Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Practice (Paediatric Emergency Medicine)



+44 (0)20 3312 3729i.maconochie




Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Feather, C and Appelbaum, N and Clarke, J and Franklin, B and Sinha, R and Pratt, P and Maconochie, I and Darzi, A},
doi = {10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032686},
journal = {BMJ Open},
pages = {1--13},
title = {Medication errors during simulated paediatric resuscitations: a prospective, observational human reliability analysis},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Introduction: Medication errors during paediatric resuscitation are thought to be common. However, there is little evidence about the individual process steps that contribute to such medication errors in this context.Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature and severity of medication errors in simulated paediatric resuscitations, and to employ human reliability analysis to understand the contribution of discrepancies in individual process steps to the occurrence of these errors.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of simulated resuscitations subjected to video micro-analysis, identification of medication errors, severity assessment and human reliability analysis in a large English teaching hospital. Fifteen resuscitation teams of two doctors and two nurses each conducted one of two simulated paediatric resuscitation scenarios. Results: At least one medication error was observed in every simulated case, and a large magnitude (>25% discrepant) or clinically significant error in 11 of 15 cases. Medication errors were observed in 29% of 180 simulated medication administrations, 40% of which considered to be moderate or severe. These errors were the result of 884 observed discrepancies at a number of steps in the drug ordering, preparation and administration stages of medication use, 8% of which made a major contribution to a resultant medication error. Most errors were introduced by discrepancies during drug preparation and administration. Conclusions: Medication errors were common with a considerable proportion likely to result in patient harm. There is an urgent need to optimise existing systems and to commission research into new approaches to increase the reliability of human interactions during administration of medication in the paediatric emergency setting.
AU - Feather,C
AU - Appelbaum,N
AU - Clarke,J
AU - Franklin,B
AU - Sinha,R
AU - Pratt,P
AU - Maconochie,I
AU - Darzi,A
DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032686
EP - 13
PY - 2019///
SN - 2044-6055
SP - 1
TI - Medication errors during simulated paediatric resuscitations: a prospective, observational human reliability analysis
T2 - BMJ Open
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -