98 results found
Phillips A, Cambiano V, Bansi-Matharu L, et al., 2018, Cost-of-testing-per-new-HIV-diagnosis as a metric for monitoring cost-effectiveness of testing programmes in low income settings in Southern Africa: health economic modelling analysis, Publisher: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD, Pages: 27-28
Olney JJ, Eaton J, Braitstein P, et al., 2018, Optimal timing of HIV home-based counselling and testing rounds in Western Kenya, Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1758-2652
Introduction:Weaknesses in care programmes providing anti‐retroviral therapy (ART) persist and are often instigated by late HIV diagnosis and poor linkage to care. We investigated the potential for a home‐based counselling and testing (HBCT) campaign to be improved through the optimal timing and enhancement of testing rounds to generate greater health outcomes at minimum cost.Methods:Using a mathematical model of HIV care calibrated to longitudinal data from The Academic Model Providing Access To Healthcare (AMPATH) in Kenya, we simulated HBCT campaigns between 2016 and 2036, assessing the impact and total cost of care for each, for a further 20 years.Results:We find that simulating five equally spaced rounds averts 1.53 million disability‐adjusted life‐years (DALYs) at a cost of $1617 million. By altering the timing of HBCT rounds, a four‐round campaign can produce greater impact for lower cost. With “front‐loaded” rounds, the cost per DALY averted is reduced by 12% as fewer rounds are required ($937 vs. $1060). Furthermore, improvements to HBCT coverage and linkage to care avert over two million DALYs at a cost per DALY averted of $621 (41% less than the reference scenario).Conclusions:Countries implementing HBCT can reduce costs by optimally timing rounds and generate greater health outcomes through improving linkage, coverage, and retention. Tailoring HBCT campaigns to individual settings can enhance patient outcomes for minimal cost.
Tlhajoane M, Eaton JW, Takaruza A, et al., 2018, Prevalence and associations of psychological distress, HIV infection and HIV care service utilization in East Zimbabwe, AIDS and Behavior, Vol: 22, Pages: 1485-1495, ISSN: 1090-7165
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates. The prevalence of PD was 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1%) among men, and 12.9% (95% CI 12.2-13.6%) among women. PD was associated with sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection and HIV-infected individuals were more likely to suffer from PD. Amongst those initiated on anti-retroviral therapy, individuals with PD were less likely to adhere to treatment (91 vs. 96%; age- and site-type-adjusted odds ratio = 0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.99). Integrated HIV and mental health services may enhance HIV care and treatment outcomes in high HIV-prevalence populations in sub-Saharan Africa.
Kim S-H, Eaton JW, Davies B, et al., 2017, Patterns in chlamydia detection rate in young adults aged 15–24 years in England, 2012–15: longitudinal analysis of routine data, Public Health Science 2017
BackgroundThe National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) in England recommends chlamydia testing for sexually active young adults (aged 15–24 years). The Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF) suggests that implementation and delivery of the NCSP should identify 2300 cases or more of chlamydia per 100 000 residents (15–24 years old). The commissioning of chlamydia screening moved to local authorities in 2013. We describe performance of local authorities against the PHOF chlamydia screening recommendation.MethodsWe used chlamydia test data from Public Health England (2012–15), index of multiple deprivation (2015) data from National Office of Statistics, and population data to describe the association between the proportion of local authorities achieving the PHOF chlamydia detection rate recommendation and deprivation at local authority level, adjusted for population size and proportion of tests performed in a genitourinary medicine setting.FindingsThe number of chlamydia tests performed within the NCSP declined by 17% (1 860 000 in 2012 to 1 538 000 in 2015) over the study period. The proportion of local authorities that achieved the PHOF chlamydia diagnosis rate recommendation fell 39% (from 23% [75/324] in 2012 to 14% [45/324] in 2015). Throughout the 4-year period, local authorities in the most-deprived quintile were more likely to attain the recommendation than were local authorities in the least-deprived quintile (adjusted odds ratio 10·6 (95% CI 3·0–37·9) in 2012, 15·9 (2·0–129·5) in 2015).InterpretationThere has been a reduction in the number of chlamydia tests performed within the NCSP and a larger reduction in the proportion of local authorities meeting the chlamydia diagnosis rate recommendation since 2012. This finding suggests that the decline in testing may disproportionately affect those most at risk of chlamydia infection. There are also marked inequalities in attainment of the
Slaymaker E, McLean E, Wringe A, et al., 2017, The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA): Data on mortality, by HIV status and stage on the HIV care continuum, among the general population in seven longitudinal studies between 1989 and 2014, Gates Open Research, Vol: 1, Pages: 4-4, ISSN: 2572-4754
Timely progression of people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the point of infection through the pathway from diagnosis to treatment is important in ensuring effective care and treatment of HIV and preventing HIV-related deaths and onwards transmission of infection. Reliable, population-based estimates of new infections are difficult to obtain for the generalised epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Mortality data indicate disease burden and, if disaggregated along the continuum from diagnosis to treatment, can also reflect the coverage and quality of different HIV services. Neither routine statistics nor observational clinical studies can estimate mortality prior to linkage to care nor following disengagement from care. For this, population-based data are required. The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa brings together studies in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Eight studies have the necessary data to estimate mortality by HIV status, and seven can estimate mortality at different stages of the HIV care continuum. This data note describes a harmonised dataset containing anonymised individual-level information on survival by HIV status for adults aged 15 and above. Among PLHIV, the dataset provides information on survival during different periods: prior to diagnosis of infection; following diagnosis but before linkage to care; in pre-antiretroviral treatment (ART) care; in the first six months after ART initiation; among people continuously on ART for 6+ months; and among people who have ever interrupted ART.
Marston M, Zaba B, Eaton JW, 2017, The relationship between HIV and fertility in the era of antiretroviral therapy in sub Saharan Africa – Evidence from 49 Demographic & Health Surveys, Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol: 22, Pages: 1542-1550, ISSN: 1360-2276
ObjectivesTo describe regional differences in the relative fertility of HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative women and changes as antiretroviral treatment (ART) is scaled up, to improve estimates of predicted need for and coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services at national and subnational levels.MethodsWe analysed 49 nationally representative household surveys in sub-Saharan Africa between 2003 and 2016 to estimate fertility rate ratios of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women by age using exponential regression and test for regional and urban/rural differences. We estimated the association between national ART coverage and the relationship between HIV and fertility.ResultsSignificant regional differences exist in HIV and fertility relationships, with less HIV-associated subfertility in Southern Africa. Age patterns of relative fertility are similar. HIV impact on fertility is weaker in urban than rural areas. For women below age 30, regional and urban/rural differences are largely explained by differences in age at sexual debut. Higher levels of national ART coverage were associated with slight attenuation of the relationship between HIV and fertility.ConclusionsRegional differences in HIV-associated subfertility and urban–rural differences in age patterns of relative fertility should be accounted for when predicting need for and coverage of PMTCT services at national and subnational level. Although HIV impacts on fertility are somewhat reduced at higher levels of national ART coverage, differences in fertility between HIV positive and negative remain, and fertility of women on ART should not be assumed to be the same as HIV-negative women. There were few data in recent years, when ART has reached high levels, and this relationship should continue to be assessed as further evidence becomes available.
Reniers G, Blom S, Lieber J, et al., 2017, Tuberculosis mortality and the male survival deficit in rural South Africa: an observational community cohort study, PLoS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundWomen live on average five years longer than men, and the sex difference in longevity is typically lower in populations with high mortality. South Africa—a high mortality population with a large sex disparity—is an exception, but the causes of death that contribute to this difference are not well understood.MethodsUsing data from a demographic surveillance system in rural KwaZulu-Natal (2000–2014), we estimate differences between male and female adult life expectancy by HIV status. The contribution of causes of death to these life expectancy differences are computed with demographic decomposition techniques. Cause of death information comes from verbal autopsy interviews that are interpreted with the InSilicoVA tool.ResultsAdult women lived an average of 10.4 years (95% confidence Interval 9.0–11.6) longer than men. Sex differences in adult life expectancy were even larger when disaggregated by HIV status: 13.1 (95% confidence interval 10.7–15.3) and 11.2 (95% confidence interval 7.5–14.8) years among known HIV negatives and positives, respectively. Elevated male mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and external injuries were responsible for 43% and 31% of the sex difference in life expectancy among the HIV negative population, and 81% and 16% of the difference among people living with HIV.ConclusionsThe sex differences in adult life expectancy in rural KwaZulu-Natal are exceptionally large, atypical for an African population, and largely driven by high male mortality from pulmonary TB and injuries. This is the case for both HIV positive and HIV negative men and women, signalling a need to improve the engagement of men with health services, irrespective of their HIV status.
Gregson S, Mugurungi O, Eaton J, et al., 2017, Documenting and explaining the HIV decline in east Zimbabwe: the Manicaland General Population Cohort, BMJ Open, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-6055
Purpose: The Manicaland Cohort was established to provide robust scientific data on HIV prevalence and incidence, patterns of sexual risk behaviour, and the demographic impact of HIV in a sub-Saharan African population subject to a generalised HIV epidemic. The aims were later broadened to include provision of data on the coverage and effectiveness of national HIV control programmes including antiretroviral treatment (ART).Participants: General population open cohort located in 12 sites in Manicaland, east Zimbabwe, representing 4 major socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements, and subsistence farming areas). 9,109 of 11,453 (79.5%) eligible adults (men 17-54 years; women 15-44 years) were recruited in a phased household census between July 1998 and January 2000. Five rounds of follow-up of the prospective household census and the open cohort were conducted at 2 or 3 year intervals between July 2001 and November 2013. Follow-up rates among surviving residents ranged between 77.0% (over 3 years) and 96.4% (2 years). Findings to date: HIV prevalence was 25.1% at baseline and had a substantial demographic impact with 10-fold higher mortality in HIV-infected adults than in uninfected adults and a reduction in the growth rate in the worst affected areas (towns) from 2.9% to 1.0%pa. HIV infection rates have been highest in young adults with earlier commencement of sexual activity and in those with older sexual partners and larger numbers of lifetime partners. HIV prevalence has since fallen to 15.8% and HIV incidence has also declined from 2.1% (1998-2003) to 0.63% (2009-2013) largely due to reduced sexual risk behaviour. HIV-associated mortality fell substantially after 2009 with increased availability of ART
Eaton JW, Hargreaves J, 2017, How will we get there? How will we know?, Lancet HIV, Vol: 4, Pages: e429-e430, ISSN: 2405-4704
Ending AIDS by 2030 is a monumental challenge. Tracking progress as incidence reaches lower levels could be just as challenging. In The Lancet HIV Sabin Nsanzimana and colleagues report progress and highlight the challenges that lie ahead on both fronts. The Rwanda HIV Incidence Survey enumerated a nationally representative sample of 13 728 HIV-negative adults in 2013, and followed up a remarkable 92% of participants 1 year later. The investigators detected 35 HIV seroconversions at follow-up. Two findings are especially noteworthy.
Pufall E, Eaton JW, Robertson L, et al., 2017, Education, substance use, and HIV risk among orphaned adolescents in Eastern Zimbabwe, Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, Vol: 12, Pages: 360-374, ISSN: 1745-0136
There is a growing interest in education as a means to reduce HIV infection in vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa; however, the mechanisms by which education reduces HIV infection remain uncertain. Substance use has been associated with high-risk sexual behaviour and could lie on the causal pathway between education and HIV risk. Therefore, we used multivariable regression to measure associations between: (i) orphanhood and substance use (alcohol, recreational drugs, and smoking), (ii) substance use and sexual risk behaviours, and (iii) school enrolment and substance use, in adolescents aged 15–19 years, in Eastern Zimbabwe. We found substance use to be low overall (6.4%, 3.2%, and 0.9% of males reported alcohol, drug, and cigarette use; <1% of females reported any substance use), but was more common in male maternal and double orphans than non-orphans. Substance use was positively associated with early sexual debut, number of sexual partners, and engaging in transactional sex, while school enrolment was associated with lower substance use in males. We conclude that education may reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV infection rates among male adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, in part, by reducing substance abuse.
Schaefer R, Gregson S, Eaton JW, et al., 2017, Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: evidence from a general-population cohort in Zimbabwe, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1461-1470, ISSN: 0269-9370
Objective: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.Design: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013).Methods: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods. Last sexual partner age difference and age-disparate relationships (inter-generational [≥10 years age difference] and intra-generational [5-9 years] versus age-homogeneous [0-4 years]) were tested for associations with HIV incidence in Cox regressions. A proximate determinants framework was used to explore factors possibly explaining variations in the contribution of age-disparate relationships to HIV incidence between populations and over time.Results: 126 HIV infections occurred over 8777 person-years (1.43 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval=1.17-1.68). 65% of women reported partner age differences of ≥5 years. Increasing partner age differences were associated with higher HIV incidence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.05 [1.01-1.09]). Inter-generational relationships tended to increase HIV incidence (aHR=1.78 [0.96-3.29]) but not intra-generational relationships (aHR=0.91 [0.47-1.76]). Secondary education was associated with reductions in inter-generational relationships (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.49 [0.36-0.68]). Inter-generational relationships were associated with partners having concurrent relationships (aOR=2.59 [1.81-3.70]) which tended to increase HIV incidence (aHR=1.74 [0.96-3.17]). Associations between age-disparity and HIV incidence did not change over time.Conclusions: Sexual relationships with older men expose young women to increased risk of HIV acquisition in Manicaland, which did not change over time, even with introduction of antiretroviral therapy.
Mangal TD, UNAIDS Working Group on CD4 Progression and Mortality Amongst HIV Seroconverters including the CASCADE Collaboration in EuroCoord, 2017, Joint estimation of CD4+ cell progression and survival in untreated individuals with HIV-1 infection., AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1073-1082, ISSN: 0269-9370
OBJECTIVE: We compiled the largest dataset of seroconverter cohorts to date from 25 countries across Africa, North America, Europe, and Southeast/East (SE/E) Asia to simultaneously estimate transition rates between CD4 cell stages and death, in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1-infected individuals. DESIGN: A hidden Markov model incorporating a misclassification matrix was used to represent natural short-term fluctuations and measurement errors in CD4 cell counts. Covariates were included to estimate the transition rates and survival probabilities for each subgroup. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for 16 373 eligible individuals was 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.7-7.1), and the mean age at seroconversion was 31.1 years (SD 8.8). A total of 14 525 individuals had recorded CD4 cell counts pre-ART, 1885 died, and 6947 initiated ART. Median (interquartile range) survival for men aged 20 years at seroconversion was 13.0 (12.4-13.4), 11.6 (10.9-12.3), and 8.3 years (7.9-8.9) in Europe/North America, Africa, and SE/E Asia, respectively. Mortality rates increase with age (hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.84-2.67 for >45 years compared with <25 years) and vary by region (hazard ratio 2.68, 1.75-4.12 for Africa and 1.88, 1.50-2.35 for Asia compared with Europe/North America). CD4 cell decline was significantly faster in Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America (hazard ratio 1.45, 1.36-1.54). CONCLUSION: Mortality and CD4 cell progression rates exhibited regional and age-specific differences, with decreased survival in African and SE/E Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America and in older age groups. This extensive dataset reveals heterogeneities between regions and ages, which should be incorporated into future HIV models.
Eaton JW, Johnson CC, Gregson S, 2017, The cost of not re-testing: HIV misdiagnosis in the ART ‘test-and-offer’ era, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 65, Pages: 522-525, ISSN: 1537-6591
We compared estimated costs of retesting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to the costs of ART provision to misdiagnosed HIV-negative persons. Savings from averted unnecessary ART costs were greater than retesting costs within 1 year using assumptions representative of HIV testing performance in programmatic settings. Countries should implement re-testing before ART initiation.
McRobie E, Wringe A, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, et al., 2017, HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys, and key informant interviews, Implementation Science, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1748-5908
BackgroundSuccessful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this.MethodsWe assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai). Ugandan Ministry of Health HIV policy documents were reviewed in 2013, and pre-determined indicators were extracted relating to the content and nature of guidance on HIV service provision. Facility-level policy implementation was assessed via a structured questionnaire administered to in-charge staff from each health facility. Implementation of policies was classified as wide (≥75% facilities), partial (26–74% facilities) or minimal (≤25% facilities). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants (policy-makers, implementers, researchers) to identify factors influencing implementation; data were analysed using the Framework Method of thematic analysis.ResultsMost policies were widely implemented in both HDSS (free testing, free antiretroviral treatment (ART), WHO first-line regimen as standard, Option B+). Both had notable implementation gaps for policies relating to retention on treatment (availability of nutritional supplements, support groups or isoniazid preventive therapy). Rakai implemented more policies relating to provision of antiretroviral treatment than Kyamulibwa and performed better on quality of care indicators, such as frequency of stock-outs. Factors facilitating implementation were donor investment and support, strong scientific evidence, low policy complexity, phased implementation and effective planning. Limited human resources, infrastructure and health management information systems w
Silhol R, Gregson S, Nyamukapa C, et al., 2017, Empirical validation of the UNAIDS Spectrum model for subnational HIV estimates: case-study of children and adults in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S41-S50, ISSN: 0269-9370
Background: More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum – used routinely to produce national HIV estimates – could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level.Design: The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared to empirical estimates.Methods: Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, east Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5.441 to create a simulation representative of the cohort population. Model and empirical estimates were compared for key demographic and epidemiological outcomes. Alternative scenarios for data availability were examined and sensitivity analyses were conducted for model assumptions considered important for subnational estimates.Results: Spectrum estimates generally agreed with observed data but HIV incidence estimates were higher than empirical estimates while estimates of early age all-cause adult mortality were lower. Child HIV prevalence estimates matched well with the survey prevalence among children. Estimated paternal orphanhood was lower than empirical estimates. Including observations from earlier in the epidemic did not improve the HIV incidence model fit. Migration had little effect on observed discrepancies - possibly because the model ignores differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents.Conclusions: The Spectrum model, using subnational surveillance and population data, provided reasonable subnational estimates although some discrepancies were noted. Differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents may need to be captured in the model if applied to subnational epidemics.
Wilson KC, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, et al., 2017, Does nonlocal women's attendance at antenatal clinics distort HIV prevalence surveillance estimates in pregnant women in Zimbabwe?, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S95-S102, ISSN: 0269-9370
Objective: The objective was to assess whether HIV prevalence measured among women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) are representative of prevalence in the local area, or whether estimates may be biased by some women's choice to attend ANCs away from their residential location. We tested the hypothesis that HIV prevalence in towns and periurban areas is underestimated in ANC sentinel surveillance data in Zimbabwe.Methods: National unlinked anonymous HIV surveillance was conducted at 19 ANCs in Zimbabwe in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2012. This data was used to compare HIV prevalence and nonlocal attendance levels at ANCs at city, town, periurban, and rural clinics in aggregate and also for individual ANCs.Results: In 2000, HIV prevalence at town ANCs (36.6%, 95% CI 34.4–38.9%) slightly underestimated prevalence among urban women attending these clinics (40.7%, 95% CI 37.6–43.9%). However, there was no distortion in HIV prevalence at either the aggregate clinic location or at individual clinics in more recent surveillance rounds. HIV prevalence was consistently higher in towns and periurban areas than in rural areas. Nonlocal attendance was high at town (26–39%) and periurban (53–95%) ANCs but low at city clinics (<10%). However, rural women attending ANCs in towns and periurban areas had higher HIV prevalence than rural women attending rural clinics, and were younger, more likely to be single, and less likely to be housewives.Conclusions: : In Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence among ANC attendees provides reliable estimates of HIV prevalence in pregnant women in the local area.
Sheng B, Marsh K, Slavkovic AB, et al., 2017, Statistical models for incorporating data from routine HIV testing of pregnant women at antenatal clinics into HIV/AIDS epidemic estimates, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S87-S94, ISSN: 0269-9370
Objective: HIV prevalence data collected from routine HIV testing of pregnant women at antenatal clinics (ANC-RT) are potentially available from all facilities that offer testing services to pregnant women and can be used to improve estimates of national and subnational HIV prevalence trends. We develop methods to incorporate these new data source into the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS Estimation and Projection Package in Spectrum 2017.Methods: We develop a new statistical model for incorporating ANC-RT HIV prevalence data, aggregated either to the health facility level (site-level) or regionally (census-level), to estimate HIV prevalence alongside existing sources of HIV prevalence data from ANC unlinked anonymous testing (ANC-UAT) and household-based national population surveys. Synthetic data are generated to understand how the availability of ANC-RT data affects the accuracy of various parameter estimates.Results: We estimate HIV prevalence and additional parameters using both ANC-RT and other existing data. Fitting HIV prevalence using synthetic data generally gives precise estimates of the underlying trend and other parameters. More years of ANC-RT data should improve prevalence estimates. More ANC-RT sites and continuation with existing ANC-UAT sites may improve the estimate of calibration between ANC-UAT and ANC-RT sites.Conclusion: We have proposed methods to incorporate ANC-RT data into Spectrum to obtain more precise estimates of prevalence and other measures of the epidemic. Many assumptions about the accuracy, consistency, and representativeness of ANC-RT prevalence underlie the use of these data for monitoring HIV epidemic trends and should be tested as more data become available from national ANC-RT programs.
Masquelier B, Eaton JW, Gerland P, et al., 2017, Age patterns and sex ratios of adult mortality in countries with high HIV prevalence, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S77-S85, ISSN: 0269-9370
Objective: To compare the 2016 United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) modelled estimates of adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa to empirical estimates.Design: Age-specific mortality rates were obtained from nationally representative sibling survival data, recent household deaths and vital registration, and directly compared with UNAIDS estimates. Orphanhood prevalence derived from UNAIDS mortality estimates was compared with survey and census reports on the survival of children's parents.Methods: Age-specific mortality rates for adults aged 15–59 years were calculated from Demographic and Health Surveys and deaths reported in censuses or vital registration, adjusted for underreporting, whenever possible. Proportions of orphans were extracted from censuses and surveys for children aged 5–9 years.Results: UNAIDS estimates were significantly higher than sibling mortality estimates, except among men in countries with very high HIV prevalence. There was a better agreement between rates based on household deaths or vital registration and model outputs. Sex ratios (M/F) of adult mortality were lower in UNAIDS estimates. The modelled orphan prevalence was significantly higher than in surveys and censuses, again with the exception of paternal orphans in countries with very high HIV prevalence. Ratios of paternal-to-maternal orphans were lower in the UNAIDS model than surveys and censuses. Among women, increases in mortality due to AIDS were more concentrated in the age range 25–50 years in model outputs, as compared with empirical estimates.Conclusion: Discrepancies in levels, sex ratios and age patterns of adult mortality between empirical and UNAIDS estimates call for additional data quality assessments and improvements in estimation methods.
Eaton JW, Bao L, 2017, Accounting for nonsampling error in estimates of HIV epidemic trends from antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S61-S68, ISSN: 0269-9370
Objectives: The aim of the study was to propose and demonstrate an approach to allowadditional nonsampling uncertainty about HIV prevalence measured at antenatal clinicsentinel surveillance (ANC-SS) in model-based inferences about trends in HIV incidenceand prevalence.Design: Mathematical model fitted to surveillance data with Bayesian inference.Methods: We introduce a variance inflation parameter s2in fl that accounts for theuncertainty of nonsampling errors in ANC-SS prevalence. It is additive to the samplingerror variance. Three approaches are tested for estimating s2in fl using ANC-SS andhousehold survey data from 40 subnational regions in nine countries in sub-Saharan, asdefined in UNAIDS 2016 estimates. Methods were compared using in-sample fit andout-of-sample prediction of ANC-SS data, fit to household survey prevalence data, andthe computational implications.Results: Introducing the additional variance parameter s2in fl increased the error variancearound ANC-SS prevalence observations by a median of 2.7 times (interquartilerange 1.9–3.8). Using only sampling error in ANC-SS prevalence (s2in fl ¼ 0), coverageof 95% prediction intervals was 69% in out-of-sample prediction tests. This increased to90% after introducing the additional variance parameter s2in fl. The revised probabilisticmodel improved model fit to household survey prevalence and increased epidemicuncertainty intervals most during the early epidemic period before 2005. Estimatings2in fl did not increase the computational cost of model fitting.Conclusions: We recommend estimating nonsampling error in ANC-SS as anadditional parameter in Bayesian inference using the Estimation and Projection Packagemodel. This approach may prove useful for incorporating other data sources such asroutine prevalence from Prevention of mother-to-child transmission testing into futureepidemic estimates.
Reniers G, Blom S, Calvert C, et al., 2016, Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study, Lancet HIV, Vol: 4, Pages: e113-e121, ISSN: 2405-4704
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially decreases morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. In this study, we describe population-level trends in the adult life expectancy and trends in the residual burden of HIV mortality after the roll-out of a public sector ART programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of the populations with the most severe HIV epidemics in the world. METHODS: Data come from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), an observational community cohort study in the uMkhanyakude district in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used non-parametric survival analysis methods to estimate gains in the population-wide life expectancy at age 15 years since the introduction of ART, and the shortfall of the population-wide adult life expectancy compared with that of the HIV-negative population (ie, the life expectancy deficit). Life expectancy gains and deficits were further disaggregated by age and cause of death with demographic decomposition methods. FINDINGS: Covering the calendar years 2001 through to 2014, we obtained information on 93 903 adults who jointly contribute 535 42 8 person-years of observation to the analyses and 9992 deaths. Since the roll-out of ART in 2004, adult life expectancy increased by 15·2 years for men (95% CI 12·4-17·8) and 17·2 years for women (14·5-20·2). Reductions in pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV-related mortality account for 79·7% of the total life expectancy gains in men (8·4 adult life-years), and 90·7% in women (12·8 adult life-years). For men, 9·5% is the result of a decline in external injuries. By 2014, the life expectancy deficit had decreased to 1·2 years for men (-2·9 to 5·8) and to 5·3 years for women (2·6-7·8). In 2011-14, pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV were responsible for 84·9% of the life expectancy deficit in men and 80·8% in wome
Negin J, Gregson S, Eaton JW, et al., 2016, Rising levels of HIV infection in older adults in eastern Zimbabwe, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundWith the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Africa, many people are living longer with HIV. Understanding the ageing of the HIV cohort and sexual behaviour among older adults are important for appropriately responding to the changing demographics of people living with HIV.MethodsWe used data from a large population-based open cohort in eastern Zimbabwe to examine HIV prevalence trends and incidence among those aged 45 years and older. Five survey rounds have been completed between 1998 and 2011. Incidence was analysed using midpoint between last negative and first positive HIV test.ResultsAcross the survey rounds, 13,071 individuals were followed for 57,676 person years. While HIV prevalence among people aged 15–44 has fallen across the five rounds, HIV prevalence among those aged 45–54 has increased since the 2006–08 survey round. In the 2009–11 round, HIV prevalence among men aged 45–54 was 23.4% compared to 11.0% among those aged 15–44. HIV positive people aged 45–54 now represent more than 20% of all those living with HIV in Manicaland. Among those aged 45 years and older, there were 85 seroconversions in 11,999 person years for an HIV incidence of 0.708 per 100 person years. Analysis of cohort data and assessment of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among older people shows significantly lower levels of condom use among older adults and a number of seroconversions past the age of 50.ConclusionsThe cohort of people living with HIV is ageing in Zimbabwe and the behaviour of older adults puts them at risk of HIV infection. Older adults must be included in both HIV prevention and treatment programs.
Marston M, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Kusemererwa S, et al., 2016, The effects of HIV on fertility by infection duration: evidence from African population cohorts before ART availability: Fertility by duration of HIV infection, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S69-S76, ISSN: 1473-5571
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in East and Southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy, and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific sub-fertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda) Kisesa (Tanzania), and Manicaland (Zimbabwe). METHODS: Women aged 15-49 who had ever tested for HIV were included. Analyses were censored at antiretroviral treatment roll out. Fertility rate ratios were calculated to see the relationship of duration of HIV infection on fertility, adjusting for background characteristics. Survivorship and misclassification biases on age-specific subfertility estimates from cross-sectional surveys were estimated by reclassifying person time from the cohort data to simulate cross-sectional surveys and comparing fertility rate ratios to true cohort results. RESULTS: HIV negative and positive women contributed 15,440 births and 86320 person years; and 1,236 births and 11240 thousand person years respectively to the final dataset. Adjusting for age, study site and calendar year, each additional year since HIV sero conversion was associated with a 0.02 (95%CI 0.01-0.03) relative decrease infertility for HIV-positive women. Survivorship and misclassification biases in simulated retrospective birth histories resulted in modest underestimates of sub-fertility by 2-5% for age groups 20-39y. CONCLUSION: Longer duration of infection is associated with greater relative fertility reduction for HIV-positive women. This should be considered when creating estimates for HIV prevalence among pregnant women and PMTCT need over the course of the HIV epidemic and ART scale-up.
Olney JJ, Braitstein P, Eaton JW, et al., 2016, Evaluating strategies to improve HIV care outcomes in Kenya: a modelling study, Lancet HIV, Vol: 3, Pages: e592-e600, ISSN: 2405-4704
BackgroundWith expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health.MethodsWe created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya. We calibrated the model to a longitudinal dataset from the Academic Model Providing Access To Healthcare (known as AMPATH) programme describing the routes into care, losses from care, and clinical outcomes. We simulated the cost and effect of interventions at different stages of HIV care, including improvements to diagnosis, linkage to care, retention and adherence of ART, immediate ART eligibility, and a universal test-and-treat strategy.FindingsWe estimate that, of people dying from AIDS between 2010 and 2030, most will have initiated treatment (61%), but many will never have been diagnosed (25%) or will have been diagnosed but never started ART (14%). Many interventions targeting a single stage of the health-care cascade were likely to be cost-effective, but any individual intervention averted only a small percentage of deaths because the effect is attenuated by other weaknesses in care. However, a combination of five interventions (including improved linkage, point-of-care CD4 testing, voluntary counselling and testing with point-of-care CD4, and outreach to improve retention in pre-ART care and on-ART) would have a much larger impact, averting 1·10 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and 25% of expected new infections and would probably be cost-effective (US$571 per DALY averted). This strategy would improve health more efficiently than a universal test-and-treat intervention if there were no accompanying improvements to care ($1760 per DALY avert
Houben RM, Menzies NA, Sumner T, et al., 2016, Feasibility of achieving the 2025 WHO global tuberculosis targets in South Africa, China, and India: a combined analysis of 11 mathematical models, Lancet Global Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e806-e815, ISSN: 2214-109X
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. METHODS: 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa. Models were calibrated with data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality in 2012. Representatives from national tuberculosis programmes and the advocacy community provided distinct country-specific intervention scenarios, which included screening for symptoms, active case finding, and preventive therapy. FINDINGS: Aggressive scale-up of any single intervention scenario could not achieve the post-2015 End TB Strategy targets in any country. However, the models projected that, in the South Africa national tuberculosis programme scenario, a combination of continuous isoniazid preventive therapy for individuals on antiretroviral therapy, expanded facility-based screening for symptoms of tuberculosis at health centres, and improved tuberculosis care could achieve a 55% reduction in incidence (range 31-62%) and a 72% reduction in mortality (range 64-82%) compared with 2015 levels. For India, and particularly for China, full scale-up of all interventions in tuberculosis-programme performance fell short of the 2025 targets, despite preventing a cumulative 3·4 million cases. The advocacy scenarios illustrated the high impact of detecting and treating latent tuberculosis. INTERPRETATION: Major reductions in tuberculosis burden seem possible with current interventions. However, additional interventions, adapted to country-specific tuberculosis epidemiology and health systems, are needed to reach the post-2015 End TB S
Menzies NA, Gomez GB, Bozzani F, et al., 2016, Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on tuberculosis in China, India, and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models, Lancet Global Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e816-e826, ISSN: 2214-109X
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS: We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we estimated the cost of each scenario by synthesising service use estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies. We estimated health effects (ie, disability-adjusted life-years averted) and resource implications for 2016-35, including patient-incurred costs. To assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness, we compared scenarios with a base case representing continued current practice. FINDINGS: Incremental tuberculosis service costs differed by scenario and country, and in some cases they more than doubled existing funding needs. In general, expansion of tuberculosis services substantially reduced patient-incurred costs and, in India and China, produced net cost savings for most interventions under a societal perspective. In all three countries, expansion of access to care produced substantial health gains. Compared with current practice and conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds, most intervention approaches seemed highly cost-effective. INTERPRETATION: Expansion of tuberculosis services seems cost-effective for high-burden countries and could generate substantial health and economic benefits for patients, although substantial new funding would be required. Further work to determine the optimal intervention mix for each country is necessary. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Pufall E, Eaton JW, Nyamukapa C, et al., 2016, The relationship between parental education and children's schooling in a time of economic turmoil: The case of East Zimbabwe, 2001 to 2011., International Journal of Educational Development, Vol: 51, Pages: 125-134, ISSN: 1873-4871
Using data collected from 1998 to 2011 in a general population cohort study in eastern Zimbabwe, we describe education trends and the relationship between parental education and children's schooling during the Zimbabwean economic collapse of the 2000s. During this period, the previously-rising trend in education stalled, with girls suffering disproportionately; however, female enrolment increased as the economy began to recover. Throughout the period, children with more educated parents continued to have better outcomes such that, at the population level, an underlying increase in the proportion of children with more educated parents may have helped to maintain the upwards education trend.
Chandrasekaran L, Davies B, Eaton J, et al., 2016, Chlamydia diagnosis rate in England in 2012: an ecological study of local authorities, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vol: 93, Pages: 226-228, ISSN: 1472-3263
Objectives Local authorities (LAs) in England commission chlamydia screening as part of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. It is recommended that LAs achieve a chlamydia diagnosis rate of ≥2300 cases per 100 000 population aged 15–24. We describe national patterns in attainment of the chlamydia diagnosis rate recommendation and possible implications of using it to measure LA-level performance.Methods We used publicly available data sets from England (2012) to explore the association between LAs attaining the recommended chlamydia diagnosis rate and population size, socioeconomic deprivation, test setting and sex.Results We used data from 1 197 121 recorded chlamydia tests in females and 564 117 in males. The chlamydia diagnosis rate recommendation was achieved by 22% (72/324) of LAs overall (43% female population; 8% male population). LAs in the highest deprivation quintile were more likely to reach the recommendation than those in the least-deprived quintile for both sexes (women: unadjusted prevalence ratio (UPR) 7.43, 95% CI 3.65 to 15.11; men: UPR 7.00, 95% CI 1.66 to 29.58). The proportion of tests performed in genitourinary medicine clinics was negatively associated with attainment of the recommended diagnosis rate (UPR 0.95, 0.93 to 0.97).Conclusions Chlamydia diagnosis rate recommendations that reflect local area deprivation (as a proxy for disease burden) may be more appropriate than a single national target if the aim is to reduce health inequalities nationally. We suggest LAs monitor their chlamydia diagnosis rate, test coverage and test positivity across a range of measures (including setting and sex) and pre/post changes to commissioned services. Critical evaluation of performance against the recommendation should be reflected in local commissioning decisions.
Yeatman S, Eaton JW, Beckles Z, et al., 2016, Impact of ART on the Fertility of HIV-Positive Women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol: 21, Pages: 1071-1085, ISSN: 1365-3156
ObjectiveUnderstanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and planning resource needs and coverage of prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women.MethodsWe searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group.ResultsOf 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART, and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up.ConclusionsExisting data are insufficient to characterize how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue.
Stover J, Bollinger L, Izazola JA, et al., 2016, What is required to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030? The cost and impact of the fast-track approach, PLoS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually-far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before declining approximately 9
Reniers G, Wamukoya M, Urassa M, et al., 2016, Data resource profile: network for analysing longitudinal population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA Network), International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 45, Pages: 83-93, ISSN: 1464-3685
The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA Network, http://alpha.lshtm.ac.uk/) brings together ten population-based HIV surveillance sites in eastern and southern Africa, and is coordinated by the London School of Hygiene and TropicalMedicine (LSHTM). It was established in 2005 and aims to (i) broaden the evidence base on HIV epidemiology for informing policy, (ii) strengthen the analytical capacity for HIV research, and (iii) foster collaboration between network members. All study sites, some starting in the late 1980s andearly 1990s, conduct demographic surveillance in populations that range from approximately 20 to 220 thousand individuals. In addition, they conduct population-based surveys with HIV testing, and verbal autopsy interviews with relatives of deceased residents. ALPHA Network datasets have beenused for studying HIV incidence, sexual behaviour and the effects of HIV on mortality, fertility, and household composition. One of the network’s substantive focus areas is the monitoring of AIDS mortality and HIV services coverage in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Service use data areretrospectively recorded in interviews and supplemented by information from record linkage with medical facilities in the surveillance areas. Data access is at the discretion of each of the participating sites, but can be coordinated by the network.
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