Imperial College London

Jeff Eaton

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Senior Lecturer in HIV Epidemiology







Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Pufall, EL and Nyamukapa, C and Eaton, JW and Mutsindiri, R and Chawira, G and Munyati, S and Robertson, L and Gregson, S},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0113415},
journal = {PLOS One},
title = {HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2014}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background: There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source ofinfection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV aresparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possiblesource of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population.Methods: From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland,eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, andeffects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-childtransmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort.Results: HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location,religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1%versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available,reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infectionwere not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexualabuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatalmother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positivechildren (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy.Conclusions: Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is associated wit
AU - Pufall,EL
AU - Nyamukapa,C
AU - Eaton,JW
AU - Mutsindiri,R
AU - Chawira,G
AU - Munyati,S
AU - Robertson,L
AU - Gregson,S
DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0113415
PY - 2014///
SN - 1932-6203
TI - HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects
T2 - PLOS One
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -