164 results found
Breza M, McCann J, 2017, Polite Broadcast Gossip for IOT Configuration Management
© 2017 IEEE. In this paper we present a protocol which can be used to form the basis of an Internet of Things (IOT) configuration management system. We motivate this discussion by focusing on a large and definitive class of IOT systems, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and some important applications. We present a polite broadcast gossip dissemination algorithm which focuses on using a minimal amount of communication to update the configuration of a network of sensor nodes. We present analysis that the politeness of the algorithm does not inhibit its ability to function. The message savings of the algorithm is evaluated in simulation. We present test-bed results which show that our algorithm can disseminate metadata with roughly half of the communication overhead of a dissemination mechanism based on the one used by the IETF proposed standard Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL).
CCBY Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks face various challenges in order to support large-scale heterogeneous traffic and users, therefore new modulation and multiple access (MA) schemes are being developed to meet the changing demands. As this research space is ever increasing, it becomes more important to analyze the various approaches, therefore, in this article we present a comprehensive overview of the most promising modulation and MA schemes for 5G networks. Unlike other surreys of 5G networks, our article focuses on multiplexing techniques, including modulation techniques in orthogonal multiple access (OMA) and various types of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) techniques. Specifically, we first introduce different types of modulation schemes, potential for OMA, and compare their performance in terms of spectral efficiency, out-of-band leakage, and bit-error rate. We then pay close attention to various types of NOMA candidates, including power-domain NOMA, code-domain NOMA, and NOMA multiplexing in multiple domains. From this exploration, we can identify the opportunities and challenges that will have the most significant impacts on modulation and MA designs for 5G networks.
Haghighi M, Qin Z, Carboni D, et al., 2017, Game theoretic and auction-based algorithms towards opportunistic communications in LPWA LoRa networks, Pages: 735-740
© 2016 IEEE. Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networks have been the enabling technology for large-scale sensor and actuator networks. Low cost, energy-efficiency and longevity of such networks make them perfect candidates for smart city applications. LoRa is a new LPWA standard based on spread spectrum technology, which is suitable for sensor nodes enabling long battery life and bi-directional communication but with low data rates. In this paper, we will demonstrate a use-case inspired model in which, end-nodes with multiple radio transceivers (LoRa/WiFi/BLE) have the option to interconnect via multiple networks to improve communications resilience under the diverse conditions of a smart city of a billion devices. To facilitate this, each node has the ability to switch radio communications opportunistically and adaptively, and this is based on the application requirements and dynamic radio parameters.
Jackson G, Kartakis S, McCann JA, 2017, Accurate Models of Energy Harvesting for Smart Environments, IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 148-154
Jackson G, Qin Z, McCann JA, 2017, Long Term Sensing via Battery Health Adaptation, 37th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 2240-2245, ISSN: 1063-6927
Johnson M, McCann J, Santer M, et al., 2017, On orbit validation of solar sailing control laws with thin-film spacecraft, The Fourth International Symposium on Solar Sailing, Publisher: Japan Space Forum
Many innovative approaches to solar sail mission and trajectory design have been proposed over the years, but very few ever have the opportunity to be validated on orbit with real spacecraft. Thin-Film Spacecraft/Lander/Rovers (TF-SLRs) are a new class of very low cost, low mass space vehicle which are ideal for inexpensively and quickly testing in flight new approaches to solar sailing. This paper describes using TF-SLR based micro solar sails to implement a generic solar sail test bed on orbit. TF-SLRs are high area-to-mass ratio (A/m) spacecraft developed for very low cost consumer and scientific deep space missions. Typically based on a 5 μm or thinner metalised substrate, they include an integrated avionics and payload system-on-chip (SoC) die bonded to the substrate with passive components and solar cells printed or deposited by Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD). The avionics include UHF/S-band transceivers, processors, storage, sensors and attitude control provided by integrated magnetorquers and reflectivity control devices. Resulting spacecraft have a typical thickness of less than 50 μm, are 80 mm in diameter, and have a mass of less than 100 mg resulting in sail loads of less than 20 g/m2. TF-SLRs are currently designed for direct dispensing in swarms from free flying 0.5U Interplanetary CubeSats or dispensers attached to launch vehicles. Larger 160 mm, 320 mm and 640 mm diameter TF-SLRs utilizing a CubeSat compatible TWIST deployment mechanism that maintains the high A/m ratio are also under development. We are developing a mission to demonstrate the utility of these devices as a test bed for experimenting with a variety of mission designs and control laws. Batches of up to one hundred TF-SLRs will be released on earth escape trajectories, with each batch executing a heterogeneous or homogenous mixture of control laws and experiments. Up to four releases at different points in orbit are currently envisaged with experiments currently
Kartakis S, Fu A, Mazo M, et al., 2017, Communication Schemes for Centralized and Decentralized Event-Triggered Control Systems, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN: 1063-6536
IEEE Energy constraint long-range wireless sensor/actuator-based solutions are theoretically the perfect choice to support the next generation of city-scale cyber-physical systems. Traditional systems adopt periodic control which increases network congestion and actuations while burdens the energy consumption. Recent control theory studies overcome these problems by introducing aperiodic strategies, such as event-triggered control (ETC). In spite of the potential savings, these strategies assume actuator continuous listening, while ignoring the sensing energy costs. In this paper, we fill this gap, by enabling sensing and actuator listening duty cycling and proposing two innovative medium access control protocols for three decentralized ETC approaches. A laboratory experimental test bed, which emulates a smart water network, was modeled and extended to evaluate the impact of system parameters and the performance of each approach. Experimental results reveal the predominance of the decentralized ETC against the classic periodic control either in terms of communication or actuation by promising significant system lifetime extension.
Kartakis S, Yang S, Mccann JA, 2017, Reliability or Sustainability: Optimal Data Stream Estimation and Scheduling in Smart Water Networks, ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SENSOR NETWORKS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1550-4859
Liu Y, Qin Z, Elkashlan M, et al., 2017, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN: 0733-8716
IEEE In this paper, the potential benefits of applying nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique in K-tier hybrid heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is explored. A promising new transmission framework is proposed, in which NOMA is adopted in small cells and massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is employed in macro cells. For maximizing the biased average received power for mobile users, a NOMA and massive MIMO based user association scheme is developed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed framework, we first derive the analytical expressions for the coverage probability of NOMA enhanced small cells. We then examine the spectrum efficiency of the whole network, by deriving exact analytical expressions for NOMA enhanced small cells and a tractable lower bound for massive MIMO enabled macro cells. Lastly, we investigate the energy efficiency of the hybrid HetNets. Our results demonstrate that: 1) The coverage probability of NOMA enhanced small cells is affected to a large extent by the targeted transmit rates and power sharing coefficients of two NOMA users; 2) Massive MIMO enabled macro cells are capable of significantly enhancing the spectrum efficiency by increasing the number of antennas; 3) The energy efficiency of the whole network can be greatly improved by densely deploying NOMA enhanced small cell base stations (BSs); and 4) The proposed NOMA enhanced HetNets transmission scheme has superior performance compared to the orthogonal multiple access (OMA) based HetNets.
Qin Z, Liu Y, Li GY, et al., 2017, Modelling and analysis of low-power wide-area networks, ISSN: 1550-3607
© 2017 IEEE. In this paper, we investigate the uplink transmission performance of low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs) with regards to coexisting radio modules using LoRa as an example. In doing so we adopt a new topology to model the network where the node locations of the network of focus (LoRa) follow a Poisson cluster process (PCP) while other coexisting interfering radio modules follow a Poisson point process (PPP). To characterize the performance of the proposed model as well as obtain insights, both analytical and closed-form approximated expressions for coverage probability are derived. Based on this, area spectrum efficiency, and energy efficiency are further characterized. These results demonstrate the degree to which the performance, with regard to the aforementioned metrics, is capable of being enhanced through varying the density of the deployment of LoRa nodes around each LoRa receiver. Moreover, simulation results unveil that an optimal value of active LoRa nodes in each cluster exists that maximizes area spectrum efficiency.
Ren X, Yu CM, Yu W, et al., 2017, High-dimensional crowdsourced data distribution estimation with local privacy, Pages: 226-233
© 2016 IEEE. High-dimensional crowdsourced data collected from a large number of users may produc3 rich knowledge for our society but also bring unprecedented privacy threats to participants. Recently differential privacy has been proposed as an effective means to mitigate privacy concerns. However, existing work on differential privacy suffers from the 'curse of high-dimensionality' (data with multiple attributes) and high scalability (data with large scale records). Moreover, traditional methods of differential privacy were achieved via aggregation results, which cannot guarantee local privacy for distributed users in crowdsourced systems. To deal with these issues, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that can efficiently estimate multivariate joint distribution for high-dimensional data with local privacy. On the client side, we employ randomized response techniques to locally transform data from distributed users into privacy-preserving bit strings, which can prevent potential inside privacy attacks in crowdsourced systems. On the server side, the crowdsourced bit strings are aggregated for multivariate distribution estimation. Specifically, we first propose a multivariate version of the expectation maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the joint distribution of high dimensional data. To speed up the performance, unlike the EM-based method that needs to scan each user's bit string, we propose to use Lasso regression to obtain the distribution estimation from the aggregation information only once, which can significantly reduce the computation time for multivariate distribution estimation. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the efficiency of our multivariate distribution estimation scheme over existing estimation schemes.
Shi F, Qin Z, McCann JA, 2017, OPPay: Design and Implementation of A Payment System for Opportunistic Data Services, 37th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 1618-1628, ISSN: 1063-6927
Tahir Y, Yang S, McCann J, 2017, BRPL: Backpressure RPL for High-throughput and Mobile IoTs, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 1536-1233
Tomic I, McCann JA, 2017, A Survey of Potential Security Issues in Existing Wireless Sensor Network Protocols, IEEE Internet of Things Journal
IEEE The increasing pervasiveness of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in diverse application domains including critical infrastructure systems, sets an extremely high security bar in the design of WSN systems to exploit their full benefits, increasing trust while avoiding loss. Nevertheless, a combination of resource restrictions and the physical exposure of sensor devices inevitably cause such networks to be vulnerable to security threats, both external and internal. While several researchers have provided a set of open problems and challenges in WSN security and privacy, there is a gap in the systematic study of the security implications arising from the nature of existing communication protocols in WSNs. Therefore, we have carried out a deep-dive into the main security mechanisms and their effects on the most popular protocols and standards used in WSN deployments i.e. IEEE 802.15.4, B-MAC, 6LoWPAN, RPL, BCP, CTP, and CoAP, where potential security threats and existing countermeasures are discussed at each layer of WSN stack. This work culminates in a deeper analysis of network layer attacks deployed against the RPL routing protocol. We quantify the impact of individual attacks on the performance of a network using the Cooja network simulator. Finally, we discuss new research opportunities in network layer security and how to use Cooja as a benchmark for developing new defenses for WSN systems.
Wu D, Arkhipov DI, Kim M, et al., 2017, ADDSEN: Adaptive Data Processing and Dissemination for Drone Swarms in Urban Sensing, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, Vol: 66, Pages: 183-198, ISSN: 0018-9340
Wu D, Arkhipov DI, Przepiorka T, et al., 2017, DeepOpp: Context-aware Mobile Access to Social Media Content on Underground Metro Systems, 37th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 1219-1229, ISSN: 1063-6927
Yadav P, McCann JA, Pereira T, 2017, Self-Synchronization in Duty-cycled Internet of Things (IoT) Applications, IEEE Internet of Things Journal
IEEE In recent years, the networks of low-power devices have gained popularity. Typically these devices are wireless and interact to form large networks such as the Machine to Machine (M2M) networks, Internet of Things (IoT), Wearable Computing, and Wireless Sensor Networks. The collaboration among these devices is a key to achieving the full potential of these networks. A major problem in this field is to guarantee robust communication between elements while keeping the whole network energy efficient. In this paper, we introduce an extended and improved emergent broadcast slot (EBS) scheme, which facilitates collaboration for robust communication and is energy efficient. In the EBS, nodes communication unit remains in sleeping mode and are awake just to communicate. The EBS scheme is fully decentralized, that is, nodes coordinate their wake-up window in a partially overlapped manner within each duty-cycle to avoid message collisions. We show the theoretical convergence behavior of the scheme, which is confirmed through real test-bed experimentation.
Yang S, Adeel U, Tahir Y, et al., 2017, Practical Opportunistic Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, Vol: 16, Pages: 1420-1433, ISSN: 1536-1233
Zhao C, Yang S, Yang X, et al., 2017, Rapid, User-Transparent, and Trustworthy Device Pairing for D2D-Enabled Mobile Crowdsourcing, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, Vol: 16, Pages: 2008-2022, ISSN: 1536-1233
Carboni D, Gluhak A, McCann JA, et al., 2016, Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches, SENSORS, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1424-8220
Kartakis S, Choudhary BD, Gluhak AD, et al., 2016, Demystifying low-power wide-area communications for city IoT applications, Pages: 2-8
© 2016 ACM. Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) communication technologies have the potential to provide a step change in the enablement of cost-effective and energy efficient Internet of Things (IoT) applications. With an increase in the number of offerings available the real performance of these emerging technologies remain unclear. That is, each technology comes with its own advantages and limitations; yet there is a lack of comparative studies that examine their trade-offs based on empirical evidence. This poses a major challenge to IoT solution architects and developers in selecting an appropriate technology for an envisioned IoT application in a given deployment context. In this paper, we look beyond data sheets and white papers of LPWA communication technologies and provide insights into the performance of three emerging LPWA solutions based on real world experiments with different traffic loads and in different urban deployment contexts. Under the context of this study, specialized hardware was created to incorporate the different technologies and provide scientific quantitative and qualitative information related to data rates, success rates, transmission mode energy and power consumption, and communication ranges. The results of experimentation highlight the practicalities of placing LPWA technologies in real spaces and provide guidelines to IoT solution developers in terms of LPWA technology selection. Overall aim is to facilitate the design of new LPWA technologies and adaptive communication strategies that inform future IoT platforms.
Kartakis S, Jevric MM, Tzagkarakis G, et al., 2016, Energy-based Adaptive Compression in Water Network Control Systems, International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (CySWater), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 43-48
Kartakis S, Yu W, Akhavan R, et al., 2016, Adaptive Edge Analytics for Distributed Networked Control of Water Systems, IEEE 1st International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 72-82
Kolcun R, Boyle D, McCann JA, 2016, Efficient in-network processing for a hardware-heterogeneous IoT, Pages: 93-101
© 2016 ACM. As the number of small, battery-operated, wireless-enabled devices deployed in various applications of Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS) is rapidly increasing, so is the number of data streams that must be processed. In cases where data do not need to be archived, centrally processed, or federated, innetwork data processing is becoming more common. For this purpose, various platforms like DRAGON, Innet, and CJF were proposed. However, these platforms assume that all nodes in the network are the same, i.e. the network is homogeneous. As Moore's law still applies, nodes are becoming smaller, more powerful, and more energy efficient each year; which will continue for the foreseeable future. Therefore, we can expect that as sensor networks are extended and updated, hardware heterogeneity will soon be common in networks-The same trend as can be seen in cloud computing infrastructures. This heterogeneity introduces new challenges in terms of choosing an in-network data processing node, as not only its location, but also its capabilities, must be considered. This paper introduces a new methodology to tackle this challenge, comprising three new algorithms-Request, Traverse, and Mixed-for efficiently locating an in-network data processing node, while taking into account not only position within the network but also hardware capabilities. The proposed algorithms are evaluated against a naïve approach and achieve up to 90% reduction in network traffic during long-Term data processing, while spending a similar amount time in the discovery phase.
Kolcun R, Boyle DE, McCann JA, 2016, Efficient Distributed Query Processing, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, Vol: 13, Pages: 1230-1246, ISSN: 1545-5955
Martins PMN, McCann JA, 2016, Network-Wide Programming Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems, Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications, Pages: 103-113, ISBN: 9780128038741
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The worldwide proliferation of mobile connected sensing, processing, and physical actuation devices has brought about a revolution in the way we live, and will inevitably guide the way in which we design applications for these networks. In this chapter we will show how the scalable development of applications for highly distributed, heterogenous large networks requires a shift from the current device-centric programming model to a network-centric semantic model, whereby individual devices are abstracted away and identified by the semantic descriptions of the services they provide. This requires the development of primitives that have network-wide semantics. The emphasis must also be shifted from manipulating individual points of data to manipulating streams of data to enable real-time processing and reasoning. This requires that the programming models not only take into account semantic descriptions of the streams rather than individual devices and data points, but also the various modalities of computing that are possible in this scenario; a computing continuum from in-network processing to cloud computing spanning a range of devices from cloud to edge.
Shi F, Adeel U, Theodoridis E, et al., 2016, OppNet: Enabling Citizen-Centric Urban IoT Data Collection Through Opportunistic Connectivity Service, IEEE 3rd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 723-728
Wu D, Lambrinos L, Przepiorka T, et al., 2016, Facilitating Mobile Access to Social Media Content on Urban Underground Metro Systems, IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2159-4228
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