Imperial College London

Dr George Mylonas

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Lecturer in Robotics and Technology in Cancer



+44 (0)20 3312 5145george.mylonas Website




Room 5Paterson WingSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Leff, DR and James, D and Orihuela-Espina, F and Kwok, KW and Sun, L and Mylonas, G and Athanasiou, T and Darzi, A and Yang, GZ},
doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2015.00526},
journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
title = {The impact of expert visual guidance on trainee visual search strategy, visual attention and motor skills},
url = {},
volume = {9},

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Minimally invasive and robotic surgery changes the capacity for surgical mentors to guide their trainees with the control customary to open surgery. This neuroergonomic study aims to assess a “Collaborative Gaze Channel” (CGC); which detects trainer gaze-behaviour and displays the point of regard to the trainee. A randomised crossover study was conducted in which twenty subjects performed a simulated robotic surgical task necessitating collaboration either with verbal (control condition) or visual guidance with CGC (study condition). Trainee occipito-parietal (O-P) cortical function was assessed with optical topography (OT) and gaze-behaviour was evaluated using video-oculography. Performance during gaze-assistance was significantly superior [biopsy number: (mean ± SD): control=5·6±1·8 vs. CGC=6·6±2·0; p< 0.05] and was associated with significantly lower O-P cortical activity [HbO2 mMol x cm [median (IQR)] control = 2.5 (12.0) vs. CGC 0.63 (11.2), p < 0.001]. A random effect model confirmed the association between guidance mode and O-P excitation. Network cost and global efficiency and global efficiency were not significantly influenced by guidance mode. A gaze channel enhances performance, modulates visual search, and alleviates the burden in brain centres subserving visual attention and does not induce changes in the trainee's O-P functional network observable with the current OT technique. The results imply that through visual guidance, attentional resources may be liberated, potentially improving the capability trainees to attend to other safety critical events during the procedure.
AU - Leff,DR
AU - James,D
AU - Orihuela-Espina,F
AU - Kwok,KW
AU - Sun,L
AU - Mylonas,G
AU - Athanasiou,T
AU - Darzi,A
AU - Yang,GZ
DO - 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00526
SN - 1662-5161
TI - The impact of expert visual guidance on trainee visual search strategy, visual attention and motor skills
T2 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -