Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 8991j.wong




671City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Fry, B and Chui, MY and Moody, G and Wong, J},
doi = {10.1016/j.triboint.2020.106438},
journal = {Tribology International},
pages = {1--8},
title = {Interactions between organic friction modifier additives},
url = {},
volume = {151},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The interactions of different additives in engine oils can create synergistic or antagonistic effects. This paper studies how mixing different organic friction modifier additives affects friction reducing properties of lubricants in the boundary lubrication regime. Amines of different degree of saturation were mixed with either glycerol monooleate (GMO) or oleic acid in hexadecane. The model lubricants thus formed were characterised with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Friction tests in reciprocating motion using ball-on-disc steel-steel contacts were conducted to examine the tribological performance of these lubricants. Worn surfaces were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oleic acid and oleylamine, a primary amine. Were found to form a partial ionic liquid, providing synergistic friction reduction. This positive interaction reduces with increasing degree of saturation of the amine. No synergistic effect was observed between GMO and oleylamine,suggesting that GMO does not hydrolyse into a carboxylic acid within a rubbing contact in the presence of amine. Keywords: Boundary Lubrication, Additives, Friction Abbreviations: organic friction modifier (OFM); glycerol monooleate (GMO); ionic liquid (IL); oleylamine (OA); diocylamine (DA); trihexylamine (TA); dimethylhexadecaylamine (DM16); high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
AU - Fry,B
AU - Chui,MY
AU - Moody,G
AU - Wong,J
DO - 10.1016/j.triboint.2020.106438
EP - 8
PY - 2020///
SN - 0301-679X
SP - 1
TI - Interactions between organic friction modifier additives
T2 - Tribology International
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 151
ER -