112 results found
Haeusler I, Isitt C, Daniel O, et al., 2021, Optimisation of methods for a human infection model for Group B Streptococcus (the TIMING study): a pilot, prospective cohort study, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 220-221, ISSN: 1360-2276
Tregoning JS, Flight KE, Higham SL, et al., 2021, Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape, NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 21, Pages: 626-636, ISSN: 1474-1733
Zhang S, Asquith B, Szydlo R, et al., 2021, Peripheral T cell lymphopenia in COVID-19: potential mechanisms and impact, Immunotherapy Advances, ISSN: 2732-4303
Immunopathogenesis involving T lymphocytes, which play a key role in defence against viral infection, could contribute to the spectrum of COVID-19 disease and provide an avenue for treatment. To address this question, are view of clinical observational studies and autopsy data in English and Chinese languages was conducted with a search of registered clinical trials. Peripheral lymphopenia affecting CD4 and CD8 T cells was a striking feature of severe COVID-19 compared with non-severe disease. Autopsy data demonstrated infiltration of T cells into organs, particularly the lung. 74 clinical trials are on-going that could target T cell-related pathogenesis, particularly IL-6 pathways. SARS-CoV-2 infection interrupts T cell circulation in patients with severe COVID-19. This could be due to redistribution of T cells into infected organs, activation induced exhaustion, apoptosis or pyroptosis. Measuring T cell dynamics during COVID-19 will inform clinical risk-stratification of hospitalised patients and could identify those who would benefit most from 66treatments that target T cells
Cole ME, Kundu R, Abdulla AF, et al., 2021, Pre-existing influenza specific nasal IgA or nasal viral infection does not affect live attenuated influenza vaccine immunogenicity in children., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol: 204, Pages: 125-133, ISSN: 0009-9104
The United Kingdom has a national immunisation program which includes annual influenza vaccination in school-aged children, using live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). LAIV is given annually, and it is unclear whether repeat administration can affect immunogenicity. Since LAIV is delivered intranasally, pre-existing local antibody might be important. In this study, we analysed banked samples from a study performed during the 2017/18 influenza season to investigate the role of pre-existing influenza-specific nasal IgA in children aged 6-14 years. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected prior to LAIV immunisation, to measure pre-existing IgA levels and test for concurrent upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI). Oral fluid samples were taken at baseline and 21-28 days after LAIV to measure IgG as a surrogate of immunogenicity. Antibody levels at baseline were compared with a pre-existing dataset of LAIV shedding from the same individuals, measured by RT-PCR. There was detectable nasal IgA specific to all four strains in the vaccine at baseline. However, baseline nasal IgA did not correlate with the fold change in IgG response to the vaccine. Baseline nasal IgA also did not have an impact on whether vaccine virus RNA was detectable after immunisation. There was no difference in fold change of antibody between individuals with and without an URTI at the time of immunisation. Overall, we observed no effect of pre-existing influenza specific nasal antibody levels on immunogenicity, supporting annual immunisation with LAIV in children.
Tregoning J, 2021, Coronavirus diaries: the COVID 19., Nature
Tregoning J, 2021, Coronavirus diaries: Laughter is the best medicine., Nature
Tregoning J, 2021, Coronavirus diaries: making plans in a changing world., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: an unexpected career experiment., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: Reasons to be cheerful, 1, 2, 3., Nature
Tregoning JS, 2020, First human efficacy study of a plant-derived influenza vaccine, LANCET, Vol: 396, Pages: 1464-1465, ISSN: 0140-6736
Since the emergence of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, at the end of 2019 there has been an explosion of vaccine development. By the 1st September 2020, a staggering number of vaccines (over 200) had started pre-clinical development of which 39 had entered clinical trials, including some approaches that have not previously been licensed for human vaccines. Vaccines have been widely considered as part of the exit strategy to enable the return to previous patterns of working, schooling and socialising. Importantly, to effectively control the COVID-19 pandemic, production needs to be scaled up from a small number of pre-clinical doses to enough filled vials to immunise the world's population, which requires close engagement with manufacturers and regulators. It will require a global effort to control the virus, necessitating equitable access for all countries to effective vaccines. This review explores the immune responses required to protect against SARS-CoV-2 and the potential for vaccine-induced immunopathology. It describes the profile of the different platforms and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The review also addresses the critical steps between promising pre-clinical leads and manufacturing at scale. The issues faced during this pandemic and the platforms being developed to address it will be invaluable for future outbreak control. Nine months after the outbreak began, we are at a point where pre-clinical and early clinical data is being generated for the vaccines, an overview of this important area will help our understanding of the next phases.
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: a new year for science., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: give your brain a break from science busywork, it deserves it., NATURE, Vol: 585, Pages: 471-472, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, Busse D, Kaforou M, et al., 2020, Interferon-induced Protein-44 and Interferon-induced Protein 44-like restrict replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Journal of Virology, Vol: 94, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0022-538X
Cellular intrinsic immunity, mediated by the expression of an array of interferon-stimulated antiviral genes, is a vital part of host defence. We have previously used a bioinformatic screen to identify two interferon stimulated genes (ISG) with poorly characterised function, Interferon-induced protein 44 (IFI44) and interferon-induced protein 44-like (IFI44L), as potentially being important in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. Using overexpression systems, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout, and a knockout mouse model we investigated the antiviral capability of these genes in the control of RSV replication. Over-expression of IFI44 or IFI44L was sufficient to restrict RSV infection at an early time post infection. Knocking out these genes in mammalian airway epithelial cells increased levels of infection. Both genes express antiproliferative factors that have no effect on RSV attachment but reduce RSV replication in a minigenome assay. The loss of Ifi44 was associated with a more severe infection phenotype in a mouse model of infection. These studies demonstrate a function for IFI44 and IFI44L in controlling RSV infection.
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: social media in an unsocial age, Nature, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: a lockdown letter to myself as a PhD student., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: back to the lab again., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: taking leave, but not holiday., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: rejection under lockdown., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: finding a place to have new ideas., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: We'll meet again., Nature, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: to be a scientist, NATURE, Vol: 581, Pages: 226-226, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: school’s out forever, NATURE, Vol: 581, Pages: 226-227, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: all the things we do not do., Nature
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: school's out forever., Nature, Vol: 581, Pages: 226-227
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: creature comforts., Nature, Vol: 581, Pages: 227-227
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: to be a scientist., Nature, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, 2020, Coronavirus diaries: hello from home., Nature, ISSN: 0028-0836
Tregoning J, Weiner J, Cizmeci D, et al., 2020, Pregnancy has a minimal impact on the acute transcriptional signature to vaccination, npj Vaccines, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2059-0105
Vaccination in pregnancy is an effective tool to protect both the mother and infant; vaccines against influenza, pertussis and tetanus are currently recommended. A number of vaccines with a specific indication for use in pregnancy are in development, with the specific aim of providing passive humoral immunity to the newborn child against pathogens responsible for morbidity and mortality in young infants. However, the current understanding about the immune response to vaccination in pregnancy is incomplete. We analysed the effect of pregnancy on early transcriptional responses to vaccination. This type of systems vaccinology approach identifies genes and pathways that are altered in response to vaccination and can be used to understand both the acute inflammation in response to the vaccine and to predict immunogenicity. Pregnant women and mice were immunised with Boostrix-IPV, a multivalent vaccine, which contains three pertussis antigens. Blood was collected from women before and after vaccination and RNA extracted for analysis by microarray. While there were baseline differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women, vaccination induced characteristic patterns of gene expression, with upregulation in interferon response and innate immunity gene modules, independent of pregnancy. We saw similar patterns of responses in both women and mice, supporting the use of mice for preclinical screening of novel maternal vaccines. Using a systems vaccinology approach in pregnancy demonstrated that pregnancy does not affect the initial response to vaccination and that studies in non-pregnant women can provide information about vaccine immunogenicity and potentially safety.
Tregoning JS, McDermott JE, 2020, Ten simple rules to becoming a principal investigator, PLoS Computational Biology, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1553-734X
The biggest choke point in an academic career is going from postdoc to principal investigator (PI): moving from doing someone else’s research to getting other people to do yours. Being a PI is a fundamentally different job to being a postdoc; they just happen to be in the same environment. It is not an easy transition. It draws on few of the skills you learn at the bench, and the odds are clearly not ever in your favor. So, calling this article Ten Simple Rules is obviously a simplification. It is more accurate to call them ten tricky steps.In this article, we use PI to mean anyone who runs their own research group using funding that they have been awarded to answer their own questions. PI encompasses a number of different job titles depending on where the research is performed: fellow, lecturer, reader, associate professor, and senior scientist. One test is whether you can describe the people working for you as the X group, in which X is your surname. The normal route from undergraduate to lab head involves a PhD, one or more postdoc positions, and then PI. Given the diversity of ways to be a PI, the final step up from postdoc takes a number of forms. In the United Kingdom, this tends to be either an individual fellowship or a lecturer position, and in the United States, it generally starts with an independent position with associated funding—either as a start-up package or funded grant.The aim of this article is to identify some of the broader skills (rules 1–4) and behaviors (rules 5–10) that can help with getting a PI position. It is meant as advice not instruction. As you will see, we are advocating the development of social intelligence, which is as useful in the world outside academia as within it.
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