46 results found
Farras M, Chandwe K, Mayneris-Perxachs J, et al., 2018, Characterizing the metabolic phenotype of intestinal villus blunting in Zambian children with severe acute malnutrition and persistent diarrhea, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
Background:Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia.Methods/Principal findings:We analysed 20 hospitalised children with acute malnutrition aged 6 to 23 months in Zambia. Small intestinal biopsies were assessed histologically (n = 15), anthropometric and gut function measurements were collected and the metabolic phenotypes were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.Endoscopy could not be performed on community controls children. Growth parameters were inversely correlated with enteropathy biomarkers (p = 0.011) and parameters of villus health were inversely correlated with translocation and permeability biomarkers (p = 0.000 and p = 0.015). Shorter villus height was associated with reduced abundance of metabolites related to gut microbial metabolism, energy and muscle metabolism (p = 0.034). Villus blunting was also related to increased sucrose excretion (p = 0.013).Conclusions/Significance:Intestinal villus blunting is associated with several metabolic perturbations in hospitalized children with severe undernutrition. Such alterations include altered muscle metabolism, reinforcing the link between EED and growth faltering, and a disruption in the biochemical exchange between the gut microbiota and host. These findings extend our understanding on the downstream consequences of villus blunting and provide novel non-invasive biomarkers of enteropathy dysfunction. The major limitations of this study are the lack of
Leng J, Proudman C, Darby A, et al., 2018, Exploration of the faecal microbiota and biomarker discovery in equine grass sickness, Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN: 1535-3893
Equine grass sickness (EGS) is a frequently fatal disease of horses, responsible for the death of 1-2% of the UK horse population annually. The etiology of this disease is currently uncharacterized although there is evidence it is associated with Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in the gut. Prevention is currently not possible and ileal biopsy diagnosis is invasive. The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota and biofluid metabolic profiles of EGS horses, to further understand the mechanisms underlying this disease and identify metabolic biomarkers to aid in diagnosis. Urine, plasma and feces were collected from horses with EGS, matched controls (MC), and hospital controls (HC). Sequencing the16S rRNA gene of the fecal bacterial population of the study horses found a severe dysbiosis in EGS horses, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a decrease in Firmicutes bacteria. Metabolic profiling by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy found EGS to be associated with the lower urinary excretion of hippurate and 4-cresyl sulfate and higher excretion of O-acetyl carnitine and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The predictive ability of the complete urinary metabolic signature and using the four discriminatory urinary metabolites to classify horses by disease status was assessed using a second (test) set of horses. The urinary metabolome and a combination of the four candidate biomarkers showed promise in aiding the identification of horses with EGS. Characterization of the metabolic shifts associated with EGS offers the potential of a non-invasive test to aid pre-mortem diagnosis.
Bartelt LA, Bolick DT, Mayneris-Perxachs J, et al., 2017, Cross-modulation of pathogen-specific pathways enhances malnutrition during enteric co-infection with Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, PLOS Pathogens, Vol: 13, Pages: e1006471-e1006471
Bolick DT, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Medlock GL, et al., 2017, Increased Urinary Trimethylamine N-Oxide Following Cryptosporidium Infection and Protein Malnutrition Independent of Microbiome Effects, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 216, Pages: 64-71, ISSN: 0022-1899
Costabile A, Buttarazzi I, Kolida S, et al., 2017, An in vivo assessment of the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402 in normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults, PLoS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of death and disability in industrialised countries, with elevated blood cholesterol an established risk factor. Total plasma cholesterol reduction in populations suffering from primary hypercholesterolemia may lower CHD incidence. This study investigated the cholesterol reducing capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402, a strain selected for its high bile salt hydrolase activity, in 49 normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults. Primary efficacy outcomes included effect on blood lipids (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and triacylgycerides (TAG), inflammatory biomarkers and occurrence/severity of gastrointestinal side effects to establish safety and tolerance of the intervention. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure, immune biomarkers, gut microbiota characterisation and metabonome changes. The study was run in a parallel, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised design in which the active group ingested 2x109 CFU encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402 twice daily. Daily ingestion of the active treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in LDL-C in volunteers with baseline TC<5mM during the 0–12 week period (13.9%, P = 0.030), a significant reduction in TC in volunteers with baseline TC≥6mM in the 0–6 week period (37.6%, P = 0.045), a significant decrease in TAG (53.9% P = 0.030) and an increase in HDL-C (14.7%, P = 0.007) in the over 60 years population in the 6–12 week period. A statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure was also observed across the active study group in the 6-12-week period (6.6%, P = 0.003). No impact on gastrointestinal function and side effects was observed during the study. Similar to blood and urine metabonomic analyses, faecal metagenomics did not reveal significant changes upon active or placebo intake. The results of this study sug
Grimaldi R, Cela D, Swann JR, et al., 2017, In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Vol: 93, Pages: fiw233-fiw233
Li JV, Swann J, Marchesi JR, 2017, Biology of the Microbiome 2: Metabolic Role., Gastroenterol Clin North Am, Vol: 46, Pages: 37-47
The human microbiome is a new frontier in biology and one that is helping to define what it is to be human. Recently, we have begun to understand that the "communication" between the host and its microbiome is via a metabolic superhighway. By interrogating and understanding the molecules involved we may start to know who the main players are, and how we can modulate them and the mechanisms of health and disease.
Massot-Cladera M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Costabile A, et al., 2017, Association between urinary metabolic profile and the intestinal effects of cocoa in rats, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 117, Pages: 623-634, ISSN: 0007-1145
Shortt C, Hasselwander O, Meynier A, et al., 2017, Systematic review of the effects of the intestinal microbiota on selected nutrients and non-nutrients, European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN: 1436-6207
Swann JR, Garcia-Perez I, Braniste V, et al., 2017, Application of H-1 NMR spectroscopy to the metabolic phenotyping of rodent brain extracts: A metabonomic study of gut microbial influence on host brain metabolism, JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 143, Pages: 141-146, ISSN: 0731-7085
Bartelt LA, Swann JR, Guerrant RL, 2016, Decoding Hidden Messages: Can Fecal Host Transcriptomics Open Pathways to Understanding Environmental Enteropathy?, Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol: 2, Pages: 114-115, ISSN: 2352-345X
Bottin JH, Swann JR, Cropp E, et al., 2016, Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 116, Pages: 360-374, ISSN: 0007-1145
Darzi J, Frost GS, Swann JR, et al., 2016, L-rhamnose as a source of colonic propionate inhibits insulin secretion but does not influence measures of appetite or food intake, APPETITE, Vol: 98, Pages: 142-149, ISSN: 0195-6663
Farshim P, Walton G, Chakrabarti B, et al., 2016, Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2045-2322
Grimaldi R, Swann JR, Vulevic J, et al., 2016, Fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Bimuno® galacto-oligosaccharide (65 % galacto-oligosaccharide content) on in vitro gut microbiota parameters, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 116, Pages: 480-486, ISSN: 0007-1145
Guerrant RL, Leite AM, Pinkerton R, et al., 2016, Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil, PLOS ONE, Vol: 11, Pages: e0158772-e0158772
Mayneris-Perxachs J, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, et al., 2016, Urinary N-methylnicotinamide and β-aminoisobutyric acid predict catch-up growth in undernourished Brazilian children, Scientific Reports, Vol: 6
Omairi S, Matsakas A, Degens H, et al., 2016, Enhanced exercise and regenerative capacity in a mouse model that violates size constraints of oxidative muscle fibres, eLife, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2050-084X
A central tenet of skeletal muscle biology is the existence of an inverse relationship between the oxidative fibre capacity and its size. However, robustness of this relationship is unknown. We show that superimposition of Estrogen-related receptor gamma (Errγ) on the myostatin (Mtn) mouse null background (Mtn-/-/ErrγTg/+) results in hypertrophic muscle with a high oxidative capacity thus violating the inverse relationship between fibre size and oxidative capacity. We also examined the canonical view that oxidative muscle phenotype positively correlate with Satellite cell number, the resident stem cells of skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, hypertrophic fibres from Mtn-/-/ErrγTg/+ mouse showed satellite cell deficit which unexpectedly did not affect muscle regeneration. These observations 1) challenge the concept of a constraint between fibre size and oxidative capacity and 2) indicate the important role of the microcirculation in the regenerative capacity of a muscle even when satellite cell numbers are reduced.
Collins-Hooper H, Sartori R, Giallourou N, et al., 2015, Symmorphosis through Dietary Regulation: A Combinatorial Role for Proteolysis, Autophagy and Protein Synthesis in Normalising Muscle Metabolism and Function of Hypertrophic Mice after Acute Starvation (vol 10, e0120524, 2015), PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
Escalona EE, Leng J, Dona AC, et al., 2015, Dominant components of the Thoroughbred metabolome characterised by H-1-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A metabolite atlas of common biofluids, EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Vol: 47, Pages: 721-730, ISSN: 0425-1644
Matsakas A, Prosdocimo DA, Mitchell R, et al., 2015, Investigating mechanisms underpinning the detrimental impact of a high-fat diet in the developing and adult hypermuscular myostatin null mouse, SKELETAL MUSCLE, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2044-5040
Bodinham CL, Smith L, Thomas EL, et al., 2014, Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes, ENDOCRINE CONNECTIONS, Vol: 3, Pages: 75-84
Daud NM, Ismail NA, Thomas EL, et al., 2014, The Impact of Oligofructose on Stimulation of Gut Hormones, Appetite Regulation and Adiposity, OBESITY, Vol: 22, Pages: 1430-1438, ISSN: 1930-7381
Frost G, Sleeth ML, Sahuri-Arisoylu M, et al., 2014, The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2041-1723
Frost GS, Walton GE, Swann JR, et al., 2014, Impacts of Plant-Based Foods in Ancestral Hominin Diets on the Metabolism and Function of Gut Microbiota In Vitro, MBIO, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2150-7511
Gan XT, Ettinger G, Huang CX, et al., 2014, Probiotic Administration Attenuates Myocardial Hypertrophy and Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction in the Rat, Circulation: Heart Failure, Vol: 7, Pages: 491-499, ISSN: 1941-3289
Kok MGM, Swann JR, Wilson ID, et al., 2014, Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats., J Pharm Biomed Anal, Vol: 92, Pages: 98-104
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared to a control group. Urine samples were collected at day zero, four and eight, and analyzed by HILIC-MS. Multivariate data analysis was applied to the urinary metabolic profiles to identify biochemical variation between the treatment groups. Principal component analysis found a clear distinction between those animals receiving antibiotics and the control animals, with twenty-nine discriminatory compounds of which twenty were down-regulated and nine up-regulated upon treatment. In the treatment group receiving antibiotics for four days, a recovery effect was observed for seven compounds after cessation of antibiotic administration. Thirteen discriminatory compounds could be putatively identified based on their accurate mass, including aconitic acid, benzenediol sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, penicillin G, phenol and vanillin 4-sulfate. The rat urine samples had previously been analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with MS detection and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Using CE-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy seventeen and twenty-five discriminatory compounds were found, respectively. Both hippuric acid and indoxyl sulfate were detected across all three platforms. Additionally, eight compounds were observed with both HILIC-MS and CE-MS. Overall, HILIC-MS appears to be highly complementary to CE-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, identifying additional compounds that discriminate the urine samples from antibiotic-treated and control rats.
Lees H, Swann J, Poucher SM, et al., 2014, Age and Microenvironment Outweigh Genetic Influence on the Zucker Rat Microbiome, PLOS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203
Reid G, Nduti N, Sybesma W, et al., 2014, Harnessing microbiome and probiotic research in sub-Saharan Africa: recommendations from an African workshop, Microbiome, Vol: 2, Pages: 12-12, ISSN: 2049-2618
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