Imperial College London

DrJonathanKrell

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Clinical SL in Medical Oncology (Gynaecological Oncology)
 
 
 
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j.krell

 
 
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Location

 

Institute of Reproductive and Developmental BiologyHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

158 results found

de la Rosa CN, Krell J, Day E, Clarke A, Reddi M, Webber L, Fiorentino Fet al., 2022, Statistical analysis plan for the Dual mTorc Inhibition in advanCed/recurrent Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer (of clear cell, endometrioid and high-grade serous type, and carcinosarcoma) trial (DICE)., Trials, Vol: 23

BACKGROUND: Treatment for ovarian cancer includes platinum-based chemotherapy, but many women become resistant to chemotherapy, becoming platinum-resistant. Standard of care for these women is weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy, but cancers can often become paclitaxel resistant. TAK228, an investigational dual TORC1/2 inhibitor, is an oral therapy that can be added to standard treatment. The DICE trial is a phase II international multicentre, parallel-group, superiority clinical trial with 1:1, open label randomisation which has the aim of investigating the effectiveness of TAK228 plus weekly paclitaxel. The planned sample size is 124 women (62 per treatment arm) with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: To outline the planned analyses for DICE in a statistical analysis plan (SAP) before database hard lock and the start of analysis. This ensures that bias is minimised during the analysis phase. RESULTS: This SAP provides detailed descriptions of the analysis principles and statistical procedures for analysing primary and secondary outcomes of the trial. The primary outcome is overall progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes include progression-free survival (PFS) at 24 weeks, overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DoR), time to progression (TTP), clinical benefit rate (CBR) at 4 months, Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) response according to Gynaecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) criteria, overall survival (OS), safety and tolerability as assessed by adverse events and the quality-of-life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OV28). This detailed description includes significance levels, sensitivity analyses and compliance analysis. DISCUSSION: The DICE trial will determine whether the addition of TAK228 to weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy shows a statistically significant improvement to participant's progression free and overall survival and that the adverse events (AEs) and quality of life (QoL) are not significantly worse t

Journal article

Armbrust R, Chekerov R, Sander S, Biebl M, Chopra S, Krell J, Rinne N, Nixon K, Fotopoulou C, Sehouli Jet al., 2021, Surgery due to mechanical bowel obstruction in relapsed ovarian cancer: clinical and surgical results of a bicentric analysis of 87 patients (Oct, 10.1007/s00404-021-06237-x, 2021), ARCHIVES OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS, ISSN: 0932-0067

Journal article

Glover M, Hui G, Chiang R, Savage P, Krell J, Julve M, Grivas P, Lythgoe M, Khaki ARet al., 2021, Disparity of race reporting in US Food and Drug Administration drug approvals for urinary system cancers from 2006 to 2021, BJU International, ISSN: 1464-4096

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Ghani R, Mullish BH, Marchesi JR, Krell Jet al., 2021, The Potential of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation in Oncology, Trends in Microbiology, ISSN: 0966-842X

Journal article

Armbrust R, Chekerov R, Sander S, Biebl M, Chopra S, Krell J, Rinne N, Nixon K, Fotopoulou C, Sehouli Jet al., 2021, Surgery due to mechanical bowel obstruction in relapsed ovarian cancer: clinical and surgical results of a bicentric analysis of 87 patients, ARCHIVES OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS, ISSN: 0932-0067

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Liu DSK, Annels NE, Krell J, Frampton AEet al., 2021, Gene of the month: lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, Vol: 74, Pages: 543-547, ISSN: 0021-9746

Journal article

Lythgoe M, Cleary S, Kalofonou F, Grunewald T, Miller R, Cartwright D, Glasspool RM, Jones R, Rossides S, Ratnakumaran R, Michael A, McNeish I, Tookman L, Krell Jet al., 2021, 747P Real-world experience of rucaparib in patients with ovarian cancer: A multicentre United Kingdom study, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 32, Pages: S742-S742, ISSN: 0923-7534

BackgroundEpithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is the 5th leading cause of female cancer deaths. Despite high responses to first-line therapy, 5-year survival remains poor at 29%. Rucaparib is a small molecule PARP inhibitor (PARPi) approved as monotherapy for maintenance treatment of recurrent EOC with prior complete/partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy, on the basis of the ARIEL3 trial. Despite the validity of clinical trial evidence, applicability to routine practice is limited and real-world evidence (RWE) is mandated.MethodsWe performed a multi-center retrospective study of patients with advanced EOC receiving rucaparib in the UK from June 2018, via an early access program.Results119 patients were included, with a median age of 66 years (range 26-89). Median ECOG at commencement was 1 (0-3). 91% (n=108) had high grade serous carcinoma and 24% (n=29) germline/somatic BRCA1/2mutation (BRCAm). Prior to rucaparib, patients had a median of 3 therapies (range 1-9) with 8% (n=10) receiving an alternate PARPi. Overall progression free survival (PFS) was 7.5 months (1.1-37.4), with a higher PFS of 9.1 months (1.1-35.5) in BRCAm patients. This is lower than observed in ARIEL3. However, if similar inclusion/exclusion criteria are applied to our RWE population, findings are analogous, with PFS of 10.2 and 16.6 months in the overall and BRCAm groups respectively. Treatment-related toxicity (any grade) was reported in 88% (n=105) of patients, most prevalent being nausea, fatigue, anaemia and other blood dyscrasias. 26% (n=32) of patients experienced a CTCAE grade 3/4 toxicity and 58% (n=69) required dose interruption/reduction. 13% (n=16) of patients discontinued therapy due to a treatment related adverse effect: most frequently fatigue, nausea or thrombocytopenia. No haematological malignancies were observed.ConclusionsOverall we found a lower incidence of any grade and grade 3/4 toxicity, and furthermore equivalent discontinuation rates to ARIEL3. A lower overall PFS

Journal article

Lythgoe M, Adriani M, Stebbing J, Clark J, Pickford E, Frampton A, Liu D, Kyrgiou M, Rees E, Fyvie G, Stevenson A, Krell Jet al., 2021, 543P Neoadjuvant MRx0518 treatment is associated with significant gene and metagene signature changes in solid tumours, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 32, Pages: S607-S607, ISSN: 0923-7534

BackgroundMRx0518 is an oral live biotherapeutic with potent immunostimulatory activity and anti-tumorigenic efficacy in murine models of lung (LLC1), kidney (Renca) and breast (EMT6) cancer. Previous reports have demonstrated a favourable safety profile in neoadjuvant and metastatic clinical settings, with emerging evidence of immune modulation. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the gene and metagene signature in cancer patients treated with MRx0518 monotherapy.MethodsTreatment-naïve patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of cancer scheduled for surgical resection were recruited from April 2019 to February 2020. Patients received 1 capsule of MRx0518 (1x1010 to 1x1011CFU) twice daily from inclusion until the day preceding surgery. Safety and tolerability (CTCAE v4.03) were the primary endpoints of this study. Comprehensive biomarker analysis was also performed in paired pre-treatment (diagnostic biopsy) and post-treatment (surgical specimen) samples using the NanoString IO 360 panel to explore gene and metagene signatures.Results31 samples were collected across tumour groups including breast (n=13) prostate (n=8), uterine (n=6), melanoma (n=2) and bladder (n=2). Differential expression analysis showed significant (p<0.05) increases in genes and metagenes associated with anti-tumour activity, including antigen presentation (AXL & CXCL12), innate immune processes (CHUK, RELA, PPARG & HRAS), interferon response (IFNGR1 & IFNGR2), Th1 cells and CD8+ cells following MRx0518 therapy, echoing preclinical findings. Novel changes, not previously detected in murine models, involving endothelial, mast cells, inflammatory myeloid and inflammatory chemokines were also observed, suggesting MRx0518 may have additional in vivo anti-tumorigenic effects. These changes were more pronounced in the breast cancer cohort.ConclusionsThis analysis, mirrors previous immunostimulatory activity and anti-tumorigenic efficacy observations seen in pre-clini

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Krell J, McNeish IA, Tookman Let al., 2021, Safe administration of chemotherapy in mast cell activation syndrome, Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, Vol: 27, Pages: 1005-1010, ISSN: 1078-1552

IntroductionMast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS) is an immunogenic disorder typically presenting with episodic multi-organ symptoms, caused by the inappropriate and aberrant release of mast cell mediators. Symptoms may be severe, including anaphylaxis and often occur in response to specific triggers which include many drugs and potentially chemotherapeutic agents. The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer significantly reduces the risk of reoccurrence in patients with high risk disease. Currently there is no evidence or case reports to guide the safe administration of chemotherapy in MCAS patients.Case reportWe present the case of a 59-year-old lady with stage 3 A grade 2 endometroid endometrial cancer who underwent successful surgical management. She then received 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the form of carboplatin and paclitaxel. This case describes a staged approach to chemotherapy administration and the utilisation of a carboplatin desensitization regimen to reduce the risk of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity sequalae.Management & outcome: Utilising an enhanced pre-medication strategy and a staged approach to chemotherapy administration, she was able to complete adjuvant treatment without any serious complications. At the date of censoring (May 2020) she has not shown any evidence of disease re-occurrence.Discussion & conclusion: Administering chemotherapy to patients with any mast cell disorder remains challenging. We hope that this case may provide the framework for safer chemotherapy administration for any patients at high risk of serious hypersensitivity sequalae in endometrial cancer and beyond.

Journal article

Lythgoe M, Krell J, Warner JL, Desai A, Khaki ARet al., 2021, Time intervals between U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) new cancer therapy approvals., Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol: 39, Pages: 1575-1575, ISSN: 0732-183X

Background: Novel therapies are transforming cancer care. Regulatory review and approval are essential to deliver safe and efficacious innovations to patients. Studies prior to 2010 describe quicker approval decisions for new oncology drug registrations with the FDA compared to the EMA (median delay 238 days). Both regulatory agencies have subsequently improved procedures to expedite approval times. We compared regulatory market authorisation dates at the FDA and EMA for new oncology therapies from 2010-2020. Methods: New oncology therapeutic approvals between 2010-2020 were identified from the FDA and EMA regulatory databases. We analysed only initial approvals (not supplementary licenses) for active anti-cancer therapies (excluding biosimilars and supportive drugs). The delay in regulatory approval between the FDA and EMA was calculated in calendar days. We further analysed therapies by therapeutic class, evaluating for significant differences. Results: We identified 108 new therapy registrations during the study period. 104 (96.3%) therapies were approved by the FDA and 90 (83.3%) had EMA market authorisation. 4 (3.7%) drugs were not FDA registered, including 3 unsuccessful applications and 1 which sought licensing in a different indication. 18 (16.5%) drugs were not EMA registered, including 9 (8.8%) which did not pursue EMA licensing, 3 (2.9%) withdrawn licensing applications, 3 (2.9%) sought licensing in different tumour group/indication, 1 (0.9%) rejected application and 2 (1.9%) with applications under review at submission date. Of the 86 drugs approved by both agencies, 80 were approved first by the FDA and 6 by the EMA. The median delay in approval between the FDA and EMA was 227 days (IQR:124-354 days). Table shows approvals by therapeutic class. The shortest median time difference for approval was for monoclonal antibodies (171 days) with the longest for kinase inhibitors (281 days). Conclusions: This study shows more new oncology therapies are approved

Journal article

Ahmed-Salim Y, Galazis N, Bracewell-Milnes T, Phelps DL, Jones BP, Chan M, Munoz-Gonzales MD, Matsuzono T, Smith JR, Yazbek J, Krell J, Ghaem-Maghami S, Saso Set al., 2021, The application of metabolomics in ovarian cancer management: a systematic review, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER, Vol: 31, Pages: 754-774, ISSN: 1048-891X

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Krell J, Kenny L, Khaki ARet al., 2021, 157P Racial diversity and reporting in FDA registration trials for breast cancer from 2006 to 2021, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 32, Pages: S88-S88, ISSN: 0923-7534

BackgroundIn the USA, there are >250,000 diagnoses of breast cancer (BC) annually, with significant racial disparities in incidence, subtype and outcomes. FDA clinical trials guidance recommend 5 categories of race reporting (White, Black, Asian, American Indian/Alaskan Native [AIAN] & Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander [NHPI]). Furthermore, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidance recommend authors, as a minimum, provide descriptive data for race. We analysed racial diversity in BC drug registration trials and compliance with FDA/ICMJE guidance.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of BC FDA market authorisations from 2006 to 2021. Clinical trial publications cited on the licensing label were identified and analysed. If race was under-reported (<3 groups), the study report on clinicaltrials.gov was analysed. The total proportion of racial group participation and number of registration trials with adequate reporting was determined.Results38 new licensing indications were identified, involving 41 trials and 23 drugs. Overall, 36,081 patients participated: 19,495 (54.0%) White, 4194 (11.6%) Asian, 748 (2.1%) Black, 228 (0.6%) AIAN, 8 (0.1%) NHPI, 840 (2.3%) other and 10568 (29.3%) unknown. The table shows breakdown by BC subtype. Race was reported in 29 (70%) licensing trial publications, of which 7 provided only limited data. For licensing trials where no race data was reported, a further 6 (14%) had information within the study report. In the 10 years prior to the introduction of new FDA guidance in 2016 only 50% of registration studies met FDA/ICJME race reporting requirements. Since 2016 this has improved to 85%

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Krell J, Savage P, Prasad Vet al., 2021, Race reporting and diversity in US food and drug administration (FDA) registration trials for prostate cancer; 2006-2020., Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, Vol: 24, Pages: 1208-1211, ISSN: 1365-7852

BACKGROUND: There is significant racial disparity in prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of incidence, treatment, and outcomes. Racial diversity and compliance with FDA race reporting guidelines in PCa drug registration trials are unknown. We analyzed racial diversity and race reporting in drug licensing trials for PCa. METHODS: New drug authorizations for PCa from 2006 to 2020 were identified. The corresponding licensing trial publications were analyzed to check compliance with current FDA recommendations for race reporting. If race was unreported, the clinical trial report was analyzed to determine participant recruitment by race and lead the recruiting country. RESULTS: During the study period, 17 new drug registrations for the management of PCa involving ten unique drugs were identified. In total, 18,455 participants were included in FDA registration trials, of which 76.3% were white or Caucasian, 7.9% Asian, 2.9% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 1.8% other or multiple races and 10.5% unknown. 53% of trials reported race in the licensing publication, however of this only 55% met current FDA recommendations. When the race was unreported in the licensing publication, 88% of studies had further information in the clinical study report. CONCLUSION: We found a significant under-representation of non-white participants in FDA drug registration trials for PCa. Race reporting in licensing publication is inconsistent and both FDA and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines are not being universally followed. Given the disproportionality of the disease burden of PCa, recruitment of Black and other minority participants to trials should be a research priority.

Journal article

Lythgoe M, Julve M, Krell J, Savage P, Grivas P, Khaki ARet al., 2021, Racial diversity and reporting in FDA registration trials for genitourinary (GU) cancers from 2006-20, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol: 39, Pages: 22-22, ISSN: 0732-183X

Background: GU cancers account for 1 in 5 of new cancer diagnoses in the USA. Significant racial disparities exist in terms of incidence, treatment and outcomes. Current FDA clinical trial guidance advises race reporting as a minimum of 5 categories (White/Caucasian, Black, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native [AIAN] and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander [NHPI]). Guidelines from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommend that authors should as a minimum, provide descriptive data for variables such as race and ethnicity. We analysed racial diversity in GU registration trials and compliance with FDA/ICMJE guidance in reporting. Methods: A retrospective review of new market authorisations in GU cancers from Jan 2006 to Oct 2020 was conducted utilizing the FDA website. Clinical trials cited on the licensing label for market authorization were recorded and corresponding registration trial publication identified. If race was unreported or partially reported (defined ≤3 groups), then the trial report on clinicaltrials.gov or FDA website was analysed. Total proportion of racial group participation and the proportion of registration trials with adequate reporting was determined. Results: We identified 42 new licensing indications, involving 33 unique drugs. Overall 30,316 patients participated in GU cancer registration trials; 21,068 (69.5%) White or Caucasian, 2516 (8.3%) Asian, 621(2%) Black or African American, 92 (0.3%) AIAN, 17 (0.1%) NHPI, 558 (1.8%) other or multiple races and 5463 (18%) unknown. Table shows breakdown by tumour group. Race reporting occurred in 23 (55%) registration trial publications, of which 5 provided only limited information (e.g. Caucasian only). For studies where no race information was reported, a further 10 (24%) had information within the trial report. In the 5 years prior to the introduction of FDA guidance in 2016 only 30% of registration studies met FDA/ICJME requirements. Since 2016 this has improve

Journal article

Morgan RD, McNeish IA, Cook AD, James EC, Lord R, Dark G, Glasspool RM, Krell J, Parkinson C, Poole CJ, Hall M, Gallardo-Rincón D, Lockley M, Essapen S, Summers J, Anand A, Zachariah A, Williams S, Jones R, Scatchard K, Walther A, Kim J-W, Sundar S, Jayson GC, Ledermann JA, Clamp ARet al., 2021, Objective responses to first-line neoadjuvant carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma (ICON8): post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomised, phase 3 trial, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 22, Pages: 277-288, ISSN: 1213-9432

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase 3 trials, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST), and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) has not been reported. We describe RECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS in the ICON8 trial. METHODS: ICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial done across 117 hospitals in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Ireland. The trial included women aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy of more than 12 weeks, and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO; 1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell, or any poorly differentiated or grade 3 histological subtype, or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive intravenous carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6) and intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 by body surface area) on day 1 of every 21-day cycle (control group; group 1); intravenous carboplatin (AUC5 or AUC6) on day 1 and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 2); or intravenous dose-fractionated carboplatin (AUC2) and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 3). The maximum number of cycles of chemotherapy permitted was six. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method, and patients were stratified accordi

Journal article

Lythgoe MP, Krell J, Mahmoud S, Mills E, Vasudevan A, Savage Pet al., 2021, Development and economic trends in anticancer drugs licensed in the UK from 2015 to 2019, Drug Discovery Today, Vol: 26, Pages: 301-307, ISSN: 1359-6446

Analysis of new anticancer drugs licensed in the UK found that 44 new therapies were approved from 2015 to 2019. No other 5-year period has produced as many new therapies. Most new drugs are kinase inhibitors (KIs, N = 18) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, N = 16) with only one classical cytotoxic chemotherapy (CC) licensed. The average median treatment duration has risen by 55 days to 318 days (263 days in 2010–2014). Drug costs have escalated; an average treatment course now costs £62 343, compared to £35 383 in 2010–2014. New drugs are delivering significant clinical benefits with longer treatment durations. However, the financial burden is greater, heralding economic challenges for healthcare providers.

Journal article

McGrane J, Shaw D, Anand A, Madhuri TK, Krell J, Saunders L, Hawkes C, Schilder JM, York W, Astrom Jet al., 2021, Ovarian Cancer Retrospective European (O'CaRE) observational study to assess burden of disease and time to next treatment in real-world clinical practice: Results from the United Kingdom (UK), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S741-S741, ISSN: 0923-7534

Conference paper

Lythgoe M, Stebbing J, Pickford E, Glasmacher A, Adriani M, Fyvie G, Frampton A, Stevenson A, Krell Jet al., 2020, 805 Safety and emerging evidence of immune modulation of the live biotherapeutic MRx0518 in the neoadjuvant setting for patients awaiting surgical removal of solid tumours, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 8, Pages: A481-A482, ISSN: 2051-1426

Background The gut microbiome has emerged as a promising innovative therapeutic target for immune-stimulation treatment of solid tumours. MRx0518 is a novel, gut microbiome-derived oral live biotherapeutic. It has potent anti-tumorigenic efficacy in the preclinical setting including murine models of lung (LLC1), kidney (Renca) and breast (EMT6) cancer.1 In these models, a significant reduction in tumour growth has been demonstrated, including induction of immunostimulatory responses with tumour infiltration of NK cells, CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells. MRx0518 is under investigation in various oncological settings, including in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (NCT03637803) and radiotherapy (NCT04193904).Methods Treatment naïve patients were recruited from April 2019 to February 2020. Patients were eligible if they received a histologically confirmed diagnosis of cancer (solid tumours) scheduled for surgical resection. Patients received 1 capsule of MRx0518 (1x1010 to 1x1011 CFU) twice daily from inclusion until the day preceding surgery (maximum 28 days therapy). The primary study outcome is to evaluate safety and tolerability of MRx0518 monotherapy in treatment naïve patients. Additional exploratory outcomes including identifying surrogate biomarkers of efficacy, microbiome analysis, effect on metabonomic markers and identification of histological and genomic alterations in paired pre-treatment (diagnostic biopsy) and post-treatment (surgical specimen) samples.Results In part A, 17 patients received treatment, across tumour groups including breast (n=8), prostate (n=4), uterine (n=3), melanoma (n=1) and bladder (n=1). MRx0518 was well tolerated by all, with no grade 3/4 CTCAE toxicity reported, no severe adverse effects or treatment discontinuations. All patients proceeded to surgery, however the COVID-19 pandemic delayed surgery in 3 cases.Analysis of the first 5* patient paired samples utilising the NanoString Pan Cancer IO 360TM Gene Expression pan

Journal article

Limb C, Liu D, Veno M, Rees E, Krell J, Bagwan I, Giovannetti E, Pandha H, Strobel O, Rockall T, Frampton Aet al., 2020, The role of circular RNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and biliary-tract cancers, Cancers, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2072-6694

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and biliary-tract cancers (BTC) often present at a late stage, and consequently patients have poor survival-outcomes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules whose role in tumourigenesis has recently been realised. They are stable, conserved and abundant, with tissue-specific expression profiles. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in their use as potential biomarkers for PDAC and BTC. High-throughput methods and more advanced bioinformatic techniques have enabled better profiling and progressed our understanding of how circRNAs may function in the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network to influence the transcriptome in these cancers. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to describe the roles of circRNAs in PDAC and BTC, their potential as biomarkers, and their function in the wider ceRNA network in regulating microRNAs and the transcriptome. Medline, Embase, Scopus and PubMed were systematically reviewed to identify all the studies addressing circRNAs in PDAC and BTC. A total of 32 articles were included: 22 considering PDAC, 7 for Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and 3 for Gallbladder Cancer (GBC). There were no studies investigating Ampullary Cancer. Dysregulated circRNA expression was associated with features of malignancy in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. Overall, there have been very few PDAC and BTC tissues profiled for circRNA signatures. Therefore, whilst the current studies have demonstrated some of their functions in these cancers, further work is required to elucidate their potential role as cancer biomarkers in tissue, biofluids and biopsies.

Journal article

Liu D, Upton F, Rees E, Limb C, Jiao L, Krell J, Frampton Aet al., 2020, Size exclusion chromatography as a technique for the investigation of novel extracellular vesicles in cancer, Cancers, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2072-6694

Abstract: (1) Background: Cancer cells release extracellular vesicles that are a rich target for biomarker discovery and provide a promising mechanism for liquid biopsy. SEC is an increasingly popular technique which has been rediscovered for the purposes of EV isolation and purification from diverse biofluids. (2) Methods: A review was undertaken to identify all papers which described size exclusion as their primary EV isolation method in cancer research. (3) Results: 37 papers were identified and discussed which showcases the breadth of applications that EVs can be utilised, from proteomics, to RNA, and through to functionality. A range of different methods are highlighted, with Sepharose-based techniques predominating. (4) Conclusions: EVs isolated using SEC are able to identify cancer cells, highlight active pathways in tumourigenesis, clinically distinguish cohorts and remain functionally active for further experiments.

Journal article

McNeish I, Morgan RD, Cook AD, James EC, Lord R, Dark G, Glasspool RM, Krell J, Parkinson C, Poole CJ, Hall M, Gallardo-Rincón D, Lockley M, Essapen S, Summers J, Anand A, Zachariah A, Williams S, Jones R, Scatchard K, Walther A, Kim J-W, Sundar S, Jayson GC, Ledermann JA, Clamp ARet al., 2020, An exploratory analysis of objective responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: results from a randomised phase III trial evaluating first-line carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens for ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma (ICON8), The Lancet Oncology, ISSN: 1213-9432

BackgroundPlatinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase III trials,evaluation of response to NACT using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST)and CA125 was not reported. We describeRECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG)CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based NACT followed by DPS in the phase III trial, ICON8.MethodsICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase III trial in which women ≥18 years old with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy >12 weeks and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO;1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell or any poorly differentiated/grade 3 histological subtype or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube or primary peritoneum were randomised (1:1:1) to receive either intravenous (IV) carboplatin (AUC5/6)and IV paclitaxel (175mg/m2by body surface area [BSA])on day 1 of every 21-day cycle(control arm)or IV carboplatin (AUC5/6)on day 1 and IV paclitaxel (80mg/m2by BSA)on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 21-day cycle(dose-fractionated paclitaxelarm) or IV carboplatin (AUC2)and IV paclitaxel (80mg/m2by BSA)on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 21-day cycle(dose-fractionated carboplatin and paclitaxelarm). Randomisation occurred using a minimisation method and patients where stratified according to GCIG group, disease stage and timing and outcome of cytoreductive surgery. Neither patients nor clinicians were masked to their allocated group. The scheduling of surgery and use of NACTwere determined by local multidisciplinary case review. In this post-hoc 5exploratory analysis of ICON8, progression-free survival (PFS) was analysed using the landmark method and defined as

Journal article

Tookman L, Krell J, Nkolobe B, Burley L, McNeish IAet al., 2020, Practical guidance for the management of side effects during rucaparib therapy in a multidisciplinary UK setting, Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1758-8340

The use of targeted therapeutics known as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the management of ovarian cancer is currently transforming clinical practice. The PARP inhibitor rucaparib is indicated in the UK, European Union and the United States for use in the treatment and maintenance settings for patients with relapsed ovarian cancer. Here, we discuss some of the real-world challenges and side effects that we have encountered while prescribing rucaparib, and we provide practical guidance on how the individual members of our multidisciplinary team (MDT), including a clinician, chemotherapy nurse practitioner, and clinical pharmacist, collaborate to manage these side effects. If recognized early, the side effects experienced by patients during rucaparib therapy, which include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, liver enzyme elevations, and anemia, can be easily managed. For example, providing patients with prophylactic antiemetics can help them avoid nausea, and early detection of decreases in hemoglobin levels allows for proactive interventions to alleviate anemia. The MDT should work together with the patient to identify potential side effects early and manage them effectively. The aim of this proactive approach is to maintain patients on rucaparib for optimal clinical benefit, while minimizing the potential negative impact of side effects on patient quality of life.

Journal article

Scambia G, Han SN, Oza AM, Colombo N, Oaknin A, Raspagliesi F, Wenham RM, Braicu EI, Jewell A, Makker V, Guerra EM, Moxley KM, Baurain J-F, Su Z, Neuwirth R, Vincent S, Sedarati F, Faller D, Krell Jet al., 2020, Randomized phase II study of sapanisertib (SAP) plus paclitaxel (PAC) versus PAC alone in patients (pts) with advanced, recurrent, or persistent endometrial cancer., ASCO, Publisher: AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 0732-183X

Conference paper

Rumford M, Lythgoe M, McNeish I, Gabra H, Tookman L, Rahman N, George A, Krell Jet al., 2020, Oncologist-led BRCA ‘mainstreaming’ in the ovarian cancer clinic: A study of 255 patients and its impact on their management, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

Although guidelines recommend BRCA testing for all women with non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer, there is significant variability in access to testing across the UK. A germline BRCA mutation (BRCAm) in ovarian cancer patients provides prognostic and predictive information and influences clinical management, such as the use of PARP inhibitors, which have demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit in the BRCAm cohort. Additionally, the finding of a BRCAm has significant implications for patients and their families in terms of cancer risk and prevention. We studied the impact of a newly-formed, oncologist-led ‘mainstreaming’ germline BRCA testing pathway in 255 ovarian cancer patients at Imperial College NHS Trust. Prior to the establishment of ‘mainstreaming’, uptake of germline BRCA testing was 14% with a mean turnaround time of 148.2 calendar days. The ‘mainstreaming’ approach led to a 95% uptake of germline BRCA testing and a mean turnaround time of 20.6 days. Thirty-four (13.33%) BRCAm patients were identified. At the time of data collection nine BRCAm patients had received a PARP inhibitor off-trial, three had entered a PARP inhibitor trial and 5 were receiving platinum-based chemotherapy with a plan to receive PARP inhibitor maintenance. This study provides further evidence of the impact of oncologist-led ‘mainstreaming’ programs.

Journal article

Weinberg J, Krell J, 2019, Trial in progress: A phase I study of live biotherapeutic MRx0518 in the neoadjuvant setting for patients awaiting surgical removal of solid tumours, STIC, Publisher: BMC, ISSN: 2051-1426

Conference paper

Banerjee S, Lewsley L-A, Clamp AR, Krell J, Herbertson R, Glasspool RM, Orbegoso C, Green C, Kristeleit RS, Gourley C, Cambell C, Banerji U, Shepherd C, Brugger W, Chudleigh L, Hanif A, McNeish IA, Paul Jet al., 2019, OCTOPUS: A randomised, multi-centre phase II umbrella trial of weekly paclitaxel plus /- novel agents in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: Vistusertib, 44th Congress of the European-Society-for-Medical-Oncology (ESMO), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 403-+, ISSN: 0923-7534

Conference paper

Khan M, Naresh K, Krell J, Diamond E, Borysiewicz Cet al., 2019, A challenging case of indeterminate cell histiocytosis with only partial response treatment., 16th International Workshop on Langerhans Cells (LC), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 18-19, ISSN: 0014-2980

Conference paper

Hall M, Savvatis K, Nixon K, Kyrgiou M, Hariharan K, Padwick M, Owens O, Cunnea P, Campbell J, Farthing A, Stumpfle R, Vazquez I, Watson N, Krell J, Gabra H, Rustin G, Fotopoulou Cet al., 2019, Maximal-effort cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer patients with a high tumor burden: variations in practice and impact on outcome, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 26, Pages: 2943-2951, ISSN: 1068-9265

BackgroundThis study aimed to compare the outcomes of two distinct patient populations treated within two neighboring UK cancer centers (A and B) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).MethodsA retrospective analysis of all new stages 3 and 4 EOC patients treated between January 2013 and December 2014 was performed. The Mayo Clinic surgical complexity score (SCS) was applied. Cox regression analysis identified the impact of treatment methods on survival.ResultsThe study identified 249 patients (127 at center A and 122 in centre B) without significant differences in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (FIGO 4, 29.7% at centers A and B), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG < 2, 89.9% at centers A and B), or histology (serous type in 84.1% at centers A and B). The patients at center A were more likely to undergo surgery (87% vs 59.8%; p < 0.001). The types of chemotherapy and the patients receiving palliative treatment alone were equivalent between the two centers (3.6%). The median SCS was significantly higher at center A (9 vs 2; p < 0.001) with greater tumor burden (9 vs 6 abdominal fields involved; p < 0.001), longer median operation times (285 vs 155 min; p < 0.001), and longer hospital stays (9 vs 6 days; p < 0.001), but surgical morbidity and mortality were equivalent. The independent predictors of reduced overall survival (OS) were non-serous histology (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.61), ECOG higher than 2 (HR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.15–3.13), and palliation alone (HR, 3.43; 95% CI 1.51–7.81). Cytoreduction, of any timing, had an independent protective impact on OS compared with chemotherapy alone (HR, 0.31 for interval surgery and 0.39 for primary surgery), even after adjustment for other prognostic factors.ConclusionsIncorporating surgery into the initia

Journal article

Ottaviani S, Stebbing J, Frampton AE, Zagorac S, Krell J, de Giorgio A, Trabulo SM, Nguyen VTM, Magnani L, Feng H, Giovannetti E, Funel N, Gress TM, Jiao LR, Lombardo Y, Lemoine NR, Heeschen C, Castellano Let al., 2019, Author Correction: TGF-beta induces miR-100 and miR-125b but blocks let-7a through LIN28B controlling PDAC progression, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Liu DSK, Prado MM, Giovannetti E, Jiao LR, Krell J, Frampton AEet al., 2019, Can circulating tumor and exosomal nucleic acids act as biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?, Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics: new diagnostic technologies are set to revolutionise healthcare, Vol: 19, Pages: 553-558, ISSN: 1473-7159

Journal article

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