Imperial College London

DrJacquesBehmoaras

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Immunology and Inflammation

Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 2339jacques.behmoaras Website

 
 
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Location

 

9N13Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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52 results found

Pereira M, Chen T-D, Buang N, Olona A, Ko J-H, Prendecki M, Costa ASH, Nikitopoulou E, Tronci L, Pusey CD, Cook HT, McAdoo SP, Frezza C, Behmoaras Jet al., Acute iron deprivation reprograms human macrophage metabolism and reduces inflammation in vivo, Cell Reports, ISSN: 2211-1247

Iron is an essential metal for fine-tuning the innate immune response through macrophage function. An integrative view of transcriptional and metabolic responses generated from iron perturbation in macrophages is lacking. Here we induced acute iron chelation in primary human macrophages and measured their transcriptional and metabolic responses by integrating RNA-sequencing and stable isotope tracing. We show that acute iron deprivation causes an anti-proliferative Warburg transcriptome characterized by an ATF4-dependent signature. Metabolically, iron-deprived human macrophages show an inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and a concomitant increase in glycolysis, a large increase in glucosederived citrate pools associated with lipid droplet accumulation and modest levels of itaconate production. LPS polarization increases itaconate/succinate ratio and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in iron-deprived macrophages. Acute iron deprivation reduces the severity of macrophage-dependent crescentic glomerulonephritis by limiting glomerular cell proliferation and inducing lipid accumulation in the renal cortex, phenocopying partly the iron-driven metabolic and transcriptional responses. These results suggest that acute iron deprivation has in vivo protective effects, by causing an antiinflammatory immuno-metabolic switch in macrophages.

Journal article

Prendecki M, Mcadoo S, Turner-Stokes T, Garcia-Diaz A, Woollard K, Behmoaras J, Cook T, Unwin R, Aitman T, Pusey C, Tam Fet al., 2019, A NOVEL P2X7 KNOCKOUT RAT IS NOT PROTECTED FROM EXPERIMENTAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS OR VASCULITIS, 19th International Vasculitis and ANCA Workshop, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1462-0324

Conference paper

Prendecki M, Mcadoo S, Turner-Stokes T, Bhangal G, Woollard K, Behmoaras J, Aitman T, Cook T, Unwin R, Pusey C, Tam Fet al., 2019, THE EFFECT OF P2X7 ANTAGONISM ON NEPHROTOXIC NEPHRITIS, 19th International Vasculitis and ANCA Workshop, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 93-94, ISSN: 1462-0324

Conference paper

Behmoaras J, Petretto E, 2019, Cell function in disease: there are more than two parties at play, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol: 78, ISSN: 0003-4967

Journal article

Bagnati M, Moreno-Moral A, Ko J-H, Nicod J, Harmston N, Imprialou M, Game L, Gil J, Petretto E, Behmoaras Jet al., 2019, Systems-genetics identifies a macrophage cholesterol network associated with physiological wound healing, JCI insight, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2379-3708

Among other cells, macrophages regulate the inflammatory and reparative phases during wound healing but genetic determinants and detailed molecular pathways that modulate these processes are not fully elucidated. Here, we took advantage of normal variation in wound healing in 1,378 genetically outbred mice, and carried out macrophage RNA-sequencing profiling of mice with extreme wound healing phenotypes (i.e., slow and fast healers, n = 146 in total). The resulting macrophage coexpression networks were genetically mapped and led to the identification of a unique module under strong trans-acting genetic control by the Runx2 locus. This macrophage-mediated healing network was specifically enriched for cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic processes. Pharmacological blockage of fatty acid synthesis with cerulenin resulted in delayed wound healing in vivo, and increased macrophage infiltration in the wounded skin, suggesting the persistence of an unresolved inflammation. We show how naturally occurring sequence variation controls transcriptional networks in macrophages, which in turn regulate specific metabolic pathways that could be targeted in wound healing.

Journal article

Srivastava P, van Eyll J, Godard P, Manuela M, Delahaye-Duriez A, Van Steenwinckel J, Gressens P, Danis B, Vandenplas C, Patrik F, Leclercq K, Mairet-Coello G, Cardenas A, Vanclef F, Laaniste L, Niespodziany I, Keaney J, Gasser J, Gillet G, Shkura K, Chong S-A, Behmoaras J, Kadiu I, Petretto EG, Kaminski R, Johnson Met al., 2018, A systems-level framework for drug discovery identifies Csf1R as an anti-epileptic drug target, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723

The identification of drug targets is highly challenging, particularly for diseases of the brain. To address this problem, we developed and experimentally validated a general computational framework for drug target discovery that combines gene regulatory information with causal reasoning (“Causal Reasoning Analytical Framework for Target discovery”—CRAFT). Using a systems genetics approach and starting from gene expression data from the target tissue, CRAFT provides a predictive framework for identifying cell membrane receptors with a direction-specified influence over disease-related gene expression profiles. As proof of concept, we applied CRAFT to epilepsy and predicted the tyrosine kinase receptor Csf1R as a potential therapeutic target. The predicted effect of Csf1R blockade in attenuating epilepsy seizures was validated in three pre-clinical models of epilepsy. These results highlight CRAFT as a systems-level framework for target discovery and suggest Csf1R blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy in epilepsy. CRAFT is applicable to disease settings other than epilepsy.

Journal article

Pereira M, Petretto E, Gordon S, Bassett JHD, Williams GR, Behmoaras JVet al., 2018, Common signalling pathways in macrophage and osteoclast multinucleation, Journal of Cell Science, Vol: 131, ISSN: 0021-9533

Macrophage cell fusion and multinucleation are fundamental processes in the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in chronic inflammatory disease and osteoclasts in the regulation of bone mass. However, this basic cell phenomenon is poorly understood despite its pathophysiological relevance. Granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells are seen in a wide variety of complex inflammatory disorders, as well as in infectious diseases. Dysregulation of osteoclastic bone resorption underlies the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and malignant osteolytic bone disease. Recent reports have shown that the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclast fusion display a common molecular signature, suggesting shared genetic determinants. In this Review, we describe the background of cell–cell fusion and the similar origin of macrophages and osteoclasts. We specifically focus on the common pathways involved in osteoclast and MGC fusion. We also highlight potential approaches that could help to unravel the core mechanisms underlying bone and granulomatous disorders in humans.

Journal article

Olona A, Terra X, Ko JH, Grau-Bove C, Pinent M, Ardevol A, Garcia Diaz A, Moreno-Moral A, Edin M, Bishop-Bailey D, Zeldin DC, Aitman TJ, Petretto E, Blay M, Behmoaras JVet al., 2018, Epoxygenase inactivation exacerbates diet and aging-associated metabolic dysfunction resulting from impaired adipogenesis, Molecular Metabolism, Vol: 11, Pages: 18-32, ISSN: 2212-8778

Objective: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades such as cyclooxygenase in adipogenesis is well established while the exact contribution of P450 epoxygenase pathway remain to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by theCYP2J locus but the latter shows extensive allelic expansion in mice, an obstacle for adipogenesis-related studies. The human CYP2J locus contains a single gene (CYP2J2) whereas mice and rats have 8 and 3 paralogues, respectively.Methods and results: We took advantage of the simpler genetic architecture of the Cyp2jlocus in the rat and generated a Cyp2j4 (orthologue of human CYP2J2) knockout rat. We used Cyp2j4-/- rats in two models of metabolic dysfunction: physiological aging and cafeteria diet (CAF). The phenotyping of Cyp2j4-/- rats under CAF was integrated with proteomics (LC-MS/MS) and lipidomics (LC-MS) analyses in the liver and the adipose tissue. We report that Cyp2j4 deletion causes adipocyte dysfunction under metabolic challenges. This is characterised by (i) down-regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) PPARγ and C/EBPα, (ii) adipocyte hypertrophy (iii) extracellular matrix remodelling and (iv) alternative usage of AA pathway. Specifically, in Cyp2j4-/- rats treated with a cafeteria diet, the dysfunctional adipogenesis is accompanied by exacerbated weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and dysregulated gluconeogenesis. Conclusion: These results suggest that AA epoxygenases are essential regulators of healthy adipogenesis. Our results uncover their synergistic role in fine-tuning AA pathway in obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis.

Journal article

Moreno-Moral A, Bagnati M, Koturan S, Ko J-H, Fonseca C, Harmston N, Game L, Martin J, Ong V, Abraham DJ, Denton CP, Behmoaras J, Petretto Eet al., 2018, Changes in macrophage transcriptome associate with systemic sclerosis and mediate GSDMA contribution to disease risk, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol: 77, Pages: 596-601, ISSN: 0003-4967

Objectives Several common and rare risk variants have been reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the effector cell(s) mediating the function of these genetic variants remains to be elucidated. While innate immune cells have been proposed as the critical targets to interfere with the disease process underlying SSc, no studies have comprehensively established their effector role. Here we investigated the contribution of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in mediating genetic susceptibility to SSc.Methods We carried out RNA sequencing and genome-wide genotyping in MDMs from 57 patients with SSc and 15 controls. Our differential expression and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in SSc was further integrated with epigenetic, expression and eQTL data from skin, monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes.Results We identified 602 genes upregulated and downregulated in SSc macrophages that were significantly enriched for genes previously implicated in SSc susceptibility (P=5×10−4), and 270 cis-regulated genes in MDMs. Among these, GSDMA was reported to carry an SSc risk variant (rs3894194) regulating expression of neighbouring genes in blood. We show that GSDMA is upregulated in SSc MDMs (P=8.4×10−4) but not in the skin, and is a significant eQTL in SSc macrophages and lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma (IFNγ)-stimulated monocytes. Furthermore, we identify an SSc macrophage transcriptome signature characterised by upregulation of glycolysis, hypoxia and mTOR signalling and a downregulation of IFNγ response pathways.Conclusions Our data further establish the link between macrophages and SSc, and suggest that the contribution of the rs3894194 risk variant to SSc susceptibility can be mediated by GSDMA expression in macrophages.

Journal article

Papathanassiu AE, Ko JH, Imprialou M, Bagnati M, Srivastava PK, Vu HA, Cucchi D, McAdoo SP, Ananieva EA, Mauro C, Behmoaras JVet al., 2017, BCAT1 controls metabolic reprogramming in activated human macrophages and is associated with inflammatory diseases, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723

Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages. ERG240 suppresses production of IRG1 and itaconate in mice and contributes to a less proinflammatory transcriptome signature. Oral administration of ERG240 reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice and crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats, in part by decreasing macrophage infiltration. These results establish a regulatory role for BCAT1 in macrophage function with therapeutic implications for inflammatory conditions.

Journal article

Chen T, Rotival M, Behmoaras JV, Chiu LY, Bagnati M, Jo JH, Srivastava PK, Petretto E, Pusey CD, Lai PC, Aitman TJ, Cook HT, Behmoaras Jet al., 2017, Identification of ceruloplasmin as a gene that affects susceptibility to glomerulonephritis through macrophage function, Genetics, Vol: 206, Pages: 1139-1151, ISSN: 1943-2631

Crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn) is a complex disorder where macrophage activity and infiltration are significant effector causes. In previous linkage studies using the uniquely susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, we have identified multiple crescentic glomerulonephritis QTL (Crgn) and positionally cloned genes underlying Crgn1 and Crgn2, which accounted for 40% of total variance in glomerular inflammation. Here, we have generated a backcross (BC) population (n = 166) where Crgn1 and Crgn2 were genetically fixed and found significant linkage to glomerular crescents on chromosome 2 (Crgn8, LOD = 3.8). Fine mapping analysis by integration with genome-wide expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the same BC population identified ceruloplasmin (Cp) as a positional eQTL in macrophages but not in serum. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed Cp as a protein QTL in rat macrophages. WKY macrophages overexpress Cp and its downregulation by RNA interference decreases markers of glomerular proinflammatory macrophage activation. Similarly, short incubation with Cp results in a strain-dependent macrophage polarization in the rat. These results suggest that genetically determined Cp levels can alter susceptibility to Crgn through macrophage function and propose a new role for Cp in early macrophage activation.

Journal article

Srivastava PK, Bagnati M, Delahaye-Duriez A, KO J-H, Rotival M, Langley SR, Shkura K, Mazzuferi M, Danis B, Eyll JV, Foerch P, Behmoaras J, Kaminski RM, Petretto E, Johnson MRet al., 2017, Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy, Genome Research, Vol: 27, Pages: 440-450, ISSN: 1549-5469

The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine–temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including “neuron projection” and “seizures.” Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures.

Journal article

Rackham OJL, Langley SR, Oates T, Vradi E, Harmston N, Srivastava PK, Behmoaras J, Dellaportas P, Bottolo L, Petretto Eet al., 2017, A Bayesian Approach for Analysis of Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing Data Identifies Disease-Associated Changes in DNA Methylation, GENETICS, Vol: 205, Pages: 1443-1458, ISSN: 0016-6731

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation whose contribution to disease susceptibility remains to be fully understood. Here, we present a novel Bayesian smoothing approach (called ABBA) to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). We also show how this approach can be leveraged to identify disease-associated changes in DNA methylation, suggesting mechanisms through which these alterations might affect disease. From a data modeling perspective, ABBA has the distinctive feature of automatically adapting to different correlation structures in CpG methylation levels across the genome while taking into account the distance between CpG sites as a covariate. Our simulation study shows that ABBA has greater power to detect DMRs than existing methods, providing an accurate identification of DMRs in the large majority of simulated cases. To empirically demonstrate the method’s efficacy in generating biological hypotheses, we performed WGBS of primary macrophages derived from an experimental rat system of glomerulonephritis and used ABBA to identify >1000 disease-associated DMRs. Investigation of these DMRs revealed differential DNA methylation localized to a 600 bp region in the promoter of the Ifitm3 gene. This was confirmed by ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses, showing differential transcription factor binding at the Ifitm3 promoter by JunD (an established determinant of glomerulonephritis), and a consistent change in Ifitm3 expression. Our ABBA analysis allowed us to propose a new role for Ifitm3 in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis via a mechanism involving promoter hypermethylation that is associated with Ifitm3 repression in the rat strain susceptible to glomerulonephritis.

Journal article

Moreno-Moral A, Pesce F, Behmoaras J, Petretto Eet al., 2017, Systems Genetics as a Tool to Identify Master Genetic Regulators in Complex Disease., Systems Genetics. Methods in Molecular Biology, Publisher: Humana Press, Pages: 337-362, ISBN: 978-1-4939-6425-3

Systems genetics stems from systems biology and similarly employs integrative modeling approaches to describe the perturbations and phenotypic effects observed in a complex system. However, in the case of systems genetics the main source of perturbation is naturally occurring genetic variation, which can be analyzed at the systems-level to explain the observed variation in phenotypic traits. In contrast with conventional single-variant association approaches, the success of systems genetics has been in the identification of gene networks and molecular pathways that underlie complex disease. In addition, systems genetics has proven useful in the discovery of master trans-acting genetic regulators of functional networks and pathways, which in many cases revealed unexpected gene targets for disease. Here we detail the central components of a fully integrated systems genetics approach to complex disease, starting from assessment of genetic and gene expression variation, linking DNA sequence variation to mRNA (expression QTL mapping), gene regulatory network analysis and mapping the genetic control of regulatory networks. By summarizing a few illustrative (and successful) examples, we highlight how different data-modeling strategies can be effectively integrated in a systems genetics study.

Book chapter

Martinez-Micaelo N, Gonzalez-Abuin N, Terra X, Ardevol A, Pinent M, Petretto E, Behmoaras JVet al., 2016, Identification of a nutrient sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models of cafeteria diet, Disease Models & Mechanisms, Vol: 9, Pages: 1231-1239, ISSN: 1754-8403

Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of dietinducedobesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do nottake into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy densefoods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown thatcafeteria diet (CAF) is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolicsyndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown thatinbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) showdifferent susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometricprofiles. Here we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigatethe effect of CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome as powerfulstress-sensing immune cells in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% ofthe differentially expressed transcripts under CAF diet were up-regulated inWKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immuneresponse. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genesdifferentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, weidentified the Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as ahub gene for a nutrient sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. Acss2genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolismquantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and NEFAlevels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and thetotal fat following CAF in the rat. These results show the importance of thegenetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains aspotential models for CAF-induced obesity.

Journal article

Vallant N, Behmoaras J, Ko J-H, Page T, Tam F, Garcia-Diaz A, Sandhu B, Pusey C, Papalois Vet al., 2016, Extraction of green fluorescent protein labelled mesenchymal stem cells to investigate their mechanisms of action on ischemia-reperfusion Injury in a rat kidney transplant model, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: S652-S652, ISSN: 0041-1337

Conference paper

Moschidou D, Corcelli M, Hau K-L, Ekwalla VJ, Behmoaras JV, De Coppi P, David AL, Bou-Gharios G, Cook HT, Pusey CD, Fisk NM, Guillot PVet al., 2016, Human Chorionic Stem Cells: Podocyte Differentiation and Potential for the Treatment of Alport Syndrome, STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 25, Pages: 395-404, ISSN: 1547-3287

Journal article

Vallant N, Sandhu B, Woollard K, Behmoaras J, Ko HJ, Garzia-Diaz A, Pusey C, Papalois Vet al., 2015, MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS IN MACHINE PERFUSION-THE PERFECT COMBINATION TO ATTENUATE ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION?, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: 811-811, ISSN: 0934-0874

Conference paper

Martínez-Micaelo N, González-Abuín N, Ardévol A, Pinent M, Petretto E, Behmoaras J, Blay Met al., 2015, Leptin signal transduction underlies the differential metabolic response of LEW and WKY rats to cafeteria diet, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1479-6813

Although the effect of genetic background on obesity-related phenotypes is well established, the main objective of this study is to determine the phenotypic responses to cafeteria diet (CAF) of two genetically distinct inbred rat strains and give insight into the molecular mechanisms that might be underlying. Lewis (LEW) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed with either a standard or a CAF diet. The effects of the diet and the strain in the body weight gain, food intake, respiratory quotient, biochemical parameters in plasma as well as in the expression of genes that regulate leptin signalling were determined. Whereas CAF diet promoted weight gain in LEW and WKY rats, as consequence of increased energy intake, metabolic management of this energy surplus was significantly affected by genetic background. LEW and WKY showed a different metabolic profile, LEW rats showed hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high FFA levels, ketogenesis, high adiposity index and inflammation, but WKY did not. Leptin signalling, and specifically the LepRb-mediated regulation of STAT3 activation and Socs3 gene expression in the hypothalamus were inversely modulated by the CAF diet in LEW (upregulated) and WKY rats (downregulated). In the present study, we show evidence of gene-environment interactions in obesity exerted by differential phenotypic responses to CAF diet between LEW and WKY rats. Specifically, we found the leptin-signalling pathway as a divergent point between the strain-specific adaptations to diet.

Journal article

Dominy KM, Roufosse C, de Kort H, Willicombe M, Brookes P, Behmoaras JV, Petretto EG, Galliford J, Choi P, Taube D, Cook HT, Mclean AGet al., 2015, Use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to assess gene transcripts associated with antibody-mediated rejection of kidney transplants, Transplantation, Vol: 99, Pages: 1981-1988, ISSN: 0041-1337

Introduction Microarray studies have shown elevated transcript levels of endothelial and natural killer (NK) cell–associated genes during antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the renal allograft. This study aimed to assess the use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative to microarray analysis on a subset of these elevated genes.Methods Thirty-nine renal transplant biopsies from patients with de novo donor-specific antibodies and eighteen 1-year surveillance biopsies with no histological evidence of rejection were analyzed for expression of 11 genes previously identified as elevated in AMR.Results Expression levels of natural killer markers were correlated to microcirculation inflammation and graft outcomes to a greater extent than endothelial markers. Creating a predictive model reduced the number of gene transcripts to be assessed to 2, SH2D1b and MYBL1, resulting in 66.7% sensitivity and 89.7% specificity for graft loss.Discussion This work demonstrates that elevated gene expression levels, proposed to be associated with AMR, can be detected by established quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, making transition to the clinical setting feasible. Transcript analysis provides additional diagnostic information to the classification schema for AMR diagnosis but it remains to be determined whether significant numbers of centres will validate transcript analysis in their laboratories and put such analysis into clinical use.

Journal article

Behmoaras J, Diaz AG, Venda L, Ko J-H, Srivastava P, Montoya A, Faull P, Webster Z, Moyon B, Pusey CD, Abraham DJ, Petretto E, Cook TH, Aitman TJet al., 2015, Macrophage Epoxygenase Determines a Profibrotic Transcriptome Signature, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 194, Pages: 4705-4716, ISSN: 1550-6606

Epoxygenases belong to the cytochrome P450 family. They generate epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are known to have anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about their role in macrophage function. By high-throughput sequencing of RNA in primary macrophages derived from rodents and humans, we establish the relative expression of epoxygenases in these cells. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated targeted gene deletion of the major rat macrophage epoxygenase Cyp2j4 (ortholog of human CYP2J2) resulted in reduced epoxyeicosatrienoic acid synthesis. Cyp2j4−/− macrophages have relatively increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ levels and show a profibrotic transcriptome, displaying overexpression of a specific subset of genes (260 transcripts) primarily involved in extracellular matrix, with fibronectin being the most abundantly expressed transcript. Fibronectin expression is under the control of epoxygenase activity in human and rat primary macrophages. In keeping with the in vitro findings, Cyp2j4−/− rats show upregulation of type I collagen following unilateral ureter obstruction of the kidney, and quantitative proteomics analysis (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry) showed increased renal type I collagen and fibronectin protein abundance resulting from experimentally induced crescentic glomerulonephritis in these rats. Taken together, these results identify the rat epoxygenase Cyp2j4 as a determinant of a profibrotic macrophage transcriptome that could have implications in various inflammatory conditions, depending on macrophage function.

Journal article

Rotival M, Ko J-H, Srivastava PK, Kerloc'h A, Montoya A, Mauro C, Faull P, Cutillas PR, Petretto E, Behmoaras Jet al., 2015, Integrating phosphoproteome and transcriptome reveals new determinants of macrophage multinucleation, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Vol: 14, Pages: 484-498, ISSN: 1535-9476

Macrophage multinucleation (MM) is essential for various biological processes such as osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and multinucleated giant cell-associated inflammatory reactions. Here we study the molecular pathways underlying multinucleation in the rat through an integrative approach combining MS-based quantitative phosphoproteomics (LC-MS/MS) and transcriptome (high-throughput RNA-sequencing) to identify new regulators of MM. We show that a strong metabolic shift toward HIF1-mediated glycolysis occurs at transcriptomic level during MM, together with modifications in phosphorylation of over 50 proteins including several ARF GTPase activators and polyphosphate inositol phosphatases. We use shortest-path analysis to link differential phosphorylation with the transcriptomic reprogramming of macrophages and identify LRRFIP1, SMARCA4, and DNMT1 as novel regulators of MM. We experimentally validate these predictions by showing that knock-down of these latter reduce macrophage multinucleation. These results provide a new framework for the combined analysis of transcriptional and post-translational changes during macrophage multinucleation, prioritizing essential genes, and revealing the sequential events leading to the multinucleation of macrophages.

Journal article

Johnson MR, Behmoaras J, Bottolo L, Krishnan ML, Pernhorst K, Santoscoy PL, Rossetti T, Speed D, Srivastava PK, Chadeau-Hyam M, Hajji N, Dabrowska A, Rotival M, Razzaghi B, Kovac S, Wanisch K, Grillo FW, Slaviero A, Langley SR, Shkura K, Roncon P, De T, Mattheisen M, Niehusmann P, O'Brien TJ, Petrovski S, von Lehe M, Hoffmann P, Eriksson J, Coffey AJ, Cichon S, Walker M, Simonato M, Danis B, Mazzuferi M, Foerch P, Schoch S, De Paola V, Kaminski RM, Cunliffe VT, Becker AJ, Petretto Eet al., 2015, Systems genetics identifies Sestrin 3 as a regulator of a proconvulsant gene network in human epileptic hippocampus., Nat Commun, Vol: 6

Gene-regulatory network analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular processes and pathways underlying complex disease. Here we employ systems genetics approaches to characterize the genetic regulation of pathophysiological pathways in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using surgically acquired hippocampi from 129 TLE patients, we identify a gene-regulatory network genetically associated with epilepsy that contains a specialized, highly expressed transcriptional module encoding proconvulsive cytokines and Toll-like receptor signalling genes. RNA sequencing analysis in a mouse model of TLE using 100 epileptic and 100 control hippocampi shows the proconvulsive module is preserved across-species, specific to the epileptic hippocampus and upregulated in chronic epilepsy. In the TLE patients, we map the trans-acting genetic control of this proconvulsive module to Sestrin 3 (SESN3), and demonstrate that SESN3 positively regulates the module in macrophages, microglia and neurons. Morpholino-mediated Sesn3 knockdown in zebrafish confirms the regulation of the transcriptional module, and attenuates chemically induced behavioural seizures in vivo.

Journal article

Lai P-C, Chiu L-Y, Srivastava P, Trento C, Dazzi F, Petretto E, Cook HT, Behmoaras Jet al., 2014, Unique Regulatory Properties of Mesangial Cells Are Genetically Determined in the Rat, PLOS One, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203

Mesangial cells are glomerular cells of stromal origin. During immune complex mediated crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn), infiltrating and proliferating pro-inflammatory macrophages lead to crescent formation. Here we have hypothesised that mesangial cells, given their mesenchymal stromal origin, show similar immunomodulatory properties as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by regulating macrophage function associated with glomerular crescent formation. We show that rat mesangial cells suppress conA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro, as previously shown for MSCs. We then investigated mesangial cell-macrophage interaction by using mesangial cells isolated from nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN)-susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and NTN-resistant Lewis (LEW) rats. We first determined the mesangial cell transcriptome in WKY and LEW rats and showed that this is under marked genetic control. Supernatant transfer results show that WKY mesangial cells shift bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) phenotype to M1 or M2 according to the genetic background (WKY or LEW) of the BMDMs. Interestingly, these effects were different when compared to those of MSCs suggesting that mesangial cells can have unique immunomodulatory effects in the kidney. These results demonstrate the importance of the genetic background in the immunosuppressive effects of cells of stromal origin and specifically of mesangial cell-macrophage interactions in the pathophysiology of crescentic glomerulonephritis.

Journal article

Kang H, Kerloc'h A, Rotival M, Xu X, Zhang Q, D'Souza Z, Kim M, Scholz JC, Ko J-H, Srivastava PK, Genzen JR, Cui W, Aitman TJ, Game L, Melvin JE, Hanidu A, Dimock J, Zheng J, Souza D, Behera AK, Nabozny G, Cook HT, Bassett JHD, Williams GR, Li J, Vignery A, Petretto E, Behmoaras Jet al., 2014, Kcnn4 Is a Regulator of Macrophage Multinucleation in Bone Homeostasis and Inflammatory Disease, Cell Reports, Vol: 8, Pages: 1210-1224, ISSN: 2211-1247

Macrophages can fuse to form osteoclasts in boneor multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) as part of theimmune response. We use a systems geneticsapproach in rat macrophages to unravel their geneticdeterminants of multinucleation and investigate theirrole in both bone homeostasis and inflammatory disease.We identify a trans-regulated gene networkassociated with macrophage multinucleation andKcnn4 as being the most significantly trans-regulatedgene in the network and induced at the onsetof fusion. Kcnn4 is required for osteoclast andMGC formation in rodents and humans. Geneticdeletion of Kcnn4 reduces macrophage multinucleationthrough modulation of Ca2+ signaling, increasesbone mass, and improves clinical outcomein arthritis. Pharmacological blockade of Kcnn4reduces experimental glomerulonephritis. Our dataimplicate Kcnn4 in macrophage multinucleation,identifying it as a potential therapeutic target for inhibitionof bone resorption and chronic inflammation.

Journal article

D'Souza Z, McAdoo SP, Smith J, Pusey CD, Cook HT, Behmoaras J, Aitman TJet al., 2013, Experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis: a new bicongenic rat model, DISEASE MODELS & MECHANISMS, Vol: 6, Pages: 1477-1486, ISSN: 1754-8403

Journal article

Slove S, Lannoy M, Behmoaras J, Pezet M, Sloboda N, Lacolley P, Escoubet B, Bujan J, Jacob M-Pet al., 2013, Potassium Channel Openers Increase Aortic Elastic Fiber Formation and Reverse the Genetically Determined Elastin Deficit in the BN Rat, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 62, Pages: 794-+, ISSN: 0194-911X

Journal article

Srivastava PK, Hull RP, Behmoaras J, Petretto E, Aitman TJet al., 2013, JunD/AP1 regulatory network analysis during macrophage activation in a rat model of crescentic glomerulonephritis, BMC Systems Biology, Vol: 7, ISSN: 1752-0509

Background:Function and efficiency of a transcription factor (TF) are often modulated by interactions with other proteins or TFs to achieve finely tuned regulation of target genes. However, complex TF interactions are often not taken into account to identify functionally active TF-targets and characterize their regulatory network. Here, we have developed a computational framework for integrated analysis of genome-wide ChIP-seq and gene expression data to identify the functional interacting partners of a TF and characterize the TF-driven regulatory network. We have applied this methodology in a rat model of macrophage dependent crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn) where we have previously identified JunD as a TF gene responsible for enhanced macrophage activation associated with susceptibility to Crgn in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) strain.Results:To evaluate the regulatory effects of JunD on its target genes, we analysed data from two rat strains (WKY and WKY.LCrgn2) that show 20-fold difference in their JunD expression in macrophages. We identified 36 TFs interacting with JunD/Jun and JunD/ATF complexes (i.e., AP1 complex), which resulted in strain-dependent gene expression regulation of 1,274 target genes in macrophages. After lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation we found that 2.4 fold more JunD/ATF-target genes were up-regulated as compared with JunD/Jun-target genes. The enriched 314 genes up-regulated by AP1 complex during LPS stimulation were most significantly enriched for immune response (P = 6.9 × 10-4) and antigen processing and presentation functions (P = 2.4 × 10-5), suggesting a role for these genes in macrophage LPS-stimulated activation driven by JunD interaction with Jun/ATF.Conclusions:In summary, our integrated analyses revealed a large network of TFs interacting with JunD and their regulated targets. Our data also suggest a previously unappreciated contribution of the ATF complex to Jun

Journal article

Moschidou D, Sharp P, Behmoaras J, David A, De Coppi P, Bou-Gharios G, Fisk N, Pusey C, Cook T, Guillot Pet al., 2013, Potential of human fetal chorionic stem cell therapy for Alport Syndrome, Conference of the British-Society-for-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy (BSGCT), Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC, Pages: A12-A12, ISSN: 1043-0342

Conference paper

McLean A, Dominy K, De Kort H, Brookes P, Behmoaras J, Galliford J, Roufosse C, Cook T, Willicombe M, Taube Det al., 2013, Intra-Graft Expression of Transcripts for Endothelial Activation and NK Cell Markers, Detected by Real-Time qPCR, Is Associated with the Presence of Donor Specific Antibodies, and Identifies Kidney Transplants at Risk of Failure, 13th American Transplant Congress (ATC), Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: 142-142, ISSN: 1600-6135

Conference paper

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