Imperial College London

DrIanMaconochie

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Practice (Paediatric Emergency Medicine)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 3729i.maconochie

 
 
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Location

 

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

241 results found

Nijman R, Maconochie I, Lyttle M, Krone J, Mintegi S, Christopher B, von Both Uet al., Emergency care provided to refugee children in Europe: RefuNET - a cross-sectional survey study, Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN: 1472-0205

Journal article

Kiguchi T, Okubo M, Nishiyama C, Maconochie I, Ong MEH, Kern KB, Wyckoff MH, McNally B, Christensen EF, Tjelmeland I, Herlitz J, Perkins GD, Booth S, Finn J, Shahidah N, Shin SD, Bobrow BJ, Morrison LJ, Salo A, Baldi E, Burkart R, Lin C-H, Jouven X, Soar J, Nolan JP, Iwami Tet al., 2020, Out -of -hospital cardiac arrest across the World: First report from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), RESUSCITATION, Vol: 152, Pages: 39-49, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Van de Voorde P, Biarent D, Bingham B, Brissaud O, De Lucas N, Djakow J, Hoffmann F, Lauritsen T, Martinez AM, Turner NM, Maconochie I, Monsieurs KGet al., 2020, Paediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support: European Resuscitation Council COVID-19 Guidelines, Notfall und Rettungsmedizin, Vol: 23, Pages: 251-256, ISSN: 1434-6222

Journal article

Hingley S, Booth A, Hodgson J, Langworthy K, Shimizu N, Maconochie Iet al., 2020, Concordance between the 2010 and 2015 Resuscitation Guidelines of International Liaison Committee of Resuscitation Councils (ILCOR) members and the ILCOR Consensus of Science and Treatment Recommendations (CoSTRs)., Resuscitation, Vol: 151, Pages: 111-117

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrests are associated with poor outcomes. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) evaluates resuscitation science and produced, until 2015, five-yearly consensus on science and treatment recommendations (CoSTRs), informing global resuscitation guidelines. We aimed to identify similarities/differences in resuscitation guidelines from ILCOR members, noting concurrence over time, and CoSTRs influence on these guidelines. METHODS: We considered the component elements of paediatric and adult, basic and advanced resuscitation guidelines, published in 2010 and 2015, along with matching ILCOR CoSTRs to examine their influence. We contacted the responsible councils when guidelines were unavailable online. RESULTS: Complete resuscitation guidelines were found for six of the seven ILCOR council members. The Resuscitation Council of Asia only had adult basic life support (BLS) guidelines in English. Three members used the AHA guidelines. Therefore, five rather than seven sets of resuscitation guidelines were compared to the CoSTRs. Concurrence between CoSTRs recommendations and ILCOR council member's resuscitation guidelines has improved over time. Minor variations were identified in both basic and advanced life support, with most variance in paediatric guidelines, but these narrowed over time. CONCLUSION: The improved concurrence across the resuscitation guidelines with the CoSTRs suggests that ILCOR members accept and hence incorporate CoSTRs recommendations to inform their own resuscitation guidelines. This is one step towards the development of international universal guidelines for adult and paediatric resuscitation.

Journal article

Bressan S, Buonsenso D, Farrugia R, Parri N, Oostenbrink R, Titomanlio L, Roland D, Nijman RG, Maconochie I, Da Dalt L, Mintegi Set al., 2020, Preparedness and response to Pediatric CoVID-19 in European Emergency Departments: a survey of the REPEM and PERUKI networks, Annals of Emergency Medicine, ISSN: 0196-0644

Study objectiveWe aimed to describe the variability and identify gaps in preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic in European EDs caring for children.MethodsA cross-sectional point prevalence survey, was developed and disseminated through the pediatric emergency medicine research networks for Europe (REPEM) and the United Kingdom and Ireland (PERUKI). We aimed to include ten EDs for countries with > 20 million inhabitants and five EDs for less populated countries, unless the number of eligible EDs was below five. ED directors or their delegates completed the survey between March 20th and 21st to report practice at that time. We used descriptive statistics to analyse data.ResultsOverall 102 centers from 18 countries (86% response rate) completed the survey: 34% did not have an ED contingency plan for pandemics and 36% had never had simulations for such events. Wide variation on PPE items was shown for recommended PPE use at pre-triage and for patient assessment, with 62% of centers experiencing shortage in one or more PPE items, most frequently FFP2/N95 masks. Only 17% of EDs had negative pressure isolation rooms. COVID-19 positive ED staff was reported in 25% of centers.ConclusionWe found variation and identified gaps in preparedness and response to the COVID-19 epidemic across European referral EDs for children. A lack in early availability of a documented contingency plan, provision of simulation training, appropriate use of PPE, and appropriate isolation facilities emerged as gaps that should be optimized to improve preparedness and inform responses to future pandemics.

Journal article

Granfeldt A, Avis SR, Lind PC, Holmberg MJ, Kleinman M, Maconochie I, Hsu CH, de Almeida MF, Wang T-L, Neumar RW, Andersen LWet al., 2020, Intravenous vs. intraosseous administration of drugs during cardiac arrest: A systematic review, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 149, Pages: 150-157, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

de Caen A, Moylan A, Maconochie IK, 2020, Epinephrine for Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Some Reassurance, but no Answers, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 75, Pages: 205-206, ISSN: 0735-1097

Journal article

Deluca P, Coulton S, Alam MF, Boniface S, Donoghue K, Gilvarry E, Kaner E, Lynch E, Maconochie I, McArdle P, McGovern R, Newbury-Birch D, Patton R, Pellatt-Higgins T, Phillips C, Phillips T, Pockett R, Russell IT, Strang J, Drummond Cet al., 2020, Screening and brief interventions for adolescent alcohol use disorders presenting through emergency departments: a research programme including two RCTs, Programme Grants for Applied Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-144, ISSN: 2050-4322

<jats:sec id="abs1-1"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Alcohol consumption and related harm increase steeply from the ages of 12–20 years. Adolescents in the UK are among the heaviest drinkers in Europe. Excessive drinking in adolescents is associated with increased risk of accidents, injuries, self-harm, unprotected or regretted sex, violence and disorder, poisoning and accidental death. However, there is lack of clear evidence for the most clinically effective and cost-effective screening and brief interventions for reducing or preventing alcohol consumption in adolescents attending emergency departments (EDs).</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-2"> <jats:title>Objectives</jats:title> <jats:p>To estimate the distribution of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems and alcohol use disorders in adolescents attending EDs; to develop age-appropriate alcohol screening and brief intervention tools; and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-3"> <jats:title>Design</jats:title> <jats:p>The research has been conducted in three linked stages: (1) a prevalence study, (2) intervention development and (3) two linked randomised controlled trials (RCTs).</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-4"> <jats:title>Setting</jats:title> <jats:p>Twelve EDs in England (London, North East, and Yorkshire and The Humber).</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-5"> <jats:title>Participants</jats:title>

Journal article

Wen SH, Ong GY-K, Maconochie IK, Lee KP, Chong S-Let al., 2019, Analysis of emergency department prediction tools in evaluating febrile young infants at risk for serious infections, EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL, Vol: 36, Pages: 729-735, ISSN: 1472-0205

Journal article

Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Aickin RGR, Bhanji F, Donnino MW, Mancini ME, Wyllie JP, Zideman D, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Aziz K, Bendall J, Berg KM, Berry DC, Bigham BL, Bingham R, Couto TB, Bottiger BW, Borra V, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Brooks SC, Buick J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castren M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dawson JA, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Gilfoyle E, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Holmberg MJ, Hood N, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Isayama T, Iwami T, Jensen JL, Kapadia V, Kim H-S, Kleinman ME, Kudenchuk PJ, Lang E, Lavonas E, Liley H, Lim SH, Lockey A, Lofgren B, Ma MH-M, Markenson D, Meaney PA, Meyran D, Mildenhall L, Monsieurs KG, Montgomery W, Morley PT, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni VM, Nation K, Neumar RW, Ng K-C, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Nuthall G, Ohshimo S, Okamoto D, O'Neil B, Ong GY-K, Paiva EF, Parr M, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman J, Rabi Y, Reis A, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Roehr CC, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Schexnayder SM, Scholefield BR, Shimizu N, Skrifvars MB, Smyth MA, Stanton D, Swain J, Szyld E, Tijssen J, Travers A, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Van de Voorde P, Velaphi S, Wang T-L, Weiner G, Welsford M, Woodin JA, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Hazinski MF, Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Greif R, Aickin R, Bhanji F, Donnino MW, Mancini ME, Wyllie JP, Zideman D, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Aziz K, Bendall J, Berg KM, Berry DC, Bigham BL, Bingham R, Couto TB, Bottiger BW, Borra V, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Brooks SC, Buick J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castren M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dawson JA, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Gilfoyle E, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Holmberg MJet al., 2019, 2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 145, Pages: 95-150, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Greif R, Aickin R, Bhanji F, Donnino MW, Mancini ME, Wyllie JP, Zideman D, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Aziz K, Bendall J, Berg KM, Berry DC, Bigham BL, Bingham R, Couto TB, Böttiger BW, Borra V, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Brooks SC, Buick J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dawson JA, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Gilfoyle E, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Holmberg MJ, Hood N, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Isayama T, Iwami T, Jensen JL, Kapadia V, Kim H-S, Kleinman ME, Kudenchuk PJ, Lang E, Lavonas E, Liley H, Lim SH, Lockey A, Lofgren B, Ma MH-M, Markenson D, Meaney PA, Meyran D, Mildenhall L, Monsieurs KG, Montgomery W, Morley PT, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni VM, Nation K, Neumar RW, Ng K-C, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Nuthall G, Ohshimo S, Okamoto D, O'Neil B, Ong GY-K, Paiva EF, Parr M, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman J, Rabi Y, Reis A, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Roehr CC, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Schexnayder SM, Scholefield BR, Shimizu N, Skrifvars MB, Smyth MA, Stanton D, Swain J, Szyld E, Tijssen J, Travers A, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Van de Voorde P, Velaphi S, Wang T-L, Weiner G, Welsford M, Woodin JA, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Hazinski MFet al., 2019, 2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations., Resuscitation, Vol: 145, Pages: 95-150

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the third annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. It addresses the most recent published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Task Force science experts. This summary addresses the role of cardiac arrest centers and dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the role of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults and children, vasopressors in adults, advanced airway interventions in adults and children, targeted temperature management in children after cardiac arrest, initial oxygen concentration during resuscitation of newborns, and interventions for presyncope by first aid providers. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the certainty of the evidence on the basis of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in the Justification and Evidence to Decision Framework Highlights sections. The task forces also listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.

Journal article

Wang X, Nijman R, Camuzeaux S, Sands C, Jackson H, Kaforou M, Emonts M, Herberg J, Maconochie I, Carrol E, Paulus S, Zenz W, Coin L, Flier MVD, Groot RD, Martinon-Torres F, Schlapbach LJ, Pollard A, Fink C, Kuijpers TT, Anderson S, Lewis M, Levin M, McClure M, EUCLIDS consortiumet al., 2019, Plasma lipid profiles discriminate bacterial from viral infection in febrile children, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322

Fever is the most common reason that children present to Emergency Departments. Clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of bacterial infection are often non-specific, and there is no definitive test for the accurate diagnosis of infection. The ‘omics’ approaches to identifying biomarkers from the host-response to bacterial infection are promising. In this study, lipidomic analysis was carried out with plasma samples obtained from febrile children with confirmed bacterial infection (n=20) and confirmed viral infection (n=20). We show for the first time that bacterial and viral infection produces distinct profile in the host lipidome. Some species of glycerophosphoinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophosphatidylcholine and cholesterol sulfate were higher in the confirmed virus infected group, while some species of fatty acids, glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoserine, lactosylceramide and bilirubin were lower in the confirmed virus infected group when compared with confirmed bacterial infected group..A combination of three lipids achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.911 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.98). This pilot study demonstrates the potential of metabolic biomarkers to assist clinicians in distinguishing bacterial from viral infection in febrile children, to facilitate effective clinical management and to the limit inappropriate use of antibiotics.

Journal article

Feather C, Appelbaum N, Clarke J, Franklin B, Sinha R, Pratt P, Maconochie I, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Medication errors during simulated paediatric resuscitations: a prospective, observational human reliability analysis, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: Medication errors during paediatric resuscitation are thought to be common. However, there is little evidence about the individual process steps that contribute to such medication errors in this context.Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature and severity of medication errors in simulated paediatric resuscitations, and to employ human reliability analysis to understand the contribution of discrepancies in individual process steps to the occurrence of these errors.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of simulated resuscitations subjected to video micro-analysis, identification of medication errors, severity assessment and human reliability analysis in a large English teaching hospital. Fifteen resuscitation teams of two doctors and two nurses each conducted one of two simulated paediatric resuscitation scenarios. Results: At least one medication error was observed in every simulated case, and a large magnitude (>25% discrepant) or clinically significant error in 11 of 15 cases. Medication errors were observed in 29% of 180 simulated medication administrations, 40% of which considered to be moderate or severe. These errors were the result of 884 observed discrepancies at a number of steps in the drug ordering, preparation and administration stages of medication use, 8% of which made a major contribution to a resultant medication error. Most errors were introduced by discrepancies during drug preparation and administration. Conclusions: Medication errors were common with a considerable proportion likely to result in patient harm. There is an urgent need to optimise existing systems and to commission research into new approaches to increase the reliability of human interactions during administration of medication in the paediatric emergency setting.

Journal article

Nolan JP, Berg RA, Andersen LW, Bhanji F, Chan PS, Donnino MW, Lim SH, Ma MH-M, Nadkarni VM, Starks MA, Perkins GD, Morley PT, Soar J, Aickin R, Atkins DL, Berg KM, Bingham R, Bottiger BW, Brooks SC, Callaway CW, Castren M, Chung SP, Considine J, Couto TB, De Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Guerguerian A-M, Hazinski MF, Kudenchuk PJ, Lofgren B, Maconochie I, Mancini ME, Meaney PA, Neumar RW, Ng K-C, Nicholson TC, Nishiyama C, Nuthall GA, Olasveengen TM, Paiva EF, Parr MJ, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Sandroni C, Schexnayder SM, Scholefield BR, Smyth MA, Stanton D, Tijssen JA, Vaillancourt C, van de Voorde P, Wang T-L, Welsford Met al., 2019, Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports: Update of the Utstein Resuscitation Registry Template for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest A Consensus Report From a Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa, Resuscitation Council of Asia), RESUSCITATION, Vol: 144, Pages: 166-177, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Nolan JP, Berg RA, Andersen LW, Bhanji F, Chan PS, Donnino MW, Lim SH, Ma MH-M, Nadkarni VM, Starks MA, Perkins GD, Morley PT, Soar J, Utstein Collaboratorset al., 2019, Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports: Update of the Utstein Resuscitation Registry Template for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Consensus Report From a Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa, Resuscitation Council of Asia)., Resuscitation, Vol: 144, Pages: 166-177

Utstein-style reporting templates provide a structured framework with which to compare systems of care for cardiac arrest. The 2004 Utstein reporting template encompassed both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest. A 2015 update of the Utstein template focused on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which makes this update of the in-hospital template timely. Representatives of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation developed an updated in-hospital Utstein reporting template iteratively by meeting face-to-face, by teleconference, and by online surveys between 2013 and 2018. Data elements were grouped by hospital factors, patient variables, pre-event factors, cardiac arrest and postresuscitation processes, and outcomes. Elements were classified as core or supplemental by use of a modified Delphi process. Variables were described as core if they were considered essential. Core variables should enable reasonable comparisons between systems and are considered essential for quality improvement programs. Together with core variables, supplementary variables are considered useful for research.

Journal article

Bressan S, Titomanlio L, Gomez B, Mintegi S, Gervaix A, Parri N, Da Dalt L, Moll HA, Waisman Y, Maconochie IK, Oostenbrink R, Er A, Anil M, Bal A, Manzano S, Lacroix L, Galetto A, Beattie T, Bidlingmaier C, de Lucas N, Maranon R, Pucuka Z, Latvia R, Loellgen R, Keitel K, Hoeffe J, Geurts D, Dubos F, Lyttle M, Bognar Z, Simon G, Fodor L, Romanengo M, Gras-le-Guen C, Greber-Platzer S, Cubells CL, Teksam O, Turan C, van de Voorde P, Basmaci R, Frassanito A, Saz U, Irfanos I, Sotoca J, Berant R, Farrugia R, Velasco R, Nijman R, Macao Pet al., 2019, Research priorities for European paediatric emergency medicine, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 104, Pages: 869-873, ISSN: 0003-9888

Objective Research in European Paediatric Emergency Medicine (REPEM) network is a collaborative group of 69 paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians from 20 countries in Europe, initiated in 2006. To further improve paediatric emergency care in Europe, the aim of this study was to define research priorities for PEM in Europe to guide the development of future research projects.Design and Setting We carried out an online survey in a modified three-stage Delphi study. Eligible participants were members of the REPEM network. In stage 1, the REPEM steering committee prepared a list of research topics. In stage 2, REPEM members rated on a 6-point scale research topics and they could add research topics and comment on the list for further refinement. Stage 3 included further prioritisation using the Hanlon Process of Prioritisation (HPP) to give more emphasis to the feasibility of a research topic.Results Based on 52 respondents (response rates per stage varying from 41% to 57%), we identified the conditions ‘fever’, ‘sepsis’ and ‘respiratory infections’, and the processes/interventions ‘biomarkers’, ‘risk stratification’ and ‘practice variation’ as common themes of research interest. The HPP identified highest priority for 4 of the 5 highest prioritised items by the Delphi process, incorporating prevalence and severity of each condition and feasibility of undertaking such research.Conclusions While the high diversity in emergency department (ED) populations, cultures, healthcare systems and healthcare delivery in European PEM prompts to focus on practice variation of ED conditions, our defined research priority list will help guide further collaborative research efforts within the REPEM network to improve PEM care in Europe.

Journal article

Kandasamy J, Theobald PS, Maconochie IK, Jones MDet al., 2019, Can real-time feedback improve the simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of basic life support and lay rescuers?, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 104, Pages: 793-801, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

MacOnochie IK, 2019, Highlights from this issue, Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol: 36, ISSN: 1472-0205

Journal article

Appelbaum N, Clarke J, Feather C, Dean Franklin B, Sinha R, Pratt P, Maconochie I, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Medication errors during simulated paediatric resuscitations: a prospective, observational human reliability analysis, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

<jats:p>Introduction: Medication errors during paediatric resuscitation are thought to be common. However, there is little evidence about the individual process steps that contribute to such medication errors in this context.Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature and severity of medication errors in simulated paediatric resuscitations, and to employ human reliability analysis to understand the contributory role of individual process step discrepancies to these errors.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of simulated resuscitations subject to video micro-analysis, identification of medication errors, severity assessment and human reliability analysis in a large English teaching hospital. Fifteen resuscitation teams of two doctors and two nurses each conducted one of two simulated paediatric resuscitation scenarios. Results: At least one medication error was observed in every simulated case, and a large magnitude or clinically significant error in 11 of 15 cases. Medication errors were observed in 29% of 180 simulated medication administrations, 40% of which considered to be moderate or severe. These errors were the result of 884 observed discrepancies at a number of steps in the drug ordering, preparation and administration stages of medication use, 8% of which made a major contribution to a resultant medication error. Most errors were introduced by discrepancies during drug preparation and administration. Conclusions: Medication errors were common with a considerable proportion likely to result in patient harm. There is an urgent need to optimise existing systems and to commission research into new approaches to increase the reliability of human interactions during administration of medication in the paediatric emergency setting.</jats:p>

Working paper

Borensztajn D, Yeung S, Hagedoorn NN, Balode A, von Both U, Carrol ED, Dewez JE, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg JA, Kohlmaier B, Lim E, Maconochie I, Martinón-Torres F, Nijman R, Pokorn M, Strle F, Tsolia M, Wendelin G, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Levin M, Moll HAet al., 2019, Diversity in the emergency care for febrile children in Europe: a questionnaire study, BMJ Paediatrics Open, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2399-9772

Objective: To provide an overview of care in emergency departments (EDs) across Europe in order to interpret observational data and implement interventions regarding the management of febrile children. Design and setting: An electronic questionnaire was sent to the principal investigators of an ongoing study (PERFORM (Personalised Risk assessment in Febrile illness to Optimise Real-life Management), www.perform2020.eu) in 11 European hospitals in eight countries: Austria, Germany, Greece, Latvia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Outcome measures: The questionnaire covered indicators in three domains: local ED quality (supervision, guideline availability, paper vs electronic health records), organisation of healthcare (primary care, immunisation), and local factors influencing or reflecting resource use (availability of point-of-care tests, admission rates). Results: Reported admission rates ranged from 4% to 51%. In six settings (Athens, Graz, Ljubljana, Riga, Rotterdam, Santiago de Compostela), the supervising ED physicians were general paediatricians, in two (Liverpool, London) these were paediatric emergency physicians, in two (Nijmegen, Newcastle) supervision could take place by either a general paediatrician or a general emergency physician, and in one (München) this could be either a general paediatrician or a paediatric emergency physician. The supervising physician was present on site in all settings during office hours and in five out of eleven settings during out-of-office hours. Guidelines for fever and sepsis were available in all settings; however, the type of guideline that was used differed. Primary care was available in all settings during office hours and in eight during out-of-office hours. There were differences in routine immunisations as well as in additional immunisations that were offered; immunisation rates varied between and within countries. Conclusion: Differences in local, regional and national aspects of care exist in th

Journal article

Moylan A, Maconochie I, 2019, Demand, overcrowding and the pediatric emergency department, CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL, Vol: 191, Pages: E625-E626, ISSN: 0820-3946

Journal article

Buick JE, Wallner C, Aickin R, Meaney PA, de Caen A, Maconochie I, Skifvars MB, Welsford M, Atkins D, Bingham R, Couto TB, Guerguerian A-M, Hazinski MF, Layonas E, Nadkarni V, Ng K-C, Nuthall G, Ohshimo S, Ong Y-KG, Reis A, Schexnayder S, Scholefield B, Shimizu N, Tijssen J, Van de Voorde Pet al., 2019, Paediatric targeted temperature management post cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 139, Pages: 65-75, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Lavonas EJ, Ohshimo S, Nation K, Van de Voorde P, Nuthall G, Maconochie I, Torabi N, Morrison LJ, DeCaen A, Atkins D, Bingham R, Bittencourt-Couto T, Guergerian A-M, Hazinski M-F, Meaney P, Nadkarni V, Ng K-C, Ong Y-KG, Reis A, Schexnayder S, Shimizu N, Tijssen J, Baker B, Bradley-Ridout Get al., 2019, Advanced airway interventions for paediatric cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 138, Pages: 114-128, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Shehadeh AJ, Soliman A, Maconochie I, 2019, Review of resuscitation physiology in children, Paediatrics and Child Health (United Kingdom), Vol: 29, Pages: 205-209, ISSN: 1751-7222

© 2019 More than one quarter of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5–10% of children survive to hospital discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)differs in children from adults. Following the Airway, Breathing, Circulation format, this article reviews the physiology of paediatric cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. It addresses the appropriate interventions during CPR, mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs and special resuscitation circumstances: premature and newly born infants, traumatic cardiac arrest, and ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation). New exciting discoveries in resuscitation science postulate that the key factor in improving outcomes of paediatric cardiac arrest is improving the quality of interventions. A thorough understanding of the physiology underpinning CPR is helpful in ensuring optimal delivery of CPR in children and improving clinical outcomes.

Journal article

Moylan A, Appelbaum N, Clarke J, Feather C, Tairraz AF, Maconochie I, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Assessing the agreement of 5 ideal body weight calculations for selecting medication dosages for children with obesity, JAMA Pediatrics, ISSN: 2168-6203

Journal article

van de Maat J, van de Voort E, Mintegi S, Gervaix A, Nieboer D, Moll H, Oostenbrink R, Olesen H, Bonnelykke CL, Angoulvant F, Dubos F, Gras-Leguen C, Desmarest M, Aurel M, Gajdos V, Joffre C, Bognar Z, Parri N, Fichera V, Arrhigini A, Bressan S, Da Dalt L, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R, van Veen M, Noordzij J, Smit F, van Wermeskerken A-M, Pinto S, Sa G, Macao P, Silva D, Zarcos M, Moldovan D, Dreghiciu D-MN, Mintegi S, Acedo Y, Herrero Garcia L, Medina I, Cozar JA, Fernandes Arribas JL, Seiler M, Gervaix A, Maconochie I, Yilmaz HL, Gokay SSet al., 2019, Antibiotic prescription for febrile children in European emergency departments: a cross-sectional, observational study, LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 19, Pages: 382-391, ISSN: 1473-3099

Journal article

Chapman SM, Maconochie IK, 2019, Early warning scores in paediatrics: an overview, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 104, Pages: 395-399, ISSN: 1468-2044

Paediatric Early Warning Scores (PEWS)are used in hospitalised patients to detect physiological deterioration and is being used increasingly throughout healthcare systems with a limited evidence based. There are two versions in general use that can lead to a clinical response, either by triggering an action or by reaching a 'threshold' when graduated responses may occur depending on the value of the score. Most evidence has come from research based on paediatric inpatients in specialist children's hospitals, although the range of research is expanding, taking into account other clinical areas such as paediatric intensive care unit, emergency department and the prehospital setting. Currrently, it is uncertain whether a unified system does deliver benefits in terms of outcomes or financial savings, but it may inform and improve patient communication. PEWS may be an additional tool in context of a patient's specific condition, and future work will include its validation for different conditions, different clinical settings, patient populations and organisational structure. The incorporation of PEWS within the electronic health records may form a keystone of the safe system framework and allow the development of consistent PEWS system to standardise practice.

Journal article

Coulton S, Alam MF, Boniface S, Deluca P, Donoghue K, Gilvarry E, Kaner E, Lynch E, Maconochie I, McArdle P, McGovern R, Newbury-Birch D, Patton R, Phillips CJ, Phillips T, Rose H, Russell I, Strang J, Drummon Cet al., 2019, Opportunistic screening for alcohol use problems in adolescents attending emergency departments: an evaluation of screening tools, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 41, Pages: E53-E60, ISSN: 1741-3842

Journal article

Soar J, Perkins GD, Maconochie I, Böttiger BW, Deakin CD, Sandroni C, Olasveengen TM, Wyllie J, Greif R, Lockey A, Semeraro F, Van de Voorde P, Lott C, Bossaert L, Monsieurs KG, Nolan JPet al., 2019, European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation: 2018 update – antiarrhythmic drugs for cardiac arrest, Resuscitation, Vol: 134, Pages: 99-103, ISSN: 0300-9572

This European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines for Resuscitation 2018 update is focused on the role of antiarrhythmic drugs during advanced life support for cardiac arrest with shock refractory ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia in adults, children and infants. This update follows the publication of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) 2018 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR). The ILCOR CoSTR suggests that any beneficial effects of amiodarone or lidocaine are similar. This ERC update does not make any major changes to the recommendations for the use of antiarrhythmic drugs during advanced life support for shock refractory cardiac arrest.

Journal article

Soar J, Donnino MW, Maconochie I, Aickin R, Atkins DL, Andersen LW, Berg KM, Bingham R, Böttiger BW, Callaway CW, Couper K, Couto TB, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Guerguerian A-M, Lavonas EJ, Meaney PA, Nadkarni VM, Neumar RW, Ng K-C, Nicholson TC, Nuthall GA, Ohshimo S, O'Neil BJ, Ong GY-K, Paiva EF, Parr MJ, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Sandroni C, Schexnayder SM, Scholefield BR, Shimizu N, Tijssen JA, Van de Voorde P, Wang T-L, Welsford M, Hazinski MF, Nolan JP, Morley PT, ILCOR Collaboratorset al., 2018, 2018 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with treatment recommendations summary, Circulation, Vol: 138, Pages: e714-e730, ISSN: 0009-7322

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the second annual summary of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations that includes the most recent cardiopulmonary resuscitation science reviewed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. This summary addresses the role of antiarrhythmic drugs in adults and children and includes the Advanced Life Support Task Force and Pediatric Task Force consensus statements, which summarize the most recent published evidence and an assessment of the quality of the evidence based on Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. The statements include consensus treatment recommendations approved by members of the relevant task forces. Insights into the deliberations of each task force are provided in the Values and Preferences and Task Force Insights sections. Finally, the task force members have listed the top knowledge gaps for further research.

Journal article

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