Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 6035ivan.stoianov Website




Miss Judith Barritt +44 (0)20 7594 5967




408Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Wilson, RE and Stoianov, I and O'Hare, D},
doi = {10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.015},
journal = {Electrochemistry Communications},
pages = {79--83},
title = {Biofouling and in situ electrochemical cleaning of a boron-doped diamond free chlorine sensor},
url = {},
volume = {71},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Biofouling presents a significant obstacle to the long-term use of electrochemical sensors in complex media. Drinking water biofilms reduce performance of sensors by insulating electrode surfaces by inter alia inhibiting mass transport. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are relatively resistant to biofouling and inert at high potentials. These qualities can be exploited to create a drinking water quality sensor that resists biofouling to meet performance criteria for longer, and to enable electrochemical cleaning of the sensor surface in situ using high potentials without disconnecting or disassembling the sensor.A purpose-built BDD wall-jet sensor was compared with a glassy carbon (GC) sensor in ability to determine free chlorine, detect biofilm and remove biofilm in situ. It was found that the BDD produced accurate and reliable readings with a 4.86% standard error and a LOD of 0.18 ppm. The BDD could be electrochemically cleaned in situ whereas this was less successful with the GC electrode. The BDD electrode could also detect electroactive pyocyanin, secreted in the biofilm of the drinking water biofilm indicator organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, potentially enabling biofouling and non-biological fouling such as scaling to be distinguished. Observed changes in flow sensitivity and current-voltage curves that correspond to fouling provide multiple fouling detection methods, resulting in an accurate, sensitive, water quality sensor that can be cleaned without disassembly or replacement of parts and can identify when cleaning is required.
AU - Wilson,RE
AU - Stoianov,I
AU - O'Hare,D
DO - 10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.015
EP - 83
PY - 2016///
SN - 1873-1902
SP - 79
TI - Biofouling and in situ electrochemical cleaning of a boron-doped diamond free chlorine sensor
T2 - Electrochemistry Communications
UR -
UR -
VL - 71
ER -