Imperial College London

Jeff Eaton

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Senior Lecturer in HIV Epidemiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

jeffrey.eaton

 
 
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Location

 

Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

76 results found

Eaton J, Terris-Prestholt F, Cambiano V, Sands A, Baggaley R, Hatzold K, Corbett E, Kalua T, Jahn A, Johnson CCet al., Optimizing HIV testing services in sub-Saharan Africa: Cost and performance of verification testing with HIV self-tests and tests for triage, Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN: 1758-2652

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eaton J, Grebe E, Welte A, Juwara L, Ongarello Set al., 2018, Prevalence and Incidence Calculator (UNAIDS RG)

Calculates HIV incidence from prevalence survey data that include biomarkers of recent infection.Built using inctools for the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections.The tool can be accessed at https://incidence.shinyapps.io/incidence_calculator/.

SOFTWARE

Rentsch C, Reniers G, Machemba R, Slaymaker E, Marston M, Wringe A, Eaton J, Gourlay A, Rice B, Kabadula C, Urassa M, Todd J, Zaba Bet al., 2018, Non-disclosure of HIV testing history in population-based surveys: implications for estimating a UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, Global Health Action, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1654-9880

Background: HIV/AIDS programmes and organisations around the world use routinely updated estimates of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets to track progress and prioritise further programme implementation. Any bias in these estimates has the potential to mislead organisations on where gaps exist in HIV testing and treatment programmes.Objective: To measure the extent of undisclosed HIV testing history and its impact on estimating the proportion of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who know their HIV status (the ‘first 90’ of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets).Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using population-based HIV serological surveillance conducted between 2010 and 2016 and linked, directly observed HIV testing records in Kisesa, Tanzania. Generalised estimating equations logistic regression models were used to detect associations with non-disclosure of HIV testing history adjusting for demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics. We compared estimates of the ‘first 90’ using self-reported survey data only and augmented estimates using information from linked records to quantify the absolute and relative impact of undisclosed HIV testing history.Results: Numbers of participants in each of the survey rounds ranged from 7171 to 7981 with an average HIV prevalence of 6.9%. Up to 33% of those who tested HIV-positive and 34% of those who tested HIV-negative did not disclose their HIV testing history. The proportion of PLHIV who reported knowing their status increased from 34% in 2010 to 65% in 2016. Augmented estimates including information from directly observed testing history resulted in an absolute impact of 6.7 percentage points and relative impact of 12.4%.Conclusions: In this population, self-reported testing history in population-based HIV serological surveys under-estimated the percentage of HIV positives that are diagnosed by a relative factor of 12%. Research should be employed in other surveillance systems that benefit f

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eaton J, Grebe E, Baumler P, McIntosh A, Ongarello S, Welte A, Kassangee R, Brand H, van Schalkwyk C, Li Y, Daniel S, Asai Yet al., 2018, Incidence Estimation Tools (inctools)

Tools for estimating incidence from biomarker data in cross-sectional surveys, and for calibrating tests for recent infection. Implements and extends the method of Kassanjee et al. (2012) doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182576c07.

SOFTWARE

Tlhajoane M, Masoka T, Mpandaguta E, Rhead R, Church K, Wringe A, Kadzura N, Arinaminpathy N, Nyamukapa C, Schur N, Mugurungi O, Skovdal M, Eaton JW, Gregson Set al., 2018, A longitudinal review of national HIV policy and progress made in health facility implementation in Eastern Zimbabwe, HEALTH RESEARCH POLICY AND SYSTEMS, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1478-4505

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Phillips A, Cambiano V, Bansi-Matharu L, Nakagawa F, Wilson D, Jani I, Apollo T, Sculpher M, Hallett T, Kerr C, van Oosterhout J, Eaton J, Estill J, Williams B, Doi N, Cowan F, Keiser O, Ford D, Hatzold K, Barnabas R, Ayles H, Meyer-Rath G, Nelson L, Johnson C, Baggaley R, Fakoya A, Jahn A, Revill Pet al., 2018, Cost-of-testing-per-new-HIV-diagnosis as a metric for monitoring cost-effectiveness of testing programmes in low income settings in Southern Africa: health economic modelling analysis, Publisher: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD, Pages: 27-28, ISSN: 1758-2652

CONFERENCE PAPER

Olney JJ, Eaton JW, Braitstein P, Hogan JW, Hallett TBet al., 2018, Optimal timing of HIV home-based counselling and testing rounds in Western Kenya, JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1758-2652

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tlhajoane M, Eaton JW, Takaruza A, Rhead R, Maswera R, Schur N, Sherr L, Nyamukapa C, Gregson Set al., 2018, Prevalence and Associations of Psychological Distress, HIV Infection and HIV Care Service Utilization in East Zimbabwe, AIDS AND BEHAVIOR, Vol: 22, Pages: 1485-1495, ISSN: 1090-7165

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Woods B, Rothery C, Anderson S-J, Eaton JW, Revill P, Hallett TB, Claxton Ket al., 2018, Appraising the value of evidence generation activities: an HIV modelling study., BMJ Glob Health, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2059-7908

Introduction: The generation of robust evidence has been emphasised as a priority for global health. Evidence generation spans a wide range of activities including clinical trials, surveillance programmes and health system performance measurement. As resources for healthcare and research are limited, the desirability of research expenditure should be assessed on the same basis as other healthcare resources, that is, the health gains from research must be expected to exceed the health opportunity costs imposed as funds are diverted to research rather than service provision. Methods: We developed a transmission and costing model to examine the impact of generating additional evidence to reduce uncertainties on the evolution of a generalised HIV epidemic in Zambia. Results: We demonstrate three important points. First, we can quantify the value of additional evidence in terms of the health gain it is expected to generate. Second, we can quantify the health opportunity cost imposed by research expenditure. Third, the value of evidence generation depends on the budgetary policies in place for managing HIV resources under uncertainty. Generating evidence to reduce uncertainty is particularly valuable when decision makers are required to strictly adhere to expenditure plans and when transfers of funds across geographies/programmes are restricted. Conclusion: Better evidence can lead to health improvements in the same way as direct delivery of healthcare. Quantitative appraisals of evidence generation activities are important and should reflect the impact of improved evidence on population health, evidence generation costs and budgetary policies in place.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Marston M, Zaba B, Eaton JW, 2017, The relationship between HIV and fertility in the era of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from 49 Demographic and Health Surveys, TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, Vol: 22, Pages: 1542-1550, ISSN: 1360-2276

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Slaymaker E, McLean E, Wringe A, Calvert C, Marston M, Reniers G, Kabudula CW, Crampin A, Price A, Michael D, Urassa M, Kwaro D, Sewe M, Eaton JW, Rhead R, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Lutalo T, Nabukalu D, Herbst K, Hosegood V, Zaba Bet al., 2017, The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA): Data on mortality, by HIV status and stage on the HIV care continuum, among the general population in seven longitudinal studies between 1989 and 2014., Gates Open Res, Vol: 1

Timely progression of people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the point of infection through the pathway from diagnosis to treatment is important in ensuring effective care and treatment of HIV and preventing HIV-related deaths and onwards transmission of infection.  Reliable, population-based estimates of new infections are difficult to obtain for the generalised epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.  Mortality data indicate disease burden and, if disaggregated along the continuum from diagnosis to treatment, can also reflect the coverage and quality of different HIV services.  Neither routine statistics nor observational clinical studies can estimate mortality prior to linkage to care nor following disengagement from care.  For this, population-based data are required. The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa brings together studies in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.  Eight studies have the necessary data to estimate mortality by HIV status, and seven can estimate mortality at different stages of the HIV care continuum.  This data note describes a harmonised dataset containing anonymised individual-level information on survival by HIV status for adults aged 15 and above. Among PLHIV, the dataset provides information on survival during different periods: prior to diagnosis of infection; following diagnosis but before linkage to care; in pre-antiretroviral treatment (ART) care; in the first six months after ART initiation; among people continuously on ART for 6+ months; and among people who have ever interrupted ART.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kim S-H, Eaton JW, Ward H, Davies Bet al., 2017, Patterns in chlamydia detection rate in young adults aged 15-24 years in England, 2012-15: longitudinal analysis of routine data, Public Health Science Conference

POSTER

Reniers G, Blom S, Lieber J, Herbst AJ, Calvert C, Bor J, Barnighausen T, Zaba B, Li ZR, Clark SJ, Grant AD, Lessells R, Eaton JW, Hosegood Vet al., 2017, Tuberculosis mortality and the male survival deficit in rural South Africa: An observational community cohort study, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eaton JW, Hargreaves J, 2017, How will we get there? How will we know?, LANCET HIV, Vol: 4, Pages: E429-E430, ISSN: 2352-3018

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gregson S, Mugurungi O, Eaton J, Takaruza A, Rhead R, Maswera R, Mutsvangwa J, Mayini J, Skovdal M, Schaefer R, Hallett T, Sherr L, Munyati S, Mason P, Campbell C, Garnett GP, Nyamukapa CAet al., 2017, Documenting and explaining the HIV decline in east Zimbabwe: the Manicaland General Population Cohort, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-6055

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eaton JW, Johnson CC, Gregson S, 2017, The Cost of Not Retesting: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Misdiagnosis in the Antiretroviral Therapy "Test-and-Offer" Era, CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 65, Pages: 522-525, ISSN: 1058-4838

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Schaefer R, Gregson S, Eaton JW, Mugurungi O, Rhead R, Takaruza A, Maswera R, Nyamukapa Cet al., 2017, Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: evidence from Zimbabwe, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1461-1470, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mangal TD, 2017, Joint estimation of CD4(+) cell progression and survival in untreated individuals with HIV-1 infection, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1073-1082, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Chandrasekaran L, Davies B, Eaton JW, Ward Het al., 2017, Chlamydia diagnosis rate in England in 2012: an ecological study of local authorities, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS, Vol: 93, ISSN: 1368-4973

JOURNAL ARTICLE

McRobie E, Wringe A, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Kiweewa F, Lutalo T, Nakigozi G, Todd J, Eaton JW, Zaba B, Church Ket al., 2017, HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys and key informant interviews, IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1748-5908

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Silhol R, Gregson S, Nyamukapa C, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, Gonese E, Eaton JW, Case KK, Mahy M, Stover J, Mugurungi Oet al., 2017, Empirical validation of the UNAIDS Spectrum model for subnational HIV estimates: case-study of children and adults in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S41-S50, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Sheng B, Marsh K, Slavkovic AB, Gregson S, Eaton JW, Bao Let al., 2017, Statistical models for incorporating data from routine HIV testing of pregnant women at antenatal clinics into HIV/AIDS epidemic estimates, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S87-S94, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Masquelier B, Eaton JW, Gerland P, Pelletier F, Mutai KKet al., 2017, Age patterns and sex ratios of adult mortality in countries with high HIV prevalence, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S77-S85, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eaton JW, Bao L, 2017, Accounting for nonsampling error in estimates of HIV epidemic trends from antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S61-S68, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Wilson KC, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, Eaton JW, Hallett TB, Mugurungi O, Gregson Set al., 2017, Does nonlocal women's attendance at antenatal clinics distort HIV prevalence surveillance estimates in pregnant women in Zimbabwe?, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S95-S102, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Marston M, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Kusemererwa S, Urassa M, Michael D, Nyamukapa C, Gregson S, Zaba B, Eaton JWet al., 2017, The effects of HIV on fertility by infection duration: evidence from African population cohorts before antiretroviral treatment availability, AIDS, Vol: 31, Pages: S69-S76, ISSN: 0269-9370

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Reniers G, Blom S, Calvert C, Martin-Onraet A, Herbst AJ, Eaton JW, Bor J, Slaymaker E, Li ZR, Clark SJ, Baernighausen T, Zaba B, Hosegood Vet al., 2017, Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study, LANCET HIV, Vol: 4, Pages: E113-E121, ISSN: 2352-3018

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pufall EL, Eaton JW, Robertson L, Mushati P, Nyamukapa C, Gregson Set al., 2017, Education, substance use, and HIV risk among orphaned adolescents in Eastern Zimbabwe, VULNERABLE CHILDREN AND YOUTH STUDIES, Vol: 12, Pages: 360-374, ISSN: 1745-0128

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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