40 results found
Polling C, Bakolis I, Hotopf M, et al., 2019, Spatial patterning of self-harm rates within urban areas., Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, Vol: 54, Pages: 69-79
PURPOSE: Urban areas are usually found to have higher rates of self-harm, with deprivation the strongest predictor at area-level. We use a disease mapping approach to examine how self-harm is patterned within an urban area and its associations with deprivation, urbanness and ethnicity. METHODS: Data from clinical records on individuals admitted for self-harm for 725 small areas in South East London were included. Bayesian hierarchical models explored the spatio-temporal patterns of self-harm admission rates and potential associations with proximity to city centre, population density, percentage greenspace and non-white ethnic-minority populations. All models were adjusted for area-level deprivation, social fragmentation and hospital of admission. RESULTS: There were 8327 first admissions for self-harm during the study period. Self-harm admission rates varied fourfold across the study area, with lower rates close to the city centre [adjusted standardised admission ratio, closest versus furthest quartile 0.71(95% CrI 0.54-0.96)]. Deprivation was associated with self-harm but partially masked rather than explained the spatial pattern, which strengthened after adjustment. After adjustment for deprivation, hospital of admission and social fragmentation, greenspace, population density and ethnicity were not associated with self-harm rates. CONCLUSION: Proximity to the city centre was associated with lower rates of self-harm, but the usual operationalisations of urbanness, population density and greenspace, were not. Deprivation did not explain the spatial patterning, nor did ethnicity. While nationally self-harm rates are higher in urban and deprived areas, this cannot be extrapolated to mean that within cities the inner-city is the highest risk area nor that risk will be principally patterned according to deprivation.
Gazard B, Chui Z, Harber-Aschan L, et al., 2018, Barrier or stressor? The role of discrimination experiences in health service use., BMC Public Health, Vol: 18
BACKGROUND: Discrimination is a well-established stressor that is substantially associated with poor health and a known contributor to health inequalities. However, the role of discrimination in health service use is less explored. This study will take an intersectional approach to investigate differences in health service use and examine the role of discrimination experiences. METHODS: Data on health service use were assessed in a diverse inner London sample of 1052 participants in the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) Study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to define classes of intersectional social status using multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity and migration status. Adjusted associations between intersectional social status and discrimination experiences with health service use indicators are presented. RESULTS: Using latent class analysis allowed us to identify an intersectional social status characterized by multiple disadvantage that was associated with decreased secondary physical health service use and a class characterized by both privilege and disadvantage that was associated with increased health service use for mental disorder after controlling for age, gender and health status. Anticipated discrimination was also associated with increased service use for mental disorder in adjusted models. There was no evidence to suggest that discrimination experiences were acting as a barrier to health service use. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the complex ways in which discrimination experiences may increase the need for health services whilst also highlighting differences in health service use at the intersection of ethnicity, migration status and SES. Findings from this study illustrate the importance of measuring multiple levels of discrimination and taking an intersectional approach for health service use research.
Bakolis I, Hooper R, Bachert C, et al., 2018, Dietary patterns and respiratory health in adults from nine European countries-Evidence from the GA(2)LEN study, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 1474-1482, ISSN: 0954-7894
Yoshimura Y, Bakolis I, Henderson C, 2018, Psychiatric diagnosis and other predictors of experienced and anticipated workplace discrimination and concealment of mental illness among mental health service users in England, SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 53, Pages: 1099-1109, ISSN: 0933-7954
Sadler E, Khadjesari Z, Ziemann A, et al., 2018, Case management for integrated care of frail older people in community settings, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol: 2018
© 2018 The Cochrane Collaboration. This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of case management for integrated care of frail older people compared to usual care.
Barnard S, Free C, Bakolis I, et al., 2018, Comparing the characteristics of users of an online service for STI self-sampling with clinic service users: a cross-sectional analysis, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS, Vol: 94, Pages: 377-383, ISSN: 1368-4973
Garcia-Larsen V, Morton V, Norat T, et al., 2018, Dietary patterns derived from principal component analysis (PCA) and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Eur J Clin Nutr
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, with dietary habits being a major risk factor. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the observational evidence on the association between CRC and dietary patterns (DP) derived from principal component analysis. DESIGN: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Web of Science, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched to identify all eligible papers published up to the 31st July 2017. Any pre-defined cancer of the colon was included, namely colon-rectal cancer (CRC), colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or proximal and distal CC, if available. Western (WDP) and prudent (PDP) dietary patterns were compared as a proxy to estimate "unhealthy" (Rich in meat and processed foods) and "healthy" diets (containing fruits or vegetables), respectively. Meta-analyses were carried out using random effects model to calculate overall risk estimates. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated comparing the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary patterns for any of the forms of colon cancer studied. RESULTS: 28 studies were meta-analysed. A WDP was associated with increased risk of CRC (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.11, 1.40), and of CC (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11, 1.52). A PDP was negatively associated with CRC (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73, 0.91). Sensitivity analyses showed that individuals from North-and South-American countries had a significantly higher risk of CRC than those from other continents. CONCLUSION: A PDP might reduce the risk of CRC. Conversely, a WDP is associated with a higher risk of disease.
East K, Hitchman SC, Bakolis I, et al., 2018, The Association Between Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Use in a Cohort of Young People, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, Vol: 62, Pages: 539-547, ISSN: 1054-139X
Hansell AL, Bakolis I, Cowie CT, et al., 2018, Childhood fish oil supplementation modifies associations between traffic related air pollution and allergic sensitisation, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1476-069X
Bakolis I, Hammoud R, Smythe M, et al., 2018, Urban Mind: Using Smartphone Technologies to Investigate the Impact of Nature on Mental-Well-Being in Real Time, BIOSCIENCE, Vol: 68, Pages: 134-145, ISSN: 0006-3568
Carruthers S, Kinnaird E, Rudra A, et al., 2018, A cross-cultural study of autistic traits across India, Japan and the UK., Mol Autism, Vol: 9
Background: There is a global need for brief screening instruments that can identify key indicators for autism to support frontline professionals in their referral decision-making. Although a universal set of conditions, there may be subtle differences in expression, identification and reporting of autistic traits across cultures. In order to assess the potential for any measure for cross-cultural screening use, it is important to understand the relative performance of such measures in different cultures. Our study aimed to identify the items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)-Child that are most predictive of an autism diagnosis among children aged 4-9 years across samples from India, Japan and the UK. Methods: We analysed parent-reported AQ-Child data from India (73 children with an autism diagnosis and 81 neurotypical children), Japan (116 children with autism and 190 neurotypical children) and the UK (488 children with autism and 532 neurotypical children). None of the children had a reported existing diagnosis of intellectual disability. Discrimination indices (DI) and positive predictive values (PPV) were used to identify the most predictive items in each country. Results: Sixteen items in the Indian sample, 15 items in the Japanese sample and 28 items in the UK sample demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (DI ≥ 0.5 and PPV ≥ 0.7), suggesting these items represent the strongest indicators for predicting an autism diagnosis within these countries. Across cultures, good performing items were largely overlapping, with five key indicator items appearing across all three countries (can easily keep track of several different people's conversations, enjoys social chit-chat, knows how to tell if someone listening to him/her is getting bored, good at social chit-chat, finds it difficult to work out people's intentions). Four items indicated potential cultural differences. One item was highly discriminative in Japan but poorly discrimina
Michelini G, Jurgiel J, Bakolis I, et al., 2017, Atypical functional connectivity in adolescents and adults with persistent and remitted ADHD
We previously provided initial evidence for cognitive and event-related potential markers of persistence/remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. In this follow-up study, using a novel brain-network connectivity approach, we aimed to examine whether functional connectivity reflects a marker of ADHD remission, or an enduring deficit unrelated to ADHD outcome. High-density EEG was recorded in 110 adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD (87 persisters, 23 remitters) and 169 typically-developing individuals during an arrow-flanker task, eliciting cognitive control. Functional connectivity was quantified with network-based graph-theory metrics before target onset (pre-stimulus), during target processing (post-stimulus) and in the degree of change between pre-stimulus/post-stimulus. ADHD outcome was examined with parent-reported symptoms and impairment using both a categorical (DSM-IV) and a dimensional approach. Graph-theory measures converged in indicating that, compared to controls, ADHD persisters showed increased connectivity in pre-stimulus theta, alpha and beta and in post-stimulus beta (all p<.01), and reduced pre-stimulus/post-stimulus change in theta connectivity (p<.01). In the majority of indices showing ADHD persister-control differences, ADHD remitters differed from controls (all p<.05), but not from persisters. Similarly, connectivity measures were not associated with continuous outcome measures of ADHD symptoms and impairment in participants with childhood ADHD. These findings indicate that adolescents and young adults with persistent and remitted ADHD share atypical over-connectivity profiles and reduced ability to modulate connectivity patterns with task demands, compared to controls. Brain connectivity impairments may represent enduring deficits in individuals with childhood ADHD irrespective of diagnostic status in adolescence/young adulthood.
Sampogna G, Bakolis I, Robinson E, et al., 2017, Experience of the Time to Change programme in England as predictor of mental health service users' stigma coping strategies, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRIC SCIENCES, Vol: 26, Pages: 517-525, ISSN: 2045-7960
Chamitava L, Bakolis I, Burney PGJ, et al., 2017, Respiratory health and dietary patterns in adults from ECRHS III, European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Sampogna G, Bakolis I, Evans-Lacko S, et al., 2017, The impact of social marketing campaigns on reducing mental health stigma: Results from the 2009-2014 Time to Change programme, EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 40, Pages: 116-122, ISSN: 0924-9338
Bartington SE, Bakolis I, Devakumar D, et al., 2017, Patterns of domestic exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter in households using biomass fuel in Janakpur, Nepal, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, Vol: 220, Pages: 38-45, ISSN: 0269-7491
Bakolis I, Kelly R, Fecht D, et al., 2016, Protective Effects of Smoke-free Legislation on Birth Outcomes in England A Regression Discontinuity Design, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 27, Pages: 810-818, ISSN: 1044-3983
, 2016, Pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis in patients with a first episode of psychosis in Italy, International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, Vol: 9, Pages: 293-302, ISSN: 1754-2863
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This study aimed to examine the pathways to care and the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first-episode psychosis patients in Italy. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected using an ad-hoc schedule. Pathways to care of patients were evaluated by the Nottingham Onset Schedule, administered to patients, key-relatives and key-workers. Forty patients from the Department of Psychiatry of University of Naples were recruited. Mean duration of untreated illness (DUI) was 135.9±145.9 weeks, main DUP was 27.4±26.7 weeks. First help-seeking contact, often mediated by close relatives, took place after 21.6±43.8 weeks from symptoms onset and was with general practitioners, neurologists or psychologists. Only 25% immediately referred to psychiatrists. Patients had 1.8±0.8 contacts with non-psychiatric medical professionals before referring to the mental health service, and the mean time between first contact and adequate psychiatric treatments (referral delay) was 26.6±64.1 weeks. The DUI and DUP was longer in patients with less education (p <.05) and in those with an insidious onset of symptoms (p <.01). Targeted interventions and information campaigns on at-risk populations, such as young people and their relatives, could reduce the DUP, thus improving the long-term outcome of psychotic disorders.
Douglas P, Bakolis I, Fecht D, et al., 2016, Respiratory hospital admission risk near large composting facilities, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYGIENE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 219, Pages: 372-379, ISSN: 1438-4639
Cai TY, Sullivan TR, Ayer JG, et al., 2016, Carotid extramedial thickness is associated with local arterial stiffness in children, JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, Vol: 34, Pages: 109-115, ISSN: 0263-6352
Bakolis I, Heinrich J, Zock JP, et al., 2015, House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes, INDOOR AIR, Vol: 25, Pages: 235-244, ISSN: 0905-6947
Garcia-Larsen V, Amigo H, Bustos P, et al., 2015, Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 7, Pages: 2879-2896, ISSN: 2072-6643
Bakolis I, Burney P, Hooper R, 2014, Principal components analysis of diet and alternatives for identifying the combination of foods that are associated with the risk of disease: a simulation study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 112, Pages: 61-69, ISSN: 0007-1145
Hansell AL, Rose N, Cowie CT, et al., 2014, Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma, PLOS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203
Larsen VG, Burney P, Bakolis I, et al., 2012, Ventilatory function and markers of metabolic disorders in young adults, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Bakolis I, Doekes G, Heinrich J, et al., 2012, Respiratory health and endotoxin: associations and modification by CD14/-260 genotype, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 39, Pages: 573-581, ISSN: 0903-1936
Chen C-M, Thiering E, Doekes G, et al., 2012, Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe, INDOOR AIR, Vol: 22, Pages: 24-32, ISSN: 0905-6947
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