carbohydrates reaching the bacterial community in the human colon might be increased. Fermentation of this carbohydrate is thought to produce metabolites which improve our ability to control blood sugar levels.
Pingitore A, Chambers ES, Hill T, et al., 2017, The diet-derived short chain fatty acid propionate improves beta-cell function in humans and stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vitro, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 19, Pages: 257-265, ISSN: 1462-8902
Pingitore A, Maldonado IR, Abuin NG, et al., 2017, Short-chain fatty acids potentiate insulin secretion and protect against apoptosis in mouse and human islets; role of FFAR2, 53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S67-S67, ISSN: 0012-186X
Posma JM, Garcia-Perez I, Heaton JC, et al., 2017, Integrated Analytical and Statistical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy Strategy for Metabolite Identification: Application to Dietary Biomarkers, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 89, Pages: 3300-3309, ISSN: 0003-2700
Rahman S, Vorkas P, Morrison D, et al., 2017, ACUTE DIETARY SATURATED FAT INTAKE CAN SUPPRESS THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN HUMAN CIRCULATING FOAMY MONOCYTES, 85th Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS), Publisher: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Pages: E116-E116, ISSN: 0021-9150
Umpleby AM, Shojaee-Moradie F, Fielding B, et al., 2017, Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets, CLINICAL SCIENCE, Vol: 131, Pages: 2561-+, ISSN: 0143-5221
Yin X, Gibbons H, Rundle M, et al., 2017, Estimation of Chicken Intake by Adults Using Metabolomics-Derived Markers, JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 147, Pages: 1850-1857, ISSN: 0022-3166
Albar SA, Alwan NA, Evans CEL, et al., 2016, Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 115, Pages: 1678-1686, ISSN: 0007-1145
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