Imperial College London

Dr John S Tregoning

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Medicine

Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3176john.tregoning Website

 
 
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Location

 

456 (Shattock Group)Wright Fleming WingSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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59 results found

Astrand A, Wingren C, Benjamin A, Tregoning JS, Garnett JP, Groves H, Gill S, Orogo-Wenn M, Lundqvist AJ, Walters D, Smith DM, Taylor JD, Baker EH, Baines DL, Åstrand A, Wingren C, Benjamin A, Tregoning JS, Garnett JP, Groves H, Gill S, Orogo-Wenn M, Lundqvist AJ, Walters D, Smith DM, Taylor JD, Baker EH, Baines DL, Åstrand A, Wingren C, Benjamin A, Tregoning JS, Garnett JP, Groves H, Gill S, Orogo-Wenn M, Lundqvist AJ, Walters D, Smith DM, Taylor JD, Baker EH, Baines DL, Åstrand A, Wingren C, Benjamin A, Tregoning JS, Garnett JP, Groves H, Gill S, Orogo-Wenn M, Lundqvist AJ, Walters D, Smith DM, Taylor JD, Baker EH, Baines DL, Astrand A, Wingren C, Benjamin A, Tregoning JS, Garnett JP, Groves H, Gill S, Orogo-Wenn M, Lundqvist AJ, Walters D, Smith DM, Taylor JD, Baker EH, Baines DLet al., 2017, Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 174, Pages: 836-847, ISSN: 0007-1188

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. KEY RESULTS: Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gould VMW, Francis JN, Anderson KJ, Georges B, Cope AV, Tregoning JS, Gould VMW, Francis JN, Anderson KJ, Georges B, Cope AV, Tregoning JS, Gould VMW, Francis JN, Anderson KJ, Georges B, Cope AV, Tregoning JS, Gould VMW, Francis JN, Anderson KJ, Georges B, Cope AV, Tregoning JS, Gould VMW, Francis JN, Anderson KJ, Georges B, Cope AV, Tregoning JSet al., 2017, Nasal IgA provides protection against human influenza challenge in volunteers with low serum influenza antibody titre, Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1664-302X

In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kinnear E, Lambert L, McDonald JU, Cheeseman HM, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Lambert L, McDonald JU, Cheeseman HM, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Lambert L, McDonald JU, Cheeseman HM, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Lambert L, McDonald JU, Cheeseman HM, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JSet al., 2017, Airway T cells protect against RSV infection in the absence of antibody, Mucosal Immunology, ISSN: 1933-0219

Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice. Transfer of airway CD8 cells led to reduced disease and viral load and increased interferon-γ in the airways of recipient mice, while CD4 transfer reduced tumor necrosis factor-α in the airways. Because DNA vaccines induce a systemic T-cell response, we compared vaccination with infection for the effect of memory CD8 cells generated in different compartments. Intramuscular DNA immunization induced RSV-specific CD8 T cells, but they were immunopathogenic and not protective. Notably, there was a marked difference in the induction of Trm cells; infection but not immunization induced antigen-specific Trm cells in a range of tissues. These findings demonstrate a protective role for airway CD8 against RSV and support the need for vaccines to induce antigen-specific airway cells.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 24 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.46.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Zhong Z, Groves HT, Tregoning JSet al., 2017, Inflammatory responses to influenza vaccination at the extremes of age, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 151, Pages: 451-463, ISSN: 0019-2805

Age affects the immune response to vaccination, with individuals at the extremes of age responding poorly. The initial inflammatory response to antigenic materials shapes the subsequent adaptive response and so understanding is required about the effect of age on the profile of acute inflammatory mediators. In this study we measured the local and systemic inflammatory response after influenza vaccination or infection in neonatal, young adult and aged mice. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with inactivated influenza vaccine with and without the adjuvant MF59 and then challenged with H1N1 influenza. Age was the major factor affecting the inflammatory profile after vaccination: neonatal mice had more interleukin-1α (IL-1α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), young adults more tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF), and elderly mice more interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2RA and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP10). Notably the addition of MF59 induced IL-5, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), Keratinocyte Chemotractant (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) in all ages of animals and levels of these cytokines correlated with antibody responses. Age also had an impact on the efficacy of vaccination: neonatal and young adult mice were protected against challenge, but aged mice were not. There were striking differences in the localization of the cytokine response depending on the route of exposure: vaccination led to a high serum response whereas intranasal infection led to a low serum response but a high lung response. In conclusion, we demonstrate that age affects the inflammatory response to both influenza vaccination and infection. These age-induced differences need to be considered when developing vaccination strategies for different age groups.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tregoning J, Tregoning J, Tregoning J, Tregoning J, Tregoning Jet al., 2017, No researcher is too junior to fix science, NATURE, Vol: 545, Pages: 7-7, ISSN: 0028-0836

JOURNAL ARTICLE

de Silva TI, Gould V, Mohammed NI, Cope A, Meijer A, Zutt I, Reimerink J, Kampmann B, Hoschler K, Zambon M, Tregoning JS, de Silva TI, Gould V, Mohammed NI, Cope A, Meijer A, Zutt I, Reimerink J, Kampmann B, Hoschler K, Zambon M, Tregoning JS, de Silva TI, Gould V, Mohammed NI, Cope A, Meijer A, Zutt I, Reimerink J, Kampmann B, Hoschler K, Zambon M, Tregoning JS, de Silva TI, Gould V, Mohammed NI, Cope A, Meijer A, Zutt I, Reimerink J, Kampmann B, Hoschler K, Zambon M, Tregoning JSet al., 2017, Comparison of mucosal lining fluid sampling methods and influenza-specific IgA detection assays for use in human studies of influenza immunity., J Immunol Methods, ISSN: 0022-1759

We need greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection against influenza virus to develop more effective vaccines. To do this, we need better, more reproducible methods of sampling the nasal mucosa. The aim of the current study was to compare levels of influenza virus A subtype-specific IgA collected using three different methods of nasal sampling. Samples were collected from healthy adult volunteers before and after LAIV immunization by nasal wash, flocked swabs and Synthetic Absorptive Matrix (SAM) strips. Influenza A virus subtype-specific IgA levels were measured by haemagglutinin binding ELISA or haemagglutinin binding microarray and the functional response was assessed by microneutralization. Nasosorption using SAM strips lead to the recovery of a more concentrated sample of material, with a significantly higher level of total and influenza H1-specific IgA. However, an equivalent percentage of specific IgA was observed with all sampling methods when normalized to the total IgA. Responses measured using a recently developed antibody microarray platform, which allows evaluation of binding to multiple influenza strains simultaneously with small sample volumes, were compared to ELISA. There was a good correlation between ELISA and microarray values. Material recovered from SAM strips was weakly neutralizing when used in an in vitro assay, with a modest correlation between the level of IgA measured by ELISA and neutralization, but a greater correlation between microarray-measured IgA and neutralizing activity. In conclusion we have tested three different methods of nasal sampling and show that flocked swabs and novel SAM strips are appropriate alternatives to traditional nasal washes for assessment of mucosal influenza humoral immunity.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Korber BT, Barinaga G, Walters AA, Nunes A, Gomes JP, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Korber BT, Barinaga G, Walters AA, Nunes A, Gomes JP, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Korber BT, Barinaga G, Walters AA, Nunes A, Gomes JP, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Korber BT, Barinaga G, Walters AA, Nunes A, Gomes JP, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Korber BT, Barinaga G, Walters AA, Nunes A, Gomes JP, Follman F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJet al., 2016, A Multi-Component Prime-Boost Vaccination Regimen with a Consensus MOMP Antigen Enghances Chlamydia trachomatis Clearance, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 7, ISSN: 1664-3224

BACKGROUND: A vaccine for Chlamydia trachomatis is of urgent medical need. We explored bioinformatic approaches to generate an immunogen against C. trachomatis that would induce cross-serovar T-cell responses as (i) CD4(+) T cells have been shown in animal models and human studies to be important in chlamydial protection and (ii) antibody responses may be restrictive and serovar specific. METHODS: A consensus antigen based on over 1,500 major outer membrane protein (MOMP) sequences provided high epitope coverage against the most prevalent C. trachomatis strains in silico. Having designed the T-cell immunogen, we assessed it for immunogenicity in prime-boost regimens. This consensus MOMP transgene was delivered using plasmid DNA, Human Adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) or modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectors with or without MF59(®) adjuvanted recombinant MOMP protein. RESULTS: Different regimens induced distinct immune profiles. The DNA-HuAd5-MVA-Protein vaccine regimen induced a cellular response with a Th1-biased serum antibody response, alongside high serum and vaginal MOMP-specific antibodies. This regimen significantly enhanced clearance against intravaginal C. trachomatis serovar D infection in both BALB/c and B6C3F1 mouse strains. This enhanced clearance was shown to be CD4(+) T-cell dependent. Future studies will need to confirm the specificity and precise mechanisms of protection. CONCLUSION: A C. trachomatis vaccine needs to induce a robust cellular response with broad cross-serovar coverage and a heterologous prime-boost regimen may be an approach to achieve this.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Holmes AH, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JS, Gill SK, Hui K, Farne H, Garnett JP, Baines DL, Moore LSP, Holmes AH, Filloux A, Tregoning JSet al., 2016, Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia, Scientific Reports, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2045-2322

Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection.We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increasedbacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisationis significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genesaffecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented withglucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested usingstreptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose.Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected withwild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reducedboth airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a criticaldeterminant of increased bacterial load during diabetes.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hewitt R, Webber J, Farne H, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Footitt J, Molyneaux PL, Johnston SL, Tregoning J, Mallia Pet al., 2016, Airway Glucose In Virus-Induced COPD Exacerbations, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society (ATS), Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X

CONFERENCE PAPER

Lambert L, Kinnear E, McDonald JU, Grodeland G, Bogen B, Stubsrud E, Lindeberg MM, Fredriksen AB, Tregoning JS, Lambert L, Kinnear E, McDonald JU, Grodeland G, Bogen B, Stubsrud E, Lindeberg MM, Fredriksen AB, Tregoning JS, Lambert L, Kinnear E, McDonald JU, Grodeland G, Bogen B, Stubsrud E, Lindeberg MM, Fredriksen AB, Tregoning JS, Lambert L, Kinnear E, McDonald JU, Grodeland G, Bogen B, Stubsrud E, Lindeberg MM, Fredriksen AB, Tregoning JS, Lambert L, Kinnear E, Mcdonald JU, Grodeland G, Bogen B, Stubsrud E, Lindberg MM, Brunsvik Frediksen A, Tregoning JSet al., 2016, DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8(+) T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 7, ISSN: 1664-3224

Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8(+) T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8(+) T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8(+) T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-E(d) single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mann JFS, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF, Mann JFS, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF, Mann JFS, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF, Mann JFS, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF, Mann JFS, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF, Mann JF, Tregoning JS, Aldon Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PFet al., 2016, CD71 targeting boosts immunogenicity of sublingually delivered influenza haemagglutinin antigen and protects against viral challenge in mice, JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, Vol: 232, Pages: 75-82, ISSN: 0168-3659

The delivery of vaccines to the sublingual mucosa is an attractive prospect due to the ease and acceptability of such an approach. However, novel adjuvant and delivery approaches are required to optimally vaccinate at this site. We have previously shown that conjugation of protein antigen to the iron transport molecule, transferrin, can significantly enhance mucosal immune responses. We tested whether conjugating influenza haemagglutinin to transferrin could improve the immune response to sublingually delivered antigen. Transferrin conjugated haemagglutinin induced a significant antibody and T cell response in both naïve animals and previously immunized animals. The immune response generated was able to protect mice against influenza virus challenge. Sublingually administered antigen dispersed more widely through the gastro-intestinal tract than intranasally delivered antigen and transferrin conjugation had a more marked effect on sublingually delivered antigen than intranasal immunisation. From these studies we conclude that transferrin conjugation of antigen is effective at boosting immune responses to sublingually delivered antigen and may be an attractive approach for influenza vaccines, particularly when mass campaigns are required.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

McDonald JU, Ekeruche-Makinde J, Ho MM, Tregoning JS, Ashiru O, McDonald JU, Ekeruche-Makinde J, Ho MM, Tregoning JS, Ashiru O, McDonald JU, Ekeruche-Makinde J, Ho MM, Tregoning JS, Ashiru O, McDonald JU, Ekeruche-Makinde J, Ho MM, Tregoning JS, Ashiru O, McDonald JU, Ekeruche-Makinde J, Ho MM, Tregoning JS, Ashiru Oet al., 2016, Development of a custom pentaplex sandwich immunoassay using Protein-G coupled beads for the Luminex (R) xMAP (R) platform, JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS, Vol: 433, Pages: 6-16, ISSN: 0022-1759

Multiplex bead-based assays have many advantages over ELISA, particularly for the analyses of large quantities of samples and/or precious samples of limited volume. Although many commercial arrays covering multitudes of biologically significant analytes are available, occasionally the development of custom arrays is necessary. Here, the development of a custom pentaplex sandwich immunoassay using Protein G-coupled beads, for analysis using the Luminex® xMAP® platform, is described. This array was required for the measurement of candidate biomarkers of vaccine safety in small volumes of mouse sera. Optimisation of this assay required a stepwise approach: testing cross-reactivity of the antibody pairs, the development of an in-house serum diluent buffer as well as heat-inactivation of serum samples to prevent interference from matrix effects. We then demonstrate the use of this array to analyse inflammatory mediators in mouse serum after immunisation. The work described here exemplifies how Protein G-coupled beads offer a flexible and robust approach to develop custom multiplex immunoassays, which can be applied to a range of analytes from multiple species.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

McDonald JU, Kaforou M, Clare S, Hale C, Ivanova M, Huntley D, Dorner M, Wright VJ, Levin M, Martinon-Torres F, Herberg JA, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Kaforou M, Clare S, Hale C, Ivanova M, Huntley D, Dorner M, Wright VJ, Levin M, Martinon-Torres F, Herberg JA, Tregoning JS, McDonald JU, Kaforou M, Clare S, Hale C, Ivanova M, Huntley D, Dorner M, Wright VJ, Levin M, Martinon-Torres F, Herberg JA, Tregoning JS, Mcdonald J, Kaforou M, Clare S, Hale C, Ivanova M, Huntley D, Dorner M, Wright VJ, levin M, Torres FM, Herberg J, Tregoning JSet al., 2016, A Simple Screening Approach To Prioritize Genes for Functional Analysis Identifies a Role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 in the Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease., mSystems, Vol: 1, Pages: e00051-16-e00051-16, ISSN: 2379-5077

Greater understanding of the functions of host gene products in response to infection is required. While many of these genes enable pathogen clearance, some enhance pathogen growth or contribute to disease symptoms. Many studies have profiled transcriptomic and proteomic responses to infection, generating large data sets, but selecting targets for further study is challenging. Here we propose a novel data-mining approach combining multiple heterogeneous data sets to prioritize genes for further study by using respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection as a model pathogen with a significant health care impact. The assumption was that the more frequently a gene is detected across multiple studies, the more important its role is. A literature search was performed to find data sets of genes and proteins that change after RSV infection. The data sets were standardized, collated into a single database, and then panned to determine which genes occurred in multiple data sets, generating a candidate gene list. This candidate gene list was validated by using both a clinical cohort and in vitro screening. We identified several genes that were frequently expressed following RSV infection with no assigned function in RSV control, including IFI27, IFIT3, IFI44L, GBP1, OAS3, IFI44, and IRF7. Drilling down into the function of these genes, we demonstrate a role in disease for the gene for interferon regulatory factor 7, which was highly ranked on the list, but not for IRF1, which was not. Thus, we have developed and validated an approach for collating published data sets into a manageable list of candidates, identifying novel targets for future analysis. IMPORTANCE Making the most of "big data" is one of the core challenges of current biology. There is a large array of heterogeneous data sets of host gene responses to infection, but these data sets do not inform us about gene function and require specialized skill sets and training for their utilization. Here we describe

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Porter JD, Watson J, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MRet al., 2016, Identification of novel macrolides with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and type I and III IFN-augmenting activity in airway epithelium, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol: 71, Pages: 2767-2781, ISSN: 1460-2091

Background Exacerbations of asthma and COPD are triggered by rhinoviruses. Uncontrolled inflammatory pathways, pathogenic bacterial burden and impaired antiviral immunity are thought to be important factors in disease severity and duration. Macrolides including azithromycin are often used to treat the above diseases, but exhibit variable levels of efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids are also readily used in treatment, but may lack specificity. Ideally, new treatment alternatives should suppress unwanted inflammation, but spare beneficial antiviral immunity.Methods In the present study, we screened 225 novel macrolides and tested them for enhanced antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as anti-inflammatory activity and activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were grown from 10 asthmatic individuals and the effects of macrolides on rhinovirus replication were also examined. Another 30 structurally similar macrolides were also examined.Results The oleandomycin derivative Mac5, compared with azithromycin, showed superior induction (up to 5-fold, EC50 = 5–11 μM) of rhinovirus-induced type I IFNβ, type III IFNλ1 and type III IFNλ2/3 mRNA and the IFN-stimulated genes viperin and MxA, yet had no effect on IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA. Mac5 also suppressed rhinovirus replication at 48 h, proving antiviral activity. Mac5 showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, it did not have any antibacterial properties compared with azithromycin when used against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (as a model organism) and also the respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Further non-toxic Mac5 derivatives were identified with various anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial activities.Conclusions The data support the idea that macrolides have antiviral properties through a mechanism that is yet to be ascertained. We also

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MR, Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MR, Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MR, Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MR, Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MRet al., 2016, Identification of novel macrolides with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and type I and III IFN-augmenting activity in airway epithelium, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 71, Pages: 2767-2781, ISSN: 0305-7453

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma and COPD are triggered by rhinoviruses. Uncontrolled inflammatory pathways, pathogenic bacterial burden and impaired antiviral immunity are thought to be important factors in disease severity and duration. Macrolides including azithromycin are often used to treat the above diseases, but exhibit variable levels of efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids are also readily used in treatment, but may lack specificity. Ideally, new treatment alternatives should suppress unwanted inflammation, but spare beneficial antiviral immunity. METHODS: In the present study, we screened 225 novel macrolides and tested them for enhanced antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as anti-inflammatory activity and activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were grown from 10 asthmatic individuals and the effects of macrolides on rhinovirus replication were also examined. Another 30 structurally similar macrolides were also examined. RESULTS: The oleandomycin derivative Mac5, compared with azithromycin, showed superior induction (up to 5-fold, EC50 = 5-11 μM) of rhinovirus-induced type I IFNβ, type III IFNλ1 and type III IFNλ2/3 mRNA and the IFN-stimulated genes viperin and MxA, yet had no effect on IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA. Mac5 also suppressed rhinovirus replication at 48 h, proving antiviral activity. Mac5 showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, it did not have any antibacterial properties compared with azithromycin when used against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (as a model organism) and also the respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Further non-toxic Mac5 derivatives were identified with various anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial activities. CONCLUSIONS: The data support the idea that macrolides have antiviral properties through a mechanism that is yet to be ascertained. We als

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Russell RF, McDonald JU, Lambert L, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Lambert L, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Lambert L, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Lambert L, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Lambert L, Tregoning JSet al., 2016, Use of the Microparticle Nanoscale Silicon Dioxide as an Adjuvant To Boost Vaccine Immune Responses against Influenza Virus in Neonatal Mice, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 90, Pages: 4735-4744, ISSN: 0022-538X

UNLABELLED: Neonates are at a high risk of infection, but vaccines are less effective in this age group; tailored adjuvants could potentially improve vaccine efficacy. Increased understanding about danger sensing by the innate immune system has led to the rational design of novel adjuvants. But differences in the neonatal innate immune response, for example, to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, can reduce the efficacy of these adjuvants in early life. We therefore targeted alternative danger-sensing pathways, focusing on a range of compounds described as inflammasome agonists, including nanoscale silicon dioxide (NanoSiO2), calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals, and muramyl tripeptide (M-Tri-DAP), for their ability to act as adjuvants.In vitro, these compounds induced an interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) response in the macrophage-like cell line THP1.In vivo, adult CB6F1 female mice were immunized intramuscularly with H1N1 influenza vaccine antigens in combination with NanoSiO2, CPPD, or M-Tri-DAP and subsequently challenged with H1N1 influenza virus (A/England/195/2009). The adjuvants boosted anti-hemagglutinin IgG and IgA antibody levels. Both adult and neonatal animals that received NanoSiO2-adjuvanted vaccines lost significantly less weight and recovered earlier after infection than control animals treated with antigen alone. Administration of the adjuvants led to an influx of activated inflammatory cells into the muscle but to little systemic inflammation measured by serum cytokine levels. Blocking IL-1β or caspase 1 in vivo had little effect on NanoSiO2 adjuvant function, suggesting that it may work through pathways other than the inflammasome. Here we demonstrate that NanoSiO2 can act as an adjuvant and is effective in early life. IMPORTANCE: Vaccines can fail to protect the most at-risk populations, including the very young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is a gap in neonatal immunity between the waning of maternal protection and

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Holland MJ, Paes W, Brzozowski A, Lacey C, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Holland MJ, Paes W, Brzozowski A, Lacey C, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Holland MJ, Paes W, Brzozowski A, Lacey C, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Badamchi-Zadeh A, McKay PF, Holland MJ, Paes W, Brzozowski A, Lacey C, Follmann F, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJet al., 2015, Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, Pages: e0141209-e0141209, ISSN: 1932-6203

BACKGROUND: Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs), antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication. METHODS: We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice. RESULTS: Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens. CONCLUSIONS: If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rap

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Caproni LJ, Tregoning JSet al., 2015, A Comparison of Red Fluorescent Proteins to Model DNA Vaccine Expression by Whole Animal In Vivo Imaging, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, Pages: e0130375-e0130375, ISSN: 1932-6203

DNA vaccines can be manufactured cheaply, easily and rapidly and have performed well in pre-clinical animal studies. However, clinical trials have so far been disappointing, failing to evoke a strong immune response, possibly due to poor antigen expression. To improve antigen expression, improved technology to monitor DNA vaccine transfection efficiency is required. In the current study, we compared plasmid encoded tdTomato, mCherry, Katushka, tdKatushka2 and luciferase as reporter proteins for whole animal in vivo imaging. The intramuscular, subcutaneous and tattooing routes were compared and electroporation was used to enhance expression. We observed that overall, fluorescent proteins were not a good tool to assess expression from DNA plasmids, with a highly heterogeneous response between animals. Of the proteins used, intramuscular delivery of DNA encoding either tdTomato or luciferase gave the clearest signal, with some Katushka and tdKatushka2 signal observed. Subcutaneous delivery was weakly visible and nothing was observed following DNA tattooing. DNA encoding haemagglutinin was used to determine whether immune responses mirrored visible expression levels. A protective immune response against H1N1 influenza was induced by all routes, even after a single dose of DNA, though qualitative differences were observed, with tattooing leading to high antibody responses and subcutaneous DNA leading to high CD8 responses. We conclude that of the reporter proteins used, expression from DNA plasmids can best be assessed using tdTomato or luciferase. But, the disconnect between visible expression level and immunogenicity suggests that in vivo whole animal imaging of fluorescent proteins has limited utility for predicting DNA vaccine efficacy.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mastelic Gavillet B, Eberhardt CS, Auderset F, Castellino F, Seubert A, Tregoning JS, Lambert PH, de Gregorio E, Del Giudice G, Siegrist CA, Gavillet BM, Eberhardt CS, Auderset F, Castellino F, Seubert A, Tregoning JS, Lambert P-H, de Gregorio E, Del Giudice G, Siegrist C-A, Mastelic Gavillet B, Eberhardt CS, Auderset F, Castellino F, Seubert A, Tregoning JS, Lambert P-H, de Gregorio E, Del Giudice G, Siegrist C-A, Gavillet BM, Eberhardt CS, Auderset F, Castellino F, Seubert A, Tregoning JS, Lambert PH, De Gregorio E, Del Giudice G, Siegrist CA, Mastelic Gavillet B, Eberhardt CS, Auderset F, Castellino F, Seubert A, Tregoning JS, Lambert P-H, de Gregorio E, Del Giudice G, Siegrist C-Aet al., 2015, MF59 Mediates Its B Cell Adjuvanticity by Promoting T Follicular Helper Cells and Thus Germinal Center Responses in Adult and Early Life., Journal of Immunology, Vol: 194, Pages: 4836-4845, ISSN: 0022-1767

The early life influenza disease burden calls for more effective vaccines to protect this vulnerable population. Influenza vaccines including the MF59 oil-in-water adjuvant induce higher, broader, and more persistent Ab responses in adults and particularly in young, through yet undefined mechanisms. In this study, we show that MF59 enhances adult murine IgG responses to influenza hemagglutinin (HA) by promoting a potent T follicular helper cells (TFH) response, which directly controls the magnitude of the germinal center (GC) B cell response. Remarkably, this enhancement of TFH and GC B cells is already fully functional in 3-wk-old infant mice, which were fully protected by HA/MF59 but not HA/PBS immunization against intranasal challenge with the homologous H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) strain. In 1-wk-old neonatal mice, MF59 recruits and activates APCs, efficiently induces CD4(+) effector T cells and primes for enhanced infant responses but induces few fully functional TFH cells, which are mostly follicular regulatory T cells, and poor GC and anti-HA responses. The B cell adjuvanticity of MF59 appears to be mediated by the potent induction of TFH cells which directly controls GC responses both in adult and early life, calling for studies assessing its capacity to enhance the efficacy of influenza immunization in young infants.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JS, Russell RF, McDonald JU, Ivanova M, Zhong Z, Bukreyev A, Tregoning JSet al., 2015, Partial Attenuation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus with a Deletion of a Small Hydrophobic Gene Is Associated with Elevated Interleukin-1 beta Responses, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 89, Pages: 8974-8981, ISSN: 0022-538X

UNLABELLED: The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of infant hospitalization, encodes a viroporin of unknown function. SH gene knockout virus (RSV ΔSH) is partially attenuated in vivo, but not in vitro, suggesting that the SH protein may have an immunomodulatory role. RSV ΔSH has been tested as a live attenuated vaccine in humans and cattle, and here we demonstrate that it protected against viral rechallenge in mice. We compared the immune response to infection with RSV wild type and RSV ΔSH in vivo using BALB/c mice and in vitro using epithelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Strikingly, the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) response to RSV ΔSH infection was greater than to wild-type RSV, in spite of a decreased viral load, and when IL-1β was blocked in vivo, the viral load returned to wild-type levels. A significantly greater IL-1β response to RSV ΔSH was also detected in vitro, with higher-magnitude responses in neutrophils and macrophages than in epithelial cells. Depleting macrophages (with clodronate liposome) and neutrophils (with anti-Ly6G/1A8) demonstrated the contribution of these cells to the IL-1β response in vivo, the first demonstration of neutrophilic IL-1β production in response to viral lung infection. In this study, we describe an increased IL-1β response to RSV ΔSH, which may explain the attenuation in vivo and supports targeting the SH gene in live attenuated vaccines. IMPORTANCE: There is a pressing need for a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). A number of live attenuated RSV vaccine strains have been developed in which the small hydrophobic (SH) gene has been deleted, even though the function of the SH protein is unknown. The structure of the SH protein has recently been solved, showing it is a pore-forming protein (viroporin). Here, we demonstrate that the IL-1β response to RSV ΔSH is greater in spite of a lower

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JS, Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JS, Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JS, Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JS, Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JS, Siggins MK, Gill SK, Langford PR, Li Y, Ladhani SN, Tregoning JSet al., 2015, PHiD-CV induces anti-Protein D antibodies but does not augment pulmonary clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in mice, VACCINE, Vol: 33, Pages: 4954-4961, ISSN: 0264-410X

BACKGROUND: A recently-licensed 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) uses Protein D from Haemophilus influenzae as a carrier protein. PHiD-CV therefore has the potential to provide additional protection against nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). NTHi frequently causes respiratory tract infections and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and there is currently no vaccine. METHODS: We developed mouse models of NTHi infection and influenza/NTHi superinfection. Mice were immunized with PHiD-CV, heat-killed NTHi, or a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that did not contain Protein D (PCV13; Prevenar, Pfizer) and then infected intranasally with NTHi. RESULTS: Infection with NTHi resulted in weight loss, inflammation and airway neutrophilia. In a superinfection model, prior infection with pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (strain A/England/195/2009) augmented NTHi infection severity, even with a lower bacterial challenge dose. Immunization with PHiD-CV produced high levels of antibodies that were specific against Protein D, but not heat-killed NTHi. Immunization with PHiD-CV led to a slight reduction in bacterial load, but no change in disease outcome. CONCLUSIONS: PHiD-CV induced high levels of Protein D-specific antibodies, but did not augment pulmonary clearance of NTHi. We found no evidence to suggest that PHiD-CV will offer added benefit by preventing NTHi lung infection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Veazey RS, Siddiqui A, Klein K, Buffa V, Fischetti L, Doyle-Meyers L, King DF, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Veazey RS, Siddiqui A, Klein K, Buffa V, Fischetti L, Doyle-Meyers L, King DF, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Veazey RS, Siddiqui A, Klein K, Buffa V, Fischetti L, Doyle-Meyers L, King DF, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Veazey RS, Siddiqui A, Klein K, Buffa V, Fischetti L, Doyle-Meyers L, King DF, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Veazey RS, Siddiqui A, Klein K, Buffa V, Fischetti L, Doyle-Meyers L, King DF, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJet al., 2015, Evaluation of mucosal adjuvants and immunization routes for the induction of systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses in macaques, HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS, Vol: 11, Pages: 2913-2922, ISSN: 2164-5515

Delivering vaccine antigens to mucosal surfaces is potentially very attractive, especially as protection from mucosal infections may be mediated by local immune responses. However, to date mucosal immunization has had limited successes, with issues of both safety and poor immunogenicity. One approach to improve immunogenicity is to develop adjuvants that are effective and safe at mucosal surfaces. Differences in immune responses between mice and men have overstated the value of some experimental adjuvants which have subsequently performed poorly in the clinic. Due to their closer similarity, non-human primates can provide a more accurate picture of adjuvant performance. In this study we immunised rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a unique matrix experimental design that maximised the number of adjuvants screened while reducing the animal usage. Macaques were immunised by the intranasal, sublingual and intrarectal routes with the model protein antigens keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), β-galactosidase (β-Gal) and ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with the experimental adjuvants Poly(I:C), Pam3CSK4, chitosan, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), MPLA and R848 (Resiquimod). Of the routes used, only intranasal immunization with KLH and R848 induced a detectable antibody response. When compared to intramuscular immunization, intranasal administration gave slightly lower levels of antigen specific antibody in the plasma, but enhanced local responses. Following intranasal delivery of R848, we observed a mildly inflammatory response, but no difference to the control. From this we conclude that R848 is able to boost antibody responses to mucosally delivered antigen, without causing excess local inflammation.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJM, Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJM, Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJM, Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJM, Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJM, Harker JA, Yamaguchi Y, Culley FJ, Tregoning JS, Openshaw PJMet al., 2014, Delayed Sequelae of Neonatal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Are Dependent on Cells of the Innate Immune System, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 88, Pages: 604-611, ISSN: 0022-538X

Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in neonatal mice leads to exacerbated disease if mice are reinfected with the same virus as adults. Both T cells and the host major histocompatibility complex genotype contribute to this phenomenon, but the part played by innate immunity has not been defined. Since macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells play key roles in regulating inflammation during RSV infection of adult mice, we studied the role of these cells in exacerbated inflammation following neonatal RSV sensitization/adult reinfection. Compared to mice undergoing primary infection as adults, neonatally sensitized mice showed enhanced airway fluid levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha interferon (IFN-α), CXCL1 (keratinocyte chemoattractant/KC), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at 12 to 24 h after reinfection and IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and CCL11 (eotaxin) at day 4 after reinfection. Weight loss during reinfection was accompanied by an initial influx of NK cells and granulocytes into the airways and lungs, followed by T cells. NK cell depletion during reinfection attenuated weight loss but did not alter T cell responses. Depletion of alveolar macrophages with inhaled clodronate liposomes reduced both NK and T cell numbers and attenuated weight loss. These findings indicate a hitherto unappreciated role for the innate immune response in governing the pathogenic recall responses to RSV infection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Tregoning JS, Kinnear E, Tregoning JS, Kinnear Eet al., 2014, Using Plasmids as DNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases., Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery, Publisher: ASMscience, ISBN: 9781555818975

DNA plasmids can be used to induce a protective (or therapeutic) immune response by delivering genes encoding vaccine antigens. That naked DNA (without the refinement of coat proteins or host evasion systems) can cross from outside the cell into the nucleus and be expressed is particularly remarkable given the sophistication of the immune system in preventing infection by pathogens. As a result of the ease, low cost, and speed of custom gene synthesis, DNA vaccines dangle a tantalizing prospect of the next wave of vaccine technology, promising individual designer vaccines for cancer or mass vaccines with a rapid response time to emerging pandemics. There is considerable enthusiasm for the use of DNA vaccination as an approach, but this enthusiasm should be tempered by the successive failures in clinical trials to induce a potent immune response. The technology is evolving with the development of improved delivery systems that increase expression levels, particularly electroporation and the incorporation of genetically encoded adjuvants. This review will introduce some key concepts in the use of DNA plasmids as vaccines, including how the DNA enters the cell and is expressed, how it induces an immune response, and a summary of clinical trials with DNA vaccines. The review also explores the advances being made in vector design, delivery, formulation, and adjuvants to try to realize the promise of this technology for new vaccines. If the immunogenicity and expression barriers can be cracked, then DNA vaccines may offer a step change in mass vaccination.

BOOK CHAPTER

Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, McDonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JS, Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, McDonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JS, Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, McDonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JS, Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, Mcdonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JS, Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, McDonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JS, Walters AA, Kinnear E, Shattock RJ, McDonald JU, Caproni LJ, Porter N, Tregoning JSet al., 2014, Comparative analysis of enzymatically produced novel linear DNA constructs with plasmids for use as DNA vaccines, Gene Therapy, Vol: 21, Pages: 645-652, ISSN: 1476-5462

The use of DNA to deliver vaccine antigens offers many advantages, including ease of manufacture and cost. However, most DNA vaccines are plasmids and must be grown in bacterial culture, necessitating elements that are either unnecessary for effective gene delivery (for example, bacterial origins of replication) or undesirable (for example, antibiotic resistance genes). Removing these elements may improve the safety profile of DNA for the delivery of vaccines. Here, we describe a novel, double-stranded, linear DNA construct produced by an enzymatic process that solely encodes an antigen expression cassette, comprising antigen, promoter, polyA tail and telomeric ends. We compared these constructs (called 'Doggybones' because of their shape) with conventional plasmid DNA. Using luciferase-expressing constructs, we demonstrated that expression levels were equivalent between Doggybones and plasmids both in vitro and in vivo. When mice were immunized with DNA constructs expressing the HIV envelope protein gp140, equivalent humoral and cellular responses were induced. Immunizations with either construct type expressing hemagluttinin were protective against H1N1 influenza challenge. This is the first example of an effective DNA vaccine, which can be produced on a large scale by enzymatic processes.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Everitt AR, Clare S, McDonald JU, Kane L, Harcourt K, Ahras M, Lall A, Hale C, Rodgers A, Young DB, Haque A, Billker O, Tregoning JS, Dougan G, Kellam P, Everitt AR, Clare S, McDonald JU, Kane L, Harcourt K, Ahras M, Lall A, Hale C, Rodgers A, Young DB, Haque A, Billker O, Tregoning JS, Dougan G, Kellam P, Everitt AR, Clare S, McDonald JU, Kane L, Harcourt K, Ahras M, Lall A, Hale C, Rodgers A, Young DB, Haque A, Billker O, Tregoning JS, Dougan G, Kellam P, Everitt AR, Clare S, McDonald JU, Kane L, Harcourt K, Ahras M, Lall A, Hale C, Rodgers A, Young DB, Haque A, Billker O, Tregoning JS, Dougan G, Kellam P, Everitt AR, Clare S, McDonald JU, Kane L, Harcourt K, Ahras M, Lall A, Hale C, Rodgers A, Young DB, Haque A, Billker O, Tregoning JS, Dougan G, Kellam Pet al., 2013, Defining the Range of Pathogens Susceptible to Ifitm3 Restriction Using a Knockout Mouse Model, PLOS ONE, Vol: 8, Pages: e80723-e80723, ISSN: 1932-6203

The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) family of proteins has been shown to restrict a broad range of viruses in vitro and in vivo by halting progress through the late endosomal pathway. Further, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its sequence have been linked with risk of developing severe influenza virus infections in humans. The number of viruses restricted by this host protein has continued to grow since it was first demonstrated as playing an antiviral role; all of which enter cells via the endosomal pathway. We therefore sought to test the limits of antimicrobial restriction by Ifitm3 using a knockout mouse model. We showed that Ifitm3 does not impact on the restriction or pathogenesis of bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or protozoan (Plasmodium berghei) pathogens, despite in vitro evidence. However, Ifitm3 is capable of restricting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vivo either through directly restricting RSV cell infection, or by exerting a previously uncharacterised function controlling disease pathogenesis. This represents the first demonstration of a virus that enters directly through the plasma membrane, without the need for the endosomal pathway, being restricted by the IFITM family; therefore further defining the role of these antiviral proteins.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DL, Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DL, Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DL, Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DL, Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DL, Garnett JP, Baker EH, Naik S, Lindsay JA, Knight GM, Gill S, Tregoning JS, Baines DLet al., 2013, Metformin reduces airway glucose permeability and hyperglycaemia-induced Staphylococcus aureus load independently of effects on blood glucose, THORAX, Vol: 68, Pages: 835-845, ISSN: 0040-6376

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for respiratory infection, and hyperglycaemia is associated with increased glucose in airway surface liquid and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether elevation of basolateral/blood glucose concentration promotes airway Staphylococcus aureus growth and whether pretreatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin affects this relationship. METHODS: Human airway epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface (±18 h pre-treatment, 30 μM-1 mM metformin) were inoculated with 5×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/cm(2) S aureus 8325-4 or JE2 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 on the apical surface and incubated for 7 h. Wild-type C57BL/6 or db/db (leptin receptor-deficient) mice, 6-10 weeks old, were treated with intraperitoneal phosphate-buffered saline or 40 mg/kg metformin for 2 days before intranasal inoculation with 1×10(7) CFU S aureus. Mice were culled 24 h after infection and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected. RESULTS: Apical S aureus growth increased with basolateral glucose concentration in an in vitro airway epithelia-bacteria co-culture model. S aureus reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and increased paracellular glucose flux. Metformin inhibited the glucose-induced growth of S aureus, increased RT and decreased glucose flux. Diabetic (db/db) mice infected with S aureus exhibited a higher bacterial load in their airways than control mice after 2 days and metformin treatment reversed this effect. Metformin did not decrease blood glucose but reduced paracellular flux across ex vivo murine tracheas. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia promotes respiratory S aureus infection, and metformin modifies glucose flux across the airway epithelium to limit hyperglycaemia-induced bacterial growth. Metformin might, therefore, be of additional benefit in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Garnett JP, Baker EH, Tregoning JS, Baines DLet al., 2013, Metformin Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Airway Bacterial Growth And Is Associated With Reduced Transepithelial Glucose Permeability, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 187, ISSN: 1073-449X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mann JFS, Mckay PF, Arokiasamy S, Patel RK, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Mann JFS, McKay PF, Arokiasamy S, Patel RK, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Mann JFS, McKay PF, Arokiasamy S, Patel RK, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Mann JFS, McKay PF, Arokiasamy S, Patel RK, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJ, Mann JFS, McKay PF, Arokiasamy S, Patel RK, Tregoning JS, Shattock RJet al., 2013, Mucosal Application of gp140 Encoding DNA Polyplexes to Different Tissues Results in Altered Immunological Outcomes in Mice, PLOS ONE, Vol: 8, Pages: e67412-e67412, ISSN: 1932-6203

Increasing evidence suggests that mucosally targeted vaccines will enhance local humoral and cellular responses whilst still eliciting systemic immunity. We therefore investigated the capacity of nasal, sublingual or vaginal delivery of DNA-PEI polyplexes to prime immune responses prior to mucosal protein boost vaccination. Using a plasmid expressing the model antigen HIV CN54gp140 we show that each of these mucosal surfaces were permissive for DNA priming and production of antigen-specific antibody responses. The elicitation of systemic immune responses using nasally delivered polyplexed DNA followed by recombinant protein boost vaccination was equivalent to a systemic prime-boost regimen, but the mucosally applied modality had the advantage in that significant levels of antigen-specific IgA were detected in vaginal mucosal secretions. Moreover, mucosal vaccination elicited both local and systemic antigen-specific IgG(+) and IgA(+) antibody secreting cells. Finally, using an Influenza challenge model we found that a nasal or sublingual, but not vaginal, DNA prime/protein boost regimen protected against infectious challenge. These data demonstrate that mucosally applied plasmid DNA complexed to PEI followed by a mucosal protein boost generates sufficient antigen-specific humoral antibody production to protect from mucosal viral challenge.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJ, Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJ, Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJ, Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJ, Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJ, Tregoning JS, Buffa V, Oszmiana A, Klein K, Walters AA, Shattock RJet al., 2013, A "Prime-Pull" Vaccine Strategy Has a Modest Effect on Local and Systemic Antibody Responses to HIV gp140 in Mice, PLOS ONE, Vol: 8, Pages: e80559-e80559, ISSN: 1932-6203

One potential strategy for the prevention of HIV infection is to induce virus specific mucosal antibody that can act as an immune barrier to prevent transmission. The mucosal application of chemokines after immunisation, termed "prime-pull", has been shown to recruit T cells to mucosal sites. We wished to determine whether this strategy could be used to increase B cells and antibody in the vaginal mucosa following immunisation with an HIV antigen. BALB/c mice were immunised intranasally with trimeric gp140 prior to vaginal application of the chemokine CCL28 or the synthetic TLR4 ligand MPLA, without antigen six days later. There was no increase in vaginal IgA, IgG or B cells following the application of CCL28, however vaginal application of MPLA led to a significant boost in antigen specific vaginal IgA. Follow up studies to investigate the effect of the timing of the "pull" stimulation demonstrated that when given 14 days after the initial immunisation MPLA significantly increased systemic antibody responses. We speculate that this may be due to residual inflammation prior to re-immunisation. Overall we conclude that in contrast to the previously observed effect on T cells, the use of "prime-pull" has only a modest effect on B cells and antibody.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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