Imperial College London

Jeff Eaton

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Senior Lecturer in HIV Epidemiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

jeffrey.eaton

 
 
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Location

 

Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

109 results found

Johnson L, Kubjane M, Eaton J, 2021, Challenges in estimating HIV prevalence trends and geographical variation in HIV prevalence using antenatal data: insights from mathematical modelling, PLoS One, ISSN: 1932-6203

HIV prevalence data among pregnant women have been critical to estimating HIV trends and geographical patterns of HIV in many African countries. Although antenatal HIV prevalence data are known to be biased representations of HIV prevalence in the general population, mathematical models have made various adjustments to control for known sources of bias, including the effect of HIV on fertility, the age profile of pregnant women and sexual experience.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We assessed whether assumptions about antenatal bias affect conclusions about trends and geographical variation in HIV prevalence, using simulated datasets generated by an agent-based model of HIV and fertility in South Africa. Results suggest that even when controlling for age and other previously-considered sources of bias, antenatal bias in South Africa has not been constant over time, and trends in bias differ substantially by age. Differences in the average duration of infection explain much of this variation. We propose an HIV duration-adjusted measure of antenatal bias that is more stable, which yields higher estimates of HIV incidence in recent years and at older ages. Simpler measures of antenatal bias, which are not age-adjusted, yield estimates of HIV prevalence and incidence that are too high in the early stages of the HIV epidemic, and that are less precise. Antenatal bias in South Africa is substantially greater in urban areas than in rural areas.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Age-standardized approaches to defining antenatal bias are likely to improve precision in model-based estimates, and further recency adjustments increase estimates of HIV incidence in recent years and at older ages. Incompletely adjusting for changing antenatal bias may explain why previous model estimates overstated the early HIV burden in South Africa. New assays to estimate the fraction of HIV-positive pregnant women who are recently infected could play an important role in better estimatin

Journal article

Atchison C, Bowman LR, Vrinten C, Redd R, PristerĂ  P, Eaton J, Ward Het al., 2021, Early perceptions and behavioural responses during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey of UK adults., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVE: To examine risk perceptions and behavioural responses of the UK adult population during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in the UK. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Conducted with a nationally representative sample of UK adults within 48 hours of the UK Government advising the public to stop non-essential contact with others and all unnecessary travel. PARTICIPANTS: 2108 adults living in the UK aged 18 years and over. Response rate was 84.3% (2108/2500). Data collected between 17 March and 18 March 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics for all survey questions, including number of respondents and weighted percentages. Robust Poisson regression used to identify sociodemographic variation in: (1) adoption of social distancing measures, (2) ability to work from home, and (3) ability and (4) willingness to self-isolate. RESULTS: Overall, 1992 (94.2%) respondents reported at least one preventive measure: 85.8% washed their hands with soap more frequently; 56.5% avoided crowded areas and 54.5% avoided social events. Adoption of social distancing measures was higher in those aged over 70 years compared with younger adults aged 18-34 years (adjusted relative risk/aRR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5). Those with lowest household income were three times less likely to be able to work from home (aRR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.45) and less likely to be able to self-isolate (aRR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96). Ability to self-isolate was also lower in black and minority ethnic groups (aRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.0). Willingness to self-isolate was high across all respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Ability to adopt and comply with certain non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is lower in the most economically disadvantaged in society. Governments must implement appropriate social and economic policies to mitigate this. By incorporating these differences in NPIs among socioeconomic subpopulations into mathematical models of COV

Journal article

Hsieh YL, Jahn A, Menzies NA, Yaesoubi R, Salomon JA, Girma B, Gunde L, Eaton JW, Auld A, Odo M, Kiyiika CN, Kalua T, Chiwandira B, Mpunga JU, Mbendra K, Corbett L, Hosseinipour MC, Cohen T, Kunkel Aet al., 2020, Evaluation of 6-Month Versus Continuous Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Adults Living With HIV/AIDS in Malawi., J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, Vol: 85, Pages: 643-650

BACKGROUND: To assist the Malawi Ministry of Health to evaluate 2 competing strategies for scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy. SETTING: Malawi. METHODS: We used a multidistrict, compartmental model of the Malawi tuberculosis (TB)/HIV epidemic to compare the anticipated health impacts of 6-month versus continuous IPT programs over a 12-year horizon while respecting a US$10.8 million constraint on drug costs in the first 3 years. RESULTS: The 6-month IPT program could be implemented nationwide, whereas the continuous IPT alternative could be introduced in 14 (of the 27) districts. By the end of year 12, the continuous IPT strategy was predicted to avert more TB cases than the 6-month alternative, although not statistically significant (2368 additional cases averted; 95% projection interval [PI], -1459 to 5023). The 6-month strategy required fewer person-years of IPT to avert a case of TB or death than the continuous strategy. For both programs, the mean reductions in TB incidence among people living with HIV by year 12 were expected to be <10%, and the cumulative numbers of IPT-related hepatotoxicity to exceed the number of all-cause deaths averted in the first 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: With the given budgetary constraint, the nationwide implementation of 6-month IPT would be more efficient and yield comparable health benefits than implementing a continuous IPT program in fewer districts. The anticipated health effects associated with both IPT strategies suggested that a combination of different TB intervention strategies would likely be required to yield a greater impact on TB control in settings such as Malawi, where antiretroviral therapycoverage is relatively high.

Journal article

Hsieh YL, Jahn A, Menzies NA, Yaesoubi R, Salomon JA, Girma B, Gunde L, Eaton JW, Auld A, Odo M, Kiyiika CN, Kalua T, Chiwandira B, Mpunga JU, Mbendra K, Corbett L, Hosseinipour MC, Cohen T, Kunkel Aet al., 2020, An evaluation of 6-month versus continuous isoniazid preventive therapy for M. tuberculosis in adults living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi., JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol: 85, Pages: 643-650, ISSN: 1525-4135

BACKGROUND: To assist the Malawi Ministry of Health to evaluate two competing strategies for scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive adults receiving ART. SETTING: Malawi. METHODS: We used a multi-district, compartmental model of the Malawi TB/HIV epidemic to compare the anticipated health impacts of 6-month versus continuous IPT programs over a 12-year horizon, while respecting a US$10.8 million constraint on drug costs in the first three years. RESULTS: The 6-month IPT program could be implemented nationwide while the continuous IPT alternative could be introduced in 14 (out of 27) districts. By the end of year 12, the continuous IPT strategy was predicted to avert more TB cases than the 6-month alternative, although not statistically significantly (2368 additional cases averted; 95%PI, -1459, 5023). The 6-month strategy required fewer person-years of IPT to avert a case of TB or death than the continuous strategy. For both programs, the mean reductions in TB incidence among PLHIV by year 12 were expected to be <10%, and the cumulative numbers of IPT-related hepatotoxicity to exceed the number of all-cause deaths averted in the first three years. CONCLUSION: With the given budgetary constraint, nationwide implementation of 6-month IPT would be more efficient and yield comparable health benefits than implementing continuous IPT program in fewer districts. The anticipated health effects associated with both IPT strategies suggested a combination of different TB intervention strategies would likely be required to yield greater impact on TB control in settings like Malawi, where ART coverage is relatively high.

Journal article

Eilerts H, Prieto JR, Eaton J, Reniers Get al., 2020, Age patterns of under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa during 1990-2018: A comparison of estimates from demographic surveillance with full birth histories and the historic record, Demographic Research, ISSN: 1435-9871

Journal article

Unwin H, Mishra S, Bradley V, Gandy A, Mellan T, Coupland H, Ish-Horowicz J, Vollmer M, Whittaker C, Filippi S, Xi X, Monod M, Ratmann O, Hutchinson M, Valka F, Zhu H, Hawryluk I, Milton P, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Cattarino L, Cucunuba Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dorigatti I, Eales O, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Hinsley W, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D, Lees J, Nedjati-Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Okell L, Parag K, Siveroni I, Thompson H, Walker P, Walters C, Watson O, Whittles L, Ghani A, Ferguson N, Riley S, Donnelly C, Bhatt S, Flaxman Set al., 2020, State-level tracking of COVID-19 in the United States, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

As of 1st June 2020, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 104,232 confirmed or probable COVID-19-related deaths in the US. This was more than twice the number of deaths reported in the next most severely impacted country. We jointly model the US epidemic at the state-level, using publicly available deathdata within a Bayesian hierarchical semi-mechanistic framework. For each state, we estimate the number of individuals that have been infected, the number of individuals that are currently infectious and the time-varying reproduction number (the average number of secondary infections caused by an infected person). We use changes in mobility to capture the impact that non-pharmaceutical interventions and other behaviour changes have on therate of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We estimate thatRtwas only below one in 23 states on 1st June. We also estimate that 3.7% [3.4%-4.0%] of the total population of the US had been infected, with wide variation between states, and approximately 0.01% of the population was infectious. We demonstrate good 3 week model forecasts of deaths with low error and good coverage of our credible intervals.

Journal article

Sheng B, Eaton JW, Mahy M, Bao Let al., 2020, Comparison of HIV prevalence among antenatal clinic attendees estimated from routine testing and unlinked anonymous testing, Statistics in Biosciences, Vol: 12, Pages: 279-294, ISSN: 1867-1772

In 2015, WHO and UNAIDS released new guidance recommending that countries transition from conducting antenatal clinic (ANC) unlinked anonymous testing (ANC-UAT) for tracking HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women to using ANC routine testing (ANC-RT) data, which are more consistent and economic to collect. This transition could pose challenges for distinguishing whether changes in observed prevalence are due to a change in underlying population prevalence or due to a change in the testing approach. We compared the HIV prevalence measured from ANC-UAT and ANC-RT in 15 countries that had both data sources in overlapping years. We used linear mixed-effects model (LMM) to estimate the RT-to-UAT calibration parameter as well as other unobserved quantities. We summarized the results at different levels of aggregation (e.g., country, urban, rural, and province). Based on our analysis, the HIV prevalence measured by ANC-UAT and ANC-RT data are consistent in most countries. Therefore, if large discrepancy is observed between ANC-UAT and ANC-RT at the same location, we recommend that people should be cautious and investigate the reason. For countries that lack information to estimate the calibration parameter, we propose an informative prior distribution of mean 0 and standard deviation 0.2 for the RT-to-UAT calibration parameter.

Journal article

Xia Y, Milwid RM, Godin A, Boily M-C, Johnson LF, Marsh K, Eaton J, Maheu-Giroux Met al., 2020, Accuracy of self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status among people living with HIV in four Sub-Saharan African countries, AIDS, ISSN: 0269-9370

Background: In many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status from household surveys are used to estimate the percentage of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who know their HIV status. Despite widespread use, there is limited empirical information on the sensitivity of those self-reports, which can be affected by non-disclosure.Methods: Bayesian latent class models were used to estimate the sensitivity of self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status in four Population-based HIV Impact Assessment surveys in Eswatini, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. Antiretroviral (ARV) metabolites biomarkers were used to identify persons on treatment who did not accurately report their status. For those without ARV biomarkers, the pooled estimate of non-disclosure among untreated persons was 1.48 higher than those on treatment.Results: Among PLHIV, the model-estimated sensitivity of self-reported HIV testing history ranged from 96% to 99% across surveys. The model-estimated sensitivity of self-reported awareness of HIV status varied from 91% to 97%. Non-disclosure was generally higher among men and those aged 15–24 years. Adjustments for imperfect sensitivity did not substantially influence estimates of PLHIV ever tested (difference <4%) but the proportion of PLHIV aware of their HIV-positive status was higher than the unadjusted proportion (difference <8%).Conclusions: Self-reported HIV testing histories in four Eastern and Southern African countries are generally robust although adjustment for non-disclosure increases estimated awareness of status. These findings can contribute to further refinements in methods for monitoring progress along the HIV testing and treatment cascade.

Journal article

Giguere K, Eaton J, Marsh K, Johnson L, Johnson CC, Ehui E, Jahn A, Wanyeki I, Mbofana F, Bakiono F, Mahy M, Maheu-Giroux Met al., 2020, Trends in knowledge of HIV status and efficiency of HIV testing services in Sub-Saharan Africa (2000-2020): a modelling study of survey and HIV testing program data, The Lancet HIV, ISSN: 2405-4704

Background: Monitoring knowledge of HIV status (KOS) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential for an effective national HIV response. This study estimates progress and gaps in reaching the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90% KOS, and the efficiency of HIV testing services (HTS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where two thirds of all PLHIV live. Methods: We used data from 183 population-based surveys (N=2·7 million participants) and national HTS programs (N=315 country-years) from 40 countries as inputs into a mathematical model to examine trends in KOS among PLHIV, median time from HIV infection to diagnosis, HIV testing positivity, and proportion of new diagnoses among all positive tests, adjusting for retesting.Findings: Across SSA, KOS steadily increased from 6% (95% credible interval [95%CrI]: 5% to 7%) in 2000 to 84% (95%CrI: 82% to 86%) in 2020. Twelve countries and one region, Southern Africa, reached the 90% target. In 2020, KOS was lower among men (79%) than women (87%) across SSA. PLHIV aged 15-24 years were the least likely to know their status (65%), but the largest gap in terms of absolute numbers was among men aged 35-49 years, with over 700,000 left undiagnosed. As KOS increased from 2000 to 2020, the median time to diagnosis decreased from 10 to 3 years, HIV testing positivity declined from 9% to 3%, and the proportion of first-time diagnoses among all positive tests dropped from 89% to 42%.Interpretation: On the path towards the next UNAIDS target of 95% diagnostic coverage by 2030, and in a context of declining positivity and yield of first-time diagnoses, we need to focus on addressing disparities in KOS. Increasing KOS and treatment coverage among older men could be critical to reduce HIV incidence among women in SSA, and by extension, reducing mother-to-child transmission.

Journal article

Schafer R, Thomas R, Robertson L, Eaton J, Mushati P, Nyamukapa C, Hauck K, Gregson Set al., 2020, Spillover HIV prevention effects of a cash transfer trial in East Zimbabwe: evidence from a cluster-randomised trial and general-population survey, BMC Public Health, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2458

BackgroundBenefits of cash transfers (CTs) for HIV prevention have been demonstrated largely in purposively designed trials, commonly focusing on young women. It is less clear if CT interventions not designed for HIV prevention can have HIV-specific effects, including adverse effects. The cluster-randomised Manicaland Cash Transfer Trial (2010–11) evaluated effects of CTs on children’s (2–17 years) development in eastern Zimbabwe. We evaluated whether this CT intervention with no HIV-specific objectives had unintended HIV prevention spillover effects (externalities).MethodsData on 2909 individuals (15–54 years) living in trial households were taken from a general-population survey, conducted simultaneously in the same communities as the Manicaland Trial. Average treatment effects (ATEs) of CTs on sexual behaviour (any recent sex, condom use, multiple partners) and secondary outcomes (mental distress, school enrolment, and alcohol/cigarette/drug consumption) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regressions (random effects for study site and intervention cluster), by sex and age group (15–29; 30–54 years). Outcomes were also evaluated with a larger synthetic comparison group created through propensity score matching.ResultsCTs did not affect sexual debut but reduced having any recent sex (past 30 days) among young males (ATE: − 11.7 percentage points [PP] [95% confidence interval: -26.0PP, 2.61PP]) and females (− 5.68PP [− 15.7PP, 4.34PP]), with similar but less uncertain estimates when compared against the synthetic comparison group (males: -9.68PP [− 13.1PP, − 6.30PP]; females: -8.77PP [− 16.3PP, − 1.23PP]). There were no effects among older individuals. Young (but not older) males receiving CTs reported increased multiple partnerships (8.49PP [− 5.40PP, 22.4PP]; synthetic comparison: 10.3PP (1

Journal article

Xia Y, Milwid R, Godin A, Boily M-C, Johnson L, Marsh K, Eaton J, Maheu-Giroux Met al., 2020, Accuracy of self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status among people living with HIV in four Sub-Saharan African countries

Background: In many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status from household surveys are used to estimate the percentage of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who know their HIV status. Despite widespread use, there is limited empirical information on the sensitivity of those self-reports, which can be affected by non-disclosure. Methods: Bayesian latent class models were used to estimate the sensitivity of self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status in four Population-based HIV Impact Assessment surveys in Eswatini, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. Antiretroviral (ARV) metabolites biomarkers were used to identify persons on treatment who did not accurately report their status. For those without ARV biomarkers, the pooled estimate of non-disclosure among untreated persons was 1.48 higher than those on treatment. Results: Among PLHIV, the sensitivity of self-reported HIV testing history ranged 96% to 99% across surveys. Sensitivity of self-reported awareness of HIV status varied from 91% to 97%. Non-disclosure was generally higher among men and those aged 15-24 years. Adjustments for imperfect sensitivity did not substantially influence estimates of of PLHIV ever tested (difference <4%) but the proportion of PLHIV aware of their HIV-positive status was higher than the unadjusted proportion (difference <8%). Conclusions: Self-reported HIV testing histories in four Eastern and Southern African countries are generally robust although adjustment for non-disclosure increases estimated awareness of status. These findings can contribute to further refinements in methods for monitoring progress along the HIV testing and treatment cascade.

Working paper

Hogan A, Jewell B, Sherrard-Smith E, Watson O, Whittaker C, Hamlet A, Smith J, Winskill P, Verity R, Baguelin M, Lees J, Whittles L, Ainslie K, Bhatt S, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Cattarino L, Cooper L, Coupland H, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Donnelly C, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Fu H, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Haw D, Hayes S, Hinsley W, Imai N, Laydon D, Mangal T, Mellan T, Mishra S, Parag K, Thompson H, Unwin H, Vollmer M, Walters C, Wang H, Ferguson N, Okell L, Churcher T, Arinaminpathy N, Ghani A, Walker P, Hallett Tet al., 2020, Potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV, TB and malaria in low- and middle-income countries: a modelling study, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 8, Pages: e1132-e1141, ISSN: 2214-109X

Background: COVID-19 has the potential to cause substantial disruptions to health services, including by cases overburdening the health system or response measures limiting usual programmatic activities. We aimed to quantify the extent to which disruptions in services for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in low- and middle-income countries with high burdens of those disease could lead to additional loss of life. Methods: We constructed plausible scenarios for the disruptions that could be incurred during the COVID-19 pandemic and used established transmission models for each disease to estimate the additional impact on health that could be caused in selected settings.Findings: In high burden settings, HIV-, TB- and malaria-related deaths over five years may increase by up to 10%, 20% and 36%, respectively, compared to if there were no COVID-19 pandemic. We estimate the greatest impact on HIV to be from interruption to antiretroviral therapy, which may occur during a period of high health system demand. For TB, we estimate the greatest impact is from reductions in timely diagnosis and treatment of new cases, which may result from any prolonged period of COVID-19 suppression interventions. We estimate that the greatest impact on malaria burden could come from interruption of planned net campaigns. These disruptions could lead to loss of life-years over five years that is of the same order of magnitude as the direct impact from COVID-19 in places with a high burden of malaria and large HIV/TB epidemics.Interpretation: Maintaining the most critical prevention activities and healthcare services for HIV, TB and malaria could significantly reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The Wellcome Trust, DFID, MRC

Journal article

Flaxman S, Mishra S, Gandy A, Unwin HJT, Mellan TA, Coupland H, Whittaker C, Zhu H, Berah T, Eaton JW, Monod M, Perez Guzman PN, Schmit N, Cilloni L, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Boonyasiri A, Boyd O, Cattarino L, Cucunuba Perez Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Dorigatti I, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Gaythorpe K, Geidelberg L, Grassly N, Green W, Hallett T, Hamlet A, Hinsley W, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Parag K, Siveroni I, Thompson H, Verity R, Volz E, Walters C, Wang H, Watson O, Winskill P, Xi X, Walker P, Ghani AC, Donnelly CA, Riley SM, Vollmer MAC, Ferguson NM, Okell LC, Bhatt Set al., 2020, Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe, Nature, Vol: 584, Pages: 257-261, ISSN: 0028-0836

Following the emergence of a novel coronavirus1 (SARS-CoV-2) and its spread outside of China, Europe has experienced large epidemics. In response, many European countries have implemented unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions such as closure of schools and national lockdowns. We study the impact of major interventions across 11 European countries for the period from the start of COVID-19 until the 4th of May 2020 when lockdowns started to be lifted. Our model calculates backwards from observed deaths to estimate transmission that occurred several weeks prior, allowing for the time lag between infection and death. We use partial pooling of information between countries with both individual and shared effects on the reproduction number. Pooling allows more information to be used, helps overcome data idiosyncrasies, and enables more timely estimates. Our model relies on fixed estimates of some epidemiological parameters such as the infection fatality rate, does not include importation or subnational variation and assumes that changes in the reproduction number are an immediate response to interventions rather than gradual changes in behavior. Amidst the ongoing pandemic, we rely on death data that is incomplete, with systematic biases in reporting, and subject to future consolidation. We estimate that, for all the countries we consider, current interventions have been sufficient to drive the reproduction number Rt below 1 (probability Rt< 1.0 is 99.9%) and achieve epidemic control. We estimate that, across all 11 countries, between 12 and 15 million individuals have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 up to 4th May, representing between 3.2% and 4.0% of the population. Our results show that major non-pharmaceutical interventions and lockdown in particular have had a large effect on reducing transmission. Continued intervention should be considered to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control.

Journal article

Revill P, Phillips A, Eaton JW, Hallett TBet al., 2020, Modelling and economic evaluation to inform WHO HIV treatment guidelines, Global Health Economics: Shaping Health Policy In Low- And Middle-income Countries, Pages: 275-285, ISBN: 9789813272361

© 2020 The Author(s). International organizations influence national-level health sector priorities by affecting how much funding is available for health care delivery within countries and how that funding is used. The setting of guidelines for the management of diseases (e.g. for malaria, child health, nutrition) by the World Health Organization (WHO) exerts particular influence. Guidelines typically provide syntheses of evidence on clinical efficacy and effectiveness and make recommendations for health care best practice. However, for the most part, they do not well inform the allocation of limited available health care resources. Consequentially, they risk encouraging national and international decision-makers to divert resources away from areas of greater potential gains in population health. In this case study, we reflect upon efforts to incorporate economic evidence into the development of the WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines. We describe how the WHO has incorporated economic insight into these and other guidelines. However, even in this case, the processes currently followed for guideline development can limit the extent to which recommendations can draw upon economic evidence. Changes in the way WHO Guidelines are developed and interpreted, and how evidence is used to inform decision-making at the country level, is therefore required. We give our thoughts on what these changes could be.

Book chapter

Unwin H, Mishra S, Bradley VC, Gandy A, Vollmer M, Mellan T, Coupland H, Ainslie K, Whittaker C, Ish-Horowicz J, Filippi S, Xi X, Monod M, Ratmann O, Hutchinson M, Valka F, Zhu H, Hawryluk I, Milton P, Baguelin M, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Cattarino L, Charles G, Cooper L, Cucunuba Perez Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Djaafara A, Dorigatti I, Eales O, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Hallett T, Hinsley W, Imai N, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D, Lees J, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Okell L, Ower A, Parag K, Siveroni I, Thompson H, Verity R, Walker P, Walters C, Wang Y, Watson O, Whittles L, Ghani A, Ferguson N, Riley S, Donnelly C, Bhatt S, Flaxman Set al., 2020, Report 23: State-level tracking of COVID-19 in the United States

our estimates show that the percentage of individuals that have been infected is 4.1% [3.7%-4.5%], with widevariation between states. For all states, even for the worst affected states, we estimate that less than a quarter of thepopulation has been infected; in New York, for example, we estimate that 16.6% [12.8%-21.6%] of individuals have beeninfected to date. Our attack rates for New York are in line with those from recent serological studies [1] broadly supportingour choice of infection fatality rate.There is variation in the initial reproduction number, which is likely due to a range of factors; we find a strong associationbetween the initial reproduction number with both population density (measured at the state level) and the chronologicaldate when 10 cumulative deaths occurred (a crude estimate of the date of locally sustained transmission).Our estimates suggest that the epidemic is not under control in much of the US: as of 17 May 2020 the reproductionnumber is above the critical threshold (1.0) in 24 [95% CI: 20-30] states. Higher reproduction numbers are geographicallyclustered in the South and Midwest, where epidemics are still developing, while we estimate lower reproduction numbersin states that have already suffered high COVID-19 mortality (such as the Northeast). These estimates suggest that cautionmust be taken in loosening current restrictions if effective additional measures are not put in place.We predict that increased mobility following relaxation of social distancing will lead to resurgence of transmission, keepingall else constant. We predict that deaths over the next two-month period could exceed current cumulative deathsby greater than two-fold, if the relationship between mobility and transmission remains unchanged. Our results suggestthat factors modulating transmission such as rapid testing, contact tracing and behavioural precautions are crucial to offsetthe rise of transmission associated with loosening of social distancing. Overall, we

Report

Mellan T, Hoeltgebaum H, Mishra S, Whittaker C, Schnekenberg R, Gandy A, Unwin H, Vollmer M, Coupland H, Hawryluk I, Rodrigues Faria N, Vesga J, Zhu H, Hutchinson M, Ratmann O, Monod M, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Bhatia S, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Charles G, Cooper L, Cucunuba Perez Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Fraser K, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Hayes S, Imai N, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D, Lees J, Mangal T, Mousa A, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Olivera Mesa D, Parag K, Pickles M, Thompson H, Verity R, Walters C, Wang H, Wang Y, Watson O, Whittles L, Xi X, Okell L, Dorigatti I, Walker P, Ghani A, Riley S, Ferguson N, Donnelly C, Flaxman S, Bhatt Set al., 2020, Report 21: Estimating COVID-19 cases and reproduction number in Brazil

Brazil is an epicentre for COVID-19 in Latin America. In this report we describe the Brazilian epidemicusing three epidemiological measures: the number of infections, the number of deaths and the reproduction number. Our modelling framework requires sufficient death data to estimate trends, and wetherefore limit our analysis to 16 states that have experienced a total of more than fifty deaths. Thedistribution of deaths among states is highly heterogeneous, with 5 states—São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,Ceará, Pernambuco and Amazonas—accounting for 81% of deaths reported to date. In these states, weestimate that the percentage of people that have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 ranges from 3.3% (95%CI: 2.8%-3.7%) in São Paulo to 10.6% (95% CI: 8.8%-12.1%) in Amazonas. The reproduction number (ameasure of transmission intensity) at the start of the epidemic meant that an infected individual wouldinfect three or four others on average. Following non-pharmaceutical interventions such as school closures and decreases in population mobility, we show that the reproduction number has dropped substantially in each state. However, for all 16 states we study, we estimate with high confidence that thereproduction number remains above 1. A reproduction number above 1 means that the epidemic isnot yet controlled and will continue to grow. These trends are in stark contrast to other major COVID19 epidemics in Europe and Asia where enforced lockdowns have successfully driven the reproductionnumber below 1. While the Brazilian epidemic is still relatively nascent on a national scale, our resultssuggest that further action is needed to limit spread and prevent health system overload.

Report

Vollmer M, Mishra S, Unwin H, Gandy A, Melan T, Bradley V, Zhu H, Coupland H, Hawryluk I, Hutchinson M, Ratmann O, Monod M, Walker P, Whittaker C, Cattarino L, Ciavarella C, Cilloni L, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Bhatia S, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Charles G, Cooper L, Cucunuba Perez Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Hayes S, Imai N, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D, Lees J, Mangal T, Mousa A, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Olivera Mesa D, Parag K, Pickles M, Thompson H, Verity R, Walters C, Wang H, Wang Y, Watson O, Whittles L, Xi X, Ghani A, Riley S, Okell L, Donnelly C, Ferguson N, Dorigatti I, Flaxman S, Bhatt Set al., 2020, Report 20: A sub-national analysis of the rate of transmission of Covid-19 in Italy

Italy was the first European country to experience sustained local transmission of COVID-19. As of 1st May 2020, the Italian health authorities reported 28; 238 deaths nationally. To control the epidemic, the Italian government implemented a suite of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including school and university closures, social distancing and full lockdown involving banning of public gatherings and non essential movement. In this report, we model the effect of NPIs on transmission using data on average mobility. We estimate that the average reproduction number (a measure of transmission intensity) is currently below one for all Italian regions, and significantly so for the majority of the regions. Despite the large number of deaths, the proportion of population that has been infected by SARS-CoV-2 (the attack rate) is far from the herd immunity threshold in all Italian regions, with the highest attack rate observed in Lombardy (13.18% [10.66%-16.70%]). Italy is set to relax the currently implemented NPIs from 4th May 2020. Given the control achieved by NPIs, we consider three scenarios for the next 8 weeks: a scenario in which mobility remains the same as during the lockdown, a scenario in which mobility returns to pre-lockdown levels by 20%, and a scenario in which mobility returns to pre-lockdown levels by 40%. The scenarios explored assume that mobility is scaled evenly across all dimensions, that behaviour stays the same as before NPIs were implemented, that no pharmaceutical interventions are introduced, and it does not include transmission reduction from contact tracing, testing and the isolation of confirmed or suspected cases. We find that, in the absence of additional interventions, even a 20% return to pre-lockdown mobility could lead to a resurgence in the number of deaths far greater than experienced in the current wave in several regions. Future increases in the number of deaths will lag behind the increase in transmission intensity and so a

Report

Hogan A, Jewell B, Sherrard-Smith E, Vesga J, Watson O, Whittaker C, Hamlet A, Smith J, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Bhatt S, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N, Cattarino L, Charles G, Cooper L, Coupland H, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Donnelly C, Dorigatti I, Eaton J, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Fu H, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Haw D, Hayes S, Hinsley W, Imai N, Knock E, Laydon D, Lees J, Mangal T, Mellan T, Mishra S, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Okell L, Ower A, Parag K, Pickles M, Stopard I, Thompson H, Unwin H, Verity R, Vollmer M, Walters C, Wang H, Wang Y, Whittles L, Winskill P, Xi X, Ferguson N, Churcher T, Arinaminpathy N, Ghani A, Walker P, Hallett Tet al., 2020, Report 19: The potential impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV, TB and malaria in low- and middle-income countries

COVID-19 has the potential to cause disruptions to health services in different ways; through the health system becoming overwhelmed with COVID-19 patients, through the intervention used to slow transmission of COVID-19 inhibiting access to preventative interventions and services, and through supplies of medicine being interrupted. We aim to quantify the extent to which such disruptions in services for HIV, TB and malaria in high burden low- and middle-income countries could lead to additional loss of life. In high burden settings, HIV, TB and malaria related deaths over 5 years may be increased by up to 10%, 20% and 36%, respectively, compared to if there were no COVID-19 epidemic. We estimate the greatest impact on HIV to be from interruption to ART, which may occur during a period of high or extremely high health system demand; for TB, we estimate the greatest impact is from reductions in timely diagnosis and treatment of new cases, which may result from a long period of COVID-19 suppression interventions; for malaria, we estimate that the greatest impact could come from reduced prevention activities including interruption of planned net campaigns, through all phases of the COVID-19 epidemic. In high burden settings, the impact of each type of disruption could be significant and lead to a loss of life-years over five years that is of the same order of magnitude as the direct impact from COVID-19 in places with a high burden of malaria and large HIV/TB epidemics. Maintaining the most critical prevention activities and healthcare services for HIV, TB and malaria could significantly reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 epidemic.

Report

Flaxman S, Mishra S, Gandy A, Unwin H, Coupland H, Mellan T, Zhu H, Berah T, Eaton J, Perez Guzman P, Schmit N, Cilloni L, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Blake I, Boonyasiri A, Boyd O, Cattarino L, Ciavarella C, Cooper L, Cucunuba Perez Z, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara A, Dorigatti I, van Elsland S, Fitzjohn R, Fu H, Gaythorpe K, Geidelberg L, Grassly N, Green W, Hallett T, Hamlet A, Hinsley W, Jeffrey B, Jorgensen D, Knock E, Laydon D, Nedjati Gilani G, Nouvellet P, Parag K, Siveroni I, Thompson H, Verity R, Volz E, Walters C, Wang H, Wang Y, Watson O, Winskill P, Xi X, Whittaker C, Walker P, Ghani A, Donnelly C, Riley S, Okell L, Vollmer M, Ferguson N, Bhatt Set al., 2020, Report 13: Estimating the number of infections and the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in 11 European countries

Following the emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and its spread outside of China, Europe is now experiencing large epidemics. In response, many European countries have implemented unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions including case isolation, the closure of schools and universities, banning of mass gatherings and/or public events, and most recently, widescale social distancing including local and national lockdowns. In this report, we use a semi-mechanistic Bayesian hierarchical model to attempt to infer the impact of these interventions across 11 European countries. Our methods assume that changes in the reproductive number – a measure of transmission - are an immediate response to these interventions being implemented rather than broader gradual changes in behaviour. Our model estimates these changes by calculating backwards from the deaths observed over time to estimate transmission that occurred several weeks prior, allowing for the time lag between infection and death. One of the key assumptions of the model is that each intervention has the same effect on the reproduction number across countries and over time. This allows us to leverage a greater amount of data across Europe to estimate these effects. It also means that our results are driven strongly by the data from countries with more advanced epidemics, and earlier interventions, such as Italy and Spain. We find that the slowing growth in daily reported deaths in Italy is consistent with a significant impact of interventions implemented several weeks earlier. In Italy, we estimate that the effective reproduction number, Rt, dropped to close to 1 around the time of lockdown (11th March), although with a high level of uncertainty. Overall, we estimate that countries have managed to reduce their reproduction number. Our estimates have wide credible intervals and contain 1 for countries that have implemented all interventions considered in our analysis. This means that the reproducti

Report

Atchison C, Bowman L, Eaton J, Imai N, Redd R, Pristera P, Vrinten C, Ward Het al., 2020, Report 10: Public response to UK Government recommendations on COVID-19: population survey, 17-18 March 2020, 10

On Monday 16th March 2020 the UK government announced new actions to control COVID-19. These recommendations directly affected the entire UK population, and included the following: stop non-essential contact with others; stop all unnecessary travel; start working from home where possible; avoid pubs, clubs, theatres and other such social venues; and to isolate at home for 14 days if anyone in the household has a high temperature or a new and continuous cough. To capture public sentiment towards these recommendations, a YouGov survey was commissioned by the Patient Experience Research Centre (PERC), Imperial College London. The survey was completed by 2,108 UK adults between the dates of 17th – 18th March 2020. The survey results show the following:• 77% reported being worried about the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK.• 48% of adults who have not tested positive for COVID-19 believe it is likely they will be infected at some point in the future.• 93% of adults reported personally taking at least one measure to protect themselves from COVID-19 infection, including:o 83% washed their hands more frequently;o 52% avoided crowded areas;o 50% avoided social events;o 36% avoided public transport;o 31% avoided going out;o 11% avoided going to work;o 28% avoided travel to areas outside the UK.• There is high reported ability and willingness to self-isolate for 7 days* if advised to do so by a health professional (88%).• However only 44% reported being able to work from home. This was higher among managerial and professional workers (60%) than manual, semi-skilled, and casual workers (19%)^, reflecting less flexible job roles for manual and lower grade workers. • 71% reported changing behaviour in response to government guidance. The figure (53%) was lower for young adults (18-24 year-olds).• Hand washing (63%), avoiding persons with symptoms (61%), and covering your sneeze (53%) were more likely to be perceived as ‘very effective&rs

Report

Berman P, Revill P, Phillips A, Eaton JW, Hallett TBet al., 2020, Modelling and Economic Evaluation to Inform WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, World Scientific Series in Global Health Economics and Public Policy, Pages: 275-285

© 2020 The Author(s). International organizations influence national-level health sector priorities by affecting how much funding is available for health care delivery within countries and how that funding is used. The setting of guidelines for the management of diseases (e.g. for malaria, child health, nutrition) by the World Health Organization (WHO) exerts particular influence. Guidelines typically provide syntheses of evidence on clinical efficacy and effectiveness and make recommendations for health care best practice. However, for the most part, they do not well inform the allocation of limited available health care resources. Consequentially, they risk encouraging national and international decision-makers to divert resources away from areas of greater potential gains in population health. In this case study, we reflect upon efforts to incorporate economic evidence into the development of the WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines. We describe how the WHO has incorporated economic insight into these and other guidelines. However, even in this case, the processes currently followed for guideline development can limit the extent to which recommendations can draw upon economic evidence. Changes in the way WHO Guidelines are developed and interpreted, and how evidence is used to inform decision-making at the country level, is therefore required. We give our thoughts on what these changes could be.

Book chapter

Mahiane SG, Marsh K, Glaubius R, Eaton JWet al., 2019, Estimating and projecting the number of new HIV diagnoses and incidence in Spectrum's case surveillance and vital registration tool., AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S245-S253, ISSN: 0269-9370

OBJECTIVE: The United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS-supported Spectrum software package is used by most countries worldwide to monitor the HIV epidemic. In Spectrum, HIV incidence trends among adults (aged 15-49 years) are derived by either fitting to seroprevalence surveillance and survey data or generating curves consistent with case surveillance and vital registration data, such as historical trends in the number of newly diagnosed infections or AIDS-related deaths. This article describes development and application of the case surveillance and vital registration (CSAVR) tool for United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS' 2019 estimate round. METHODS: Incidence in CSAVR is either estimated directly using single logistic, double logistic, or spline functions, or indirectly via the 'r-logistic' model, which represents the (log-transformed) per-capita transmission rate using a logistic function. The propensity to get diagnosed is assumed to be monotonic, following a Gamma cumulative distribution function and proportional to mortality as a function of time since infection. Model parameters are estimated from a combination of historical surveillance data on newly reported HIV cases, mean CD4 at HIV diagnosis and estimates of AIDS-related deaths from vital registration systems. Bayesian calibration is used to identify the best fitting incidence trend and uncertainty bounds. RESULTS: We used CSAVR to estimate HIV incidence, number of new diagnoses, mean CD4 at diagnosis and the proportion undiagnosed in 31 European, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Asian-Pacific countries. The spline model appeared to provide the best fit in most countries (45%), followed by the r-logistic (25%), double logistic (25%), and single logistic models. The proportion of HIV-positive people who knew their status increased from about 0.31 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.10-0.45] in 1990 to about 0.77 (IQR: 0.50-0.89) in 2017. The mean CD4 at diagnosis appeared to be stable, decreasing from 410 cells/&m

Journal article

Johnson LF, Anderegg N, Zaniewski E, Eaton JW, Rebeiro PF, Carriquiry G, Nash D, Yotebieng M, Ekouevi DK, Holmes CB, Choi JY, Jiamsakul A, Bakoyannis G, Althoff KN, Sohn AH, Yiannoutsos C, Egger M, International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS IeDEA Collaborationet al., 2019, Global variations in mortality in adults after initiating antiretroviral treatment: an updated analysis of the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS cohort collaboration., AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S283-S294, ISSN: 0269-9370

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS models use data from the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration in setting assumptions about mortality rates after antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. This study aims to update these assumptions with new data, to quantify the extent of regional variation in ART mortality and to assess trends in ART mortality. METHODS: Adult ART patients from Africa, Asia and the Americas were included if they had a known date of ART initiation during 2001-2017 and a baseline CD4 cell count. In cohorts that relied only on passive follow-up (no patient tracing or linkage to vital registration systems), mortality outcomes were imputed in patients lost to follow-up based on a meta-analysis of tracing study data. Poisson regression models were fitted to the mortality data. RESULTS: 464 048 ART patients were included. In multivariable analysis, mortality rates were lowest in Asia and highest in Africa, with no significant differences between African regions. Adjusted mortality rates varied significantly between programmes within regions. Mortality rates in the first 12 months after ART initiation were significantly higher during 2001-2006 than during 2010-2014, although the difference was more substantial in Asia and the Americas [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.43, 95% CI: 1.22-1.66] than in Africa (aIRR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04-1.11). CONCLUSION: There is substantial variation in ART mortality between and within regions, even after controlling for differences in mortality by age, sex, baseline CD4 category and calendar period. ART mortality rates have declined substantially over time, although declines have been slower in Africa.

Journal article

Eaton JW, Brown T, Puckett R, Glaubius R, Mutai K, Bao L, Salomon JA, Stover J, Mahy M, Hallett TBet al., 2019, The estimation and projection package age-sex model and the r-hybrid model: new tools for estimating HIV incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa., AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S235-S244, ISSN: 0269-9370

OBJECTIVES: Improve models for estimating HIV epidemic trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: Mathematical epidemic model fit to national HIV survey and ANC sentinel surveillance (ANC-SS) data. METHODS: We modified EPP to incorporate age and sex stratification (EPP-ASM) to more accurately capture the shifting demographics of maturing HIV epidemics. Secondly, we developed a new functional form for the HIV transmission rate, termed 'r-hybrid', which combines a four-parameter logistic function for the initial epidemic growth, peak, and decline followed by a first-order random walk for recent trends after epidemic stabilization. We fitted the r-hybrid model along with previously developed r-spline and r-trend models to HIV prevalence data from household surveys and ANC-SS in 177 regions in 34 SSA countries. We used leave-one-out cross validation with household survey HIV prevalence to compare model predictions. RESULTS: The r-hybrid and r-spline models typically provided similar HIV prevalence trends, but sometimes qualitatively different assessments of recent incidence trends because of different structural assumptions about the HIV transmission rate. The r-hybrid model had the lowest average continuous ranked probability score, indicating the best model predictions. Coverage of 95% posterior predictive intervals was 91.5% for the r-hybrid model, versus 87.2 and 85.5% for r-spline and r-trend, respectively. CONCLUSION: The EPP-ASM and r-hybrid models improve consistency of EPP and Spectrum, improve the epidemiological assumptions underpinning recent HIV incidence estimates, and improve estimates and short-term projections of HIV prevalence trends. Countries that use general population survey and ANC-SS data to estimate HIV epidemic trends should consider using these tools.

Journal article

Maheu-Giroux M, Jahn A, Kalua T, Mganga A, Eaton JWet al., 2019, HIV surveillance based on routine testing data from antenatal clinics in Malawi (2011–2018): measuring and adjusting for bias from imperfect testing coverage, AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S295-S302, ISSN: 0269-9370

Objective: The use of routinely collected data from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs (ANC-RT) has been proposed to monitor HIV epidemic trends. This poses several challenges for surveillance, one of them being that women may opt-out of testing and/or test stock-outs may result in inconsistent service availability. In this study, we sought to empirically quantify the relationship between imperfect HIV testing coverage and HIV prevalence among pregnant women from ANC-RT data.Design: We used reports from the ANC Register of all antenatal care (ANC) sites in Malawi (2011–2018), including 49 244 monthly observations, from 764 facilities, totaling 4 375 777 women.Methods: Binomial logistic regression models with facility-level fixed effects and marginal standardization were used to assess the effect of testing coverage on HIV prevalence.Results: Testing coverage increased from 78 to 98% over 2011–2018. We estimated that, had testing coverage been perfect, prevalence would have been 0.4% point lower (95% CI 0.3–0.5%) than the 7.9% observed prevalence, a relative overestimation of 6%. Bias in HIV prevalence was the highest in 2012, when testing coverage was lowest (72%), resulting in a relative overestimation of HIV prevalence of 15% (95% CI 12–17%). Overall, adjustments for imperfect testing coverage led to a subtler decline in HIV prevalence over 2011--2018.Conclusion: Malawi achieved high coverage of routine HIV testing in recent years. Nevertheless, imperfect testing coverage can lead to overestimation of HIV prevalence among pregnant women when coverage is suboptimal. ANC-RT data should be carefully evaluated for changes in testing coverage and completeness when used to monitor epidemic trends.

Journal article

Maheu-Giroux M, Marsh K, Doyle C, Godin A, Delaunay CL, Johnson LF, Jahn A, Abo K, Mbofana F, Boily M-C, Buckeridge DL, Hankins C, Eaton JWet al., 2019, National HIV testing and diagnosis coverage in sub-Saharan Africa: a new modeling tool for estimating the "first 90" from program and survey data, AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S255-S269, ISSN: 0269-9370

OBJECTIVE: HIV testing services (HTS) are a crucial component of national HIV responses. Learning one's HIV diagnosis is the entry point to accessing life-saving antiretroviral treatment and care. Recognizing the critical role of HTS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the 90-90-90 targets stipulating that by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV know their status, 90% of those who know their status receive antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of those on treatment have a suppressed viral load. Countries will need to regularly monitor progress on these three indicators. Estimating the proportion of people living with HIV who know their status (i.e., the "first 90"), however, is difficult. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model (henceforth referred to as "F90") that formally synthesizes population-based survey and HTS program data to estimate HIV status awareness over time. The proposed model uses country-specific HIV epidemic parameters from the standard UNAIDS Spectrum model to produce outputs that are consistent with other national HIV estimates. The F90 model provides estimates of HIV testing history, diagnosis rates, and knowledge of HIV status by age and sex. We validate the F90 model using both in-sample comparisons and out-of-sample predictions using data from three countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Malawi, and Mozambique. RESULTS: In-sample comparisons suggest that the F90 model can accurately reproduce longitudinal sex-specific trends in HIV testing. Out-of-sample predictions of the fraction of PLHIV ever tested over a 4-to-6-year time horizon are also in good agreement with empirical survey estimates. Importantly, out-of-sample predictions of HIV knowledge are consistent (i.e., within 4% points) with those of the fully calibrated model in the three countries when HTS program data are included. The F90 model's predictions of knowledge of status are higher than available self-reported HIV awareness estimates, howe

Journal article

Case K, Johnson L, Mahy M, Marsh K, Supervie V, Eaton Jet al., 2019, Summarizing the results and methods of the 2019 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS HIV estimates, AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S197-S201, ISSN: 0269-9370

UNAIDS and other partners provide support to countries to develop estimates of HIV and related indicators on an annual basis. These estimates are used to monitor epidemic trends, guide program planning and resource allocation, and inform policy decision-making. The collection of articles in this AIDS supplement provide the headline results for the 2019 UNAIDS estimates and describe the new developments in the methods used to produce these estimates.

Journal article

Marsh K, Eaton JW, Mahy M, Sabin K, Autenrieth C, Wanyeki I, Daher J, Ghys PDet al., 2019, Global, regional and country-level 90-90-90 estimates for 2018: assessing progress towards the 2020 target., AIDS, Vol: 33, Pages: S213-S226, ISSN: 0269-9370

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and partners set the 90-90-90 target for the year 2020: diagnose 90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV); treat 90% of people who know their status; and suppress the virus in 90% of people on treatment. In 2015, countries began reporting to UNAIDS on progress against 90-90-90 using standard definitions and methods. METHODS: We used data submitted to UNAIDS from 170 countries to assess country-specific progress towards 90-90-90 through 2018. To assess global and regional progress, overall and by sex for adults 15 years and older, we combined country-reported data with estimates generated with a Bayesian hierarchical model. RESULTS: A total of 60 countries reported on all three 90s in 2018, up from 23 in 2015. Among all PLHIV worldwide, 79% (67-92%) knew their HIV status. Of these, 78% (69-82%) were accessing treatment and 86% (72-92%) of people accessing treatment had suppressed viral loads. Of the 37.9 million (32.7-44.0 million) PLHIV worldwide, 53% (43-63%) had suppressed viral loads. The gap to fully achieving 73% of PLHIV with suppressed viral load was 7.7 million; 15 countries had already achieved this target by 2018. CONCLUSION: Increased data availability has led to improved measures of country and global progress towards the 90-90-90 target. Although gains in access to testing and treatment continue, many countries and regions are unlikely to reach 90-90-90 by 2020.

Journal article

Phillips AN, Cambiano V, Nakagawa F, Bansi-Matharu L, Wilson D, Jani I, Apollo T, Sculpher M, Hallett T, Kerr C, van Oosterhout JJ, Eaton J, Estill J, Williams B, Doi N, Cowan F, Keiser O, Ford D, Hatzold K, Barnabas R, Ayles H, Meyer-Rath G, Nelson L, Johnson CC, Baggaley R, Fakoya A, Jahn A, Revill Pet al., 2019, Cost-per-diagnosis as a metric for monitoring cost effectiveness of HIV testing programmes in low income settings in southern Africa: health economic and modelling analysis, Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1758-2652

Introduction: As prevalence of undiagnosed HIV declines, it is unclear whether testing programmes will be cost effective. To guide their HIV testing programmes,countries require appropriatemetrics that can be measured. The cost-per-diagnosisis potentially a useful metric. Methods:We simulated a series of setting-scenarios for adult HIV epidemics and ART programmes typical of settings in southern Africa using an individual-based model and projected forward from 2018 under two policies: (i) a minimum package of “core” testing (i.e. testing in pregnant women, for diagnosis of symptoms, in sex workers, and in men coming forward for circumcision) is conducted, and (ii) “core” testing as above plus “additional-testing”, for which we specify different rates of testing and various degrees to which those with HIV are more likely to test than thosewithout HIV. We also considered a plausible range of unit test costs. The aim was to assess the relationship between cost-per-diagnosisand the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of the additional-testingpolicy. Discount rate 3%; costs in 2018 $US. Results:There was a strong graded relationship between the cost-per-diagnosisand the ICER. Overall, the ICERwas below $500 per-DALY-averted (the cost effectiveness threshold used in primary analysis) so long as thecost-per-diagnosiswas below $315. This thresholdcost-per-diagnosiswas similar according to epidemic and programmatic features including the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, the HIV incidence and a measure of HIV programme quality (the proportion of HIV diagnosed people having a viral load <1000 copies/mL). However, restrictingto women, additional-testingdid not appear cost-effective even at acost-per-diagnosisof below $50, while restrictingto men additional-testingwas cost effective up to a cost-per-diagnosisof $585. Thethreshold cost for testing in men fell to $256 when the cost effectiveness threshold was $300instead of $5

Journal article

Watson O, FitzJohn R, Eaton J, 2019, rdhs: an R package to interact with The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program datasets [version 1; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations], Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2398-502X

Since 1985, the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program has conducted more than 400 surveys in over 90 countries. These surveys provide decision markers with key measures of population demographics, health and nutrition, which allow informed policy evaluation to be made. Though standard health indicators are routinely published in survey final reports, much of the value of DHS is derived from the ability to download and analyse standardised microdata datasets for subgroup analysis, pooled multi-country analysis, and extended research studies. We have developed an open-source freely available R package ‘rdhs’ to facilitate management and processing of DHS survey data. The package provides a suite of tools to (1) access standard survey indicators through the DHS Program API, (2) identify all survey datasets that include a particular topic or indicator relevant to a particular analysis, (3) directly download survey datasets from the DHS website, (4) load datasets and data dictionaries into R, and (5) extract variables and pool harmonised datasets for multi-survey analysis. We detail the core functionality of ‘rdhs’ by demonstrating how the package can be used to firstly compare trends in the prevalence of anaemia among women between countries before conducting secondary analysis to assess for the relationship between education and anemia.

Journal article

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