Imperial College London

Dr Jonathan P. Eastwood

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Lecturer
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8101jonathan.eastwood Website

 
 
//

Assistant

 

Mr David Owen +44 (0)20 7594 7770

 
//

Location

 

6M63Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

124 results found

Eastwood J, Nakamura R, Turc L, Mejnertsen L, Hesse Met al., 2017, The scientific foundations of forecasting magnetospheric space weather, Space Science Reviews, ISSN: 1572-9672

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eastwood JP, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell L-A, Gibbs M, Burnett C, Eastwood JP, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell L-A, Gibbs M, Burnett C, Eastwood JP, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell LA, Gibbs M, Burnett C, Eastwood JP, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell L-A, Gibbs M, Burnett C, Eastwood JP, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell L-A, Gibbs M, Burnett C, Eastwood J, Biffis E, Hapgood MA, Green L, Bisi MM, Bentley RD, Wicks R, McKinnell LA, Gibbs M, Burnett Cet al., 2017, The Economic Impact of Space Weather: Where Do We Stand?, RISK ANALYSIS, Vol: 37, Pages: 206-218, ISSN: 0272-4332

Space weather describes the way in which the Sun, and conditions in space more generally, impact human activity and technology both in space and on the ground. It is now well understood that space weather represents a significant threat to infrastructure resilience, and is a source of risk that is wide-ranging in its impact and the pathways by which this impact may occur. Although space weather is growing rapidly as a field, work rigorously assessing the overall economic cost of space weather appears to be in its infancy. Here, we provide an initial literature review to gather and assess the quality of any published assessments of space weather impacts and socioeconomic studies. Generally speaking, there is a good volume of scientific peer-reviewed literature detailing the likelihood and statistics of different types of space weather phenomena. These phenomena all typically exhibit "power-law" behavior in their severity. The literature on documented impacts is not as extensive, with many case studies, but few statistical studies. The literature on the economic impacts of space weather is rather sparse and not as well developed when compared to the other sections, most probably due to the somewhat limited data that are available from end-users. The major risk is attached to power distribution systems and there is disagreement as to the severity of the technological footprint. This strongly controls the economic impact. Consequently, urgent work is required to better quantify the risk of future space weather events.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ergun RE, Chen L-J, Wilder FD, Ahmadi N, Eriksson S, Usanova ME, Goodrich KA, Holmes JC, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Newman DL, Torbert RB, Argall MR, Lindqvist P-A, Burch JL, Webster JM, Drake JF, Price L, Cassak PA, Swisdak M, Shay MA, Graham DB, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Giles BL, Dorelli JC, Gershman D, Avanov L, Hesse M, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Goldman MV, Stawarz JE, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Hwang K-J, Nakamura R, Wang S, Ergun RE, Chen LJ, Wilder FD, Ahmadi N, Eriksson S, Usanova ME, Goodrich KA, Holmes JC, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Newman DL, Torbert RB, Argall MR, Lindqvist PA, Burch JL, Webster JM, Drake JF, Price L, Cassak PA, Swisdak M, Shay MA, Graham DB, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Giles BL, Dorelli JC, Gershman D, Avanov L, Hesse M, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Goldman MV, Stawarz JE, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Hwang KJ, Nakamura R, Wang S, Ergun RE, Chen L-J, Wilder FD, Ahmadi N, Eriksson S, Usanova ME, Goodrich KA, Holmes JC, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Newman DL, Torbert RB, Argall MR, Lindqvist P-A, Burch JL, Webster JM, Drake JF, Price L, Cassak PA, Swisdak M, Shay MA, Graham DB, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Giles BL, Dorelli JC, Gershman D, Avanov L, Hesse M, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Goldman MV, Stawarz JE, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Hwang K-J, Nakamura R, Wang S, Ergun RE, Chen L-J, Wilder FD, Ahmadi N, Eriksson S, Usanova ME, Goodrich KA, Holmes JC, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Newman DL, Torbert RB, Argall MR, Lindqvist P-A, Burch JL, Webster JM, Drake JF, Price L, Cassak PA, Swisdak M, Shay MA, Graham DB, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Giles BL, Dorelli JC, Gershman D, Avanov L, Hesse M, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Goldman MV, Stawarz JE, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Hwang K-J, Nakamura R, Wang Set al., 2017, Drift waves, intense parallel electric fields, and turbulence associated with asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 44, Pages: 2978-2986, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E || ). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude (~100 mV/m) E || in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fu HS, Vaivads A, Khotyaintsev YV, André M, Cao JB, Olshevsky V, Eastwood JP, Retinò A, Fu HS, Vaivads A, Khotyaintsev YV, André M, Cao JB, Olshevsky V, Eastwood JP, Retinò A, Fu HS, Vaivads A, Khotyaintsev YV, André M, Cao JB, Olshevsky V, Eastwood JP, Retinò Aet al., 2017, Intermittent energy dissipation by turbulent reconnection, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 44, Pages: 37-43, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Magnetic reconnection—the process responsible for many explosive phenomena in both nature and laboratory—is efficient at dissipating magnetic energy into particle energy. To date, exactly how this dissipation happens remains unclear, owing to the scarcity of multipoint measurements of the “diffusion region” at the sub-ion scale. Here we report such a measurement by Cluster—four spacecraft with separation of 1/5 ion scale. We discover numerous current filaments and magnetic nulls inside the diffusion region of magnetic reconnection, with the strongest currents appearing at spiral nulls (O-lines) and the separatrices. Inside each current filament, kinetic-scale turbulence is significantly increased and the energy dissipation, E′ ⋅ j, is 100 times larger than the typical value. At the jet reversal point, where radial nulls (X-lines) are detected, the current, turbulence, and energy dissipations are surprisingly small. All these features clearly demonstrate that energy dissipation in magnetic reconnection occurs at O-lines but not X-lines.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Innocenti ME, Cazzola E, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Markidis S, Lapenta G, Innocenti ME, Cazzola E, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Markidis S, Lapenta G, Innocenti ME, Cazzola E, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Markidis S, Lapenta G, Innocenti ME, Cazzola E, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Markidis S, Lapenta G, Innocenti ME, Cazzola E, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Markidis S, Lapenta Get al., 2017, Switch-off slow shock/rotational discontinuity structures in collisionless magnetic reconnection: What to look for in satellite observations, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 44, Pages: 3447-3455, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. In Innocenti et al. (2015) we have observed and characterized for the first time Petschek-like switch-off slow shock/rotational discontinuity (SO-SS/RD) compound structures in a 2-D fully kinetic simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection. Observing these structures in the solar wind or in the magnetotail would corroborate the possibility that Petschek exhausts develop in collisionless media as a result of single X point collisionless reconnection. Here we highlight their signatures in simulations with the aim of easing their identification in observations. The most notable signatures include a four-peaked ion current profile in the out-of-plane direction, associated ion distribution functions, increased electron and ion anisotropy downstream the SS, and increased electron agyrotropy downstream the RDs.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Hietala H, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Hietala H, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Hietala H, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Hietala Het al., 2017, Statistical properties of solar wind reconnection exhausts, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 122, Pages: 5895-5909, ISSN: 2169-9380

©2017. The Authors. The solar wind provides an excellent opportunity to study the exhausts that form as a result of symmetric guide field reconnection, where spacecraft rapidly cross the exhausts far downstream of the X line. We study the statistical properties of solar wind exhausts through a superposed epoch analysis of 188 events observed at 1 AU using the Wind spacecraft. These events span a range of guide fields of 0 to 10 times the reconnecting magnetic field and inflow region plasma beta of 0.1 to 6.6. This analysis reveals that the out-of-plane magnetic field is enhanced within solar wind exhausts. Furthermore, the amount by which the plasma density and ion temperature increase from inflow region to exhaust region is found to be a function of the inflow region plasma beta and reconnection guide field, which explains the lack of these enhancements in a subset of previous observations. This dependence is consistent with the scaling of ion heating with inflow region Alfven speed, which is measured to be consistent with previous observations in the solar wind and at the magnetopause.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Möstl C, Isavnin A, Boakes PD, Kilpua EKJ, Davies JA, Harrison RA, Barnes D, Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Good SW, Forsyth RJ, Bothmer V, Reiss MA, Amerstorfer T, Winslow RM, Anderson BJ, Philpott LC, Rodriguez L, Rouillard AP, Gallagher P, Nieves-Chinchilla T, Zhang TL, Möstl C, Isavnin A, Boakes PD, Kilpua EKJ, Davies JA, Harrison RA, Barnes D, Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Good SW, Forsyth RJ, Bothmer V, Reiss MA, Amerstorfer T, Winslow RM, Anderson BJ, Philpott LC, Rodriguez L, Rouillard AP, Gallagher P, Nieves-Chinchilla T, Zhang TLet al., 2017, Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the Heliophysics System Observatory, Space Weather, ISSN: 1542-7390

©2017. The Authors. We present an advance toward accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the terrestrial planets, including Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over two thirds of a solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results of 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) (science data) from 8 years of observations by five in situ observing spacecraft. We use the self-similar expansion model for CME fronts assuming 60° longitudinal width, constant speed, and constant propagation direction. With these assumptions we find that 23%-35% of all CMEs that were predicted to hit a certain spacecraft lead to clear in situ signatures, so that for one correct prediction, two to three false alarms would have been issued. In addition, we find that the prediction accuracy does not degrade with the HI longitudinal separation from Earth. Predicted arrival times are on average within 2.6 ± 16.6 h difference of the in situ arrival time, similar to analytical and numerical modeling, and a true skill statistic of 0.21. We also discuss various factors that may improve the accuracy of space weather forecasting using wide-angle heliospheric imager observations. These results form a first-order approximated baseline of the prediction accuracy that is possible with HI and other methods used for data by an operational space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Stawarz JE, Eastwood JP, Varsani A, Ergun RE, Shay MA, Nakamura R, Phan TD, Burch JL, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Goodrich KA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Stawarz JE, Eastwood JP, Varsani A, Ergun RE, Shay MA, Nakamura R, Phan TD, Burch JL, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Goodrich KA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Stawarz JE, Eastwood JP, Varsani A, Ergun RE, Shay MA, Nakamura R, Phan TD, Burch JL, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Goodrich KA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RBet al., 2017, Magnetospheric Multiscale analysis of intense field-aligned Poynting flux near the Earth's plasma sheet boundary, Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2017. American Geophysical Union. The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission is employed to examine intense Poynting flux directed along the background magnetic field toward Earth, which reaches amplitudes of nearly 2 mW/m 2 . The event is located within the plasma sheet but likely near the boundary at a geocentric distance of 9 R E in association with bulk flow signatures. The fluctuations have wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field of 124-264 km (compared to an ion gyroradius of 280 km), consistent with highly kinetic Alfvén waves. While the wave vector remains highly perpendicular to the magnetic field, there is substantial variation of the direction in the perpendicular plane. The field-aligned Poynting flux may be associated with kinetic Alfvén waves released along the separatrix by magnetotail reconnection and/or the radiation of waves excited by bursty bulk flow braking and may provide a means through which energy released by magnetic reconnection is transferred to the auroral region.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Arridge CS, Eastwood JP, Jackman CM, Poh G-K, Slavin JA, Thomsen MF, Andre N, Jia X, Kidder A, Lamy L, Radioti A, Reisenfeld DB, Sergis N, Volwerk M, Walsh AP, Zarka P, Coates AJ, Dougherty MK, Arridge CS, Eastwood JP, Jackman CM, Poh GK, Slavin JA, Thomsen MF, André N, Jia X, Kidder A, Lamy L, Radioti A, Reisenfeld DB, Sergis N, Volwerk M, Walsh AP, Zarka P, Coates AJ, Dougherty MK, Arridge CS, Eastwood JP, Jackman CM, Poh G-K, Slavin JA, Thomsen MF, André N, Jia X, Kidder A, Lamy L, Radioti A, Reisenfeld DB, Sergis N, Volwerk M, Walsh AP, Zarka P, Coates AJ, Dougherty MK, Arridge CS, Eastwood J, Jackman CM, Poh GK, Slavin JA, Thomsen MF, Andre N, Jia X, Kidder A, Lamy L, Radioti A, Reisenfeld DB, Sergis N, Volwerk M, Walsh AP, Zarka P, Coates AJ, Dougherty MKet al., 2016, Cassini in situ observations of long-duration magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail, NATURE PHYSICS, Vol: 12, Pages: 268-271, ISSN: 1745-2473

© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in solar system and astrophysical plasmas, through which stored magnetic energy associated with current sheets is converted into thermal, kinetic and wave energy. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to be a key process involved in shedding internally produced plasma from the giant magnetospheres at Jupiter and Saturn through topological reconfiguration of the magnetic field. The region where magnetic fields reconnect is known as the diffusion region and in this letter we report on the first encounter of the Cassini spacecraft with a diffusion region in Saturn's magnetotail. The data also show evidence of magnetic reconnection over a period of 19 h revealing that reconnection can, in fact, act for prolonged intervals in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. We show that reconnection can be a significant pathway for internal plasma loss at Saturn. This counters the view of reconnection as a transient method of internal plasma loss at Saturn. These results, although directly relating to the magnetosphere of Saturn, have applications in the understanding of other rapidly rotating magnetospheres, including that of Jupiter and other astrophysical bodies.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Burch JL, Torbert RB, Phan TD, Chen L-J, Moore TE, Ergun RE, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Cassak PA, Argall MR, Wang S, Hesse M, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Nakamura R, Mauk BH, Fuselier SA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Drake JF, Shay MA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Marklund G, Wilder FD, Young DT, Torkar K, Goldstein J, Dorelli JC, Avanov LA, Oka M, Baker DN, Jaynes AN, Goodrich KA, Cohen IJ, Turner DL, Fennell JF, Blake JB, Clemmons J, Goldman M, Newman D, Petrinec SM, Trattner KJ, Lavraud B, Reiff PH, Baumjohann W, Magnes W, Steller M, Lewis W, Saito Y, Coffey V, Chandler M, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Phan TD, Chen L-J, Moore TE, Ergun RE, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Cassak PA, Argall MR, Wang S, Hesse M, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Nakamura R, Mauk BH, Fuselier SA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Drake JF, Shay MA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Marklund G, Wilder FD, Young DT, Torkar K, Goldstein J, Dorelli JC, Avanov LA, Oka M, Baker DN, Jaynes AN, Goodrich KA, Cohen IJ, Turner DL, Fennell JF, Blake JB, Clemmons J, Goldman M, Newman D, Petrinec SM, Trattner KJ, Lavraud B, Reiff PH, Baumjohann W, Magnes W, Steller M, Lewis W, Saito Y, Coffey V, Chandler M, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Phan TD, Chen LJ, Moore TE, Ergun RE, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Cassak PA, Argall MR, Wang S, Hesse M, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Nakamura R, Mauk BH, Fuselier SA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Drake JF, Shay MA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Marklund G, Wilder FD, Young DT, Torkar K, Goldstein J, Dorelli JC, Avanov LA, Oka M, Baker DN, Jaynes AN, Goodrich KA, Cohen IJ, Turner DL, Fennell JF, Blake JB, Clemmons J, Goldman M, Newman D, Petrinec SM, Trattner KJ, Lavraud B, Reiff PH, Baumjohann W, Magnes W, Steller M, Lewis W, Saito Y, Coffey V, Chandler M, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Phan TD, Chen L-J, Moore TE, Ergun RE, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Cassak PA, Argall MR, Wang S, Hesse M, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Nakamura R, Mauk BH, Fuselier SA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Drake JF, Shay MA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Marklundet al., 2016, Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space, SCIENCE, Vol: 352, Pages: aaf2939-aaf2939, ISSN: 0036-8075

Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Oieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang S, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Øieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang S, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Øieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang S, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Øieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang S, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Øieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang S, Eastwood J, Phan T, Cassak PA, Gershman DJ, Haggerty C, Malakit K, Shay MA, Mistry R, Oieroset M, Russell CT, Slavin JA, Argall MR, Avanov LA, Burch JL, Chen LJ, Dorelli JC, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist PA, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wang Set al., 2016, Ion-scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 4716-4724, ISSN: 0094-8276

New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small-scale (~7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (~22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non-frozen-in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle-in-cell simulation. It is concluded that these small-scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lapenta G, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Mozer FS, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Marklund G, Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lapenta G, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Mozer FS, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Marklund G, Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist PA, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lapenta G, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Mozer FS, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Marklund G, Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lapenta G, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Mozer FS, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Marklund G, Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lapenta G, Goldman MV, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Mozer FS, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Marklund G, Ergun RE, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Holmes JC, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Lindqvist PA, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BLet al., 2016, Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 116, ISSN: 0031-9007

We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E_{∥}) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E_{∥} events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100  mV/m, which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E_{∥} events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E_{∥} events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ergun RE, Holmes JC, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Goldman MV, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Argall M, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Dorelli JJC, Avanov L, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Oieroset M, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Zhou M, Ashour-Abdalla M, Andre M, Ergun RE, Holmes JC, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Goldman MV, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Argall M, Lindqvist PA, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Dorelli JJC, Avanov L, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Oieroset M, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Zhou M, Ashour-Abdalla M, André M, Ergun RE, Holmes JC, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Goldman MV, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Argall M, Lindqvist P-A, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Dorelli JJC, Avanov L, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Oieroset M, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Zhou M, Ashour-Abdalla M, André M, Ergun RE, Holmes JC, Goodrich KA, Wilder FD, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Newman DL, Schwartz SJ, Goldman MV, Sturner AP, Malaspina DM, Usanova ME, Torbert RB, Argall M, Lindqvist PA, Khotyaintsev Y, Burch JL, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Pollock CJ, Giles BL, Dorelli JJC, Avanov L, Hesse M, Chen LJ, Lavraud B, Le Contel O, Retino A, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Oieroset M, Drake J, Shay MA, Cassak PA, Nakamura R, Zhou M, Ashour-Abdalla M, André Met al., 2016, Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 5626-5634, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause. The observed waves have parallel electric fields (E || ) with amplitudes on the order of 100 mV/m and display nonlinear characteristics that suggest a possible net E || . These waves are observed within the ion diffusion region and adjacent to (within several electron skin depths) the electron diffusion region. They are in or near the magnetosphere side current layer. Simulation results support that the strong electrostatic linear and nonlinear wave activities appear to be driven by a two stream instability, which is a consequence of mixing cold ( < 10 eV) plasma in the magnetosphere with warm (~100 eV) plasma from the magnetosheath on a freshly reconnected magnetic field line. The frequent observation of these waves suggests that cold plasma is often present near the magnetopause.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Farrugia CJ, Lavraud B, Torbert RB, Argall M, Kacem I, Yu W, Alm L, Burch J, Russell CT, Shuster J, Dorelli J, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Fuselier S, Gershman D, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Matsui H, Marklund GT, Phan TD, Paulson K, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Farrugia CJ, Lavraud B, Torbert RB, Argall M, Kacem I, Yu W, Alm L, Burch J, Russell CT, Shuster J, Dorelli J, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Fuselier S, Gershman D, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Matsui H, Marklund GT, Phan TD, Paulson K, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Farrugia CJ, Lavraud B, Torbert RB, Argall M, Kacem I, Yu W, Alm L, Burch J, Russell CT, Shuster J, Dorelli J, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Fuselier S, Gershman D, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Matsui H, Marklund GT, Phan TD, Paulson K, Pollock C, Strangeway RJ, Farrugia CJ, Lavraud B, Torbert RB, Argall M, Kacem I, Yu W, Alm L, Burch J, Russell CT, Shuster J, Dorelli J, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Fuselier S, Gershman D, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist PA, Matsui H, Marklund GT, Phan TD, Paulson K, Pollock C, Strangeway RJet al., 2016, Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission observations and non-force free modeling of a flux transfer event immersed in a super-Alfvenic flow, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 6070-6077, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We analyze plasma, magnetic field, and electric field data for a flux transfer event (FTE) to highlight improvements in our understanding of these transient reconnection signatures resulting from high-resolution data. The ∼20 s long, reverse FTE, which occurred south of the geomagnetic equator near dusk, was immersed in super-Alfvénic flow. The field line twist is illustrated by the behavior of flows parallel/perpendicular to the magnetic field. Four-spacecraft timing and energetic particle pitch angle anisotropies indicate a flux rope (FR) connected to the Northern Hemisphere and moving southeast. The flow forces evidently overcame the magnetic tension. The high-speed flows inside the FR were different from those outside. The external flows were perpendicular to the field as expected for draping of the external field around the FR. Modeling the FR analytically, we adopt a non-force free approach since the current perpendicular to the field is nonzero. It reproduces many features of the observations.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Kruparova O, Santolik O, Soucek J, Magdalenic J, Vourlidas A, Maksimovic M, Bonnin X, Bothmer V, Mrotzek N, Pluta A, Barnes D, Davies JA, Oliveros JCM, Bale SD, Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Kruparova O, Santolik O, Soucek J, Magdalenić J, Vourlidas A, Maksimovic M, Bonnin X, Bothmer V, Mrotzek N, Pluta A, Barnes D, Davies JA, Oliveros JCM, Bale SD, Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Kruparova O, Santolik O, Soucek J, Magdalenić J, Vourlidas A, Maksimovic M, Bonnin X, Bothmer V, Mrotzek N, Pluta A, Barnes D, Davies JA, Oliveros JCM, Bale SD, Krupar V, Eastwood J, Kruparova O, Santolik O, Soucek J, Magdalenic J, Vourlidas A, Maksimovic M, Bothmer V, Mrotzek N, Pluta A, Barnes D, Davies J, Oliveros JCM, Bale S, Krupar V, Eastwood JP, Kruparova O, Santolik O, Soucek J, Magdalenić J, Vourlidas A, Maksimovic M, Bonnin X, Bothmer V, Mrotzek N, Pluta A, Barnes D, Davies JA, Oliveros JCM, Bale SDet al., 2016, AN ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY SOLAR RADIO EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A CORONAL MASS EJECTION, ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, Vol: 823, Pages: L5-L5, ISSN: 2041-8205

© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of magnetized plasma that may cause severe geomagnetic storms if Earth directed. Here, we report a rare instance with comprehensive in situ and remote sensing observations of a CME combining white-light, radio, and plasma measurements from four different vantage points. For the first time, we have successfully applied a radio direction-finding technique to an interplanetary type II burst detected by two identical widely separated radio receivers. The derived locations of the type II and type III bursts are in general agreement with the white-light CME reconstruction. We find that the radio emission arises from the flanks of the CME and are most likely associated with the CME-driven shock. Our work demonstrates the complementarity between radio triangulation and 3D reconstruction techniques for space weather applications.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kubicka M, Möstl C, Amerstorfer T, Boakes PD, Feng L, Eastwood JP, Törmänen O, Kubicka M, Möstl C, Amerstorfer T, Boakes PD, Feng L, Eastwood JP, Törmänen O, Kubicka M, Mostl C, Amerstorfer T, Boakes PD, Feng L, Eastwood J, Tormanen Oet al., 2016, PREDICTION of GEOMAGNETIC STORM STRENGTH from INNER HELIOSPHERIC in SITU OBSERVATIONS, Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 833, Pages: 255-255, ISSN: 0004-637X

© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Prediction of the effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on Earth strongly depends on knowledge of the interplanetary magnetic field southward component, B z . Predicting the strength and duration of B z inside a CME with sufficient accuracy is currently impossible, forming the so-called B z problem. Here, we provide a proof-of-concept of a new method for predicting the CME arrival time, speed, B z , and resulting disturbance storm time (Dst) index on Earth based only on magnetic field data, measured in situ in the inner heliosphere ( < 1 au). On 2012 June 12-16, three approximately Earthward-directed and interacting CMEs were observed by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory imagers and Venus Express (VEX) in situ at 0.72 au, 6° away from the Sun-Earth line. The CME kinematics are calculated using the drag-based and WSA-Enlil models, constrained by the arrival time at VEX, resulting in the CME arrival time and speed on Earth. The CME magnetic field strength is scaled with a power law from VEX to Wind. Our investigation shows promising results for the Dst forecast (predicted: -96 and -114 nT (from 2 Dst models); observed: -71 nT), for the arrival speed (predicted: 531 ±23 km s -1 ; observed: 488 ±30 km s -1 ), and for the timing (6 ±1 hr after the actual arrival time). The prediction lead time is 21 hr. The method may be applied to vector magnetic field data from a spacecraft at an artificial Lagrange point between the Sun and Earth or to data taken by any spacecraft temporarily crossing the Sun-Earth line.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lavraud B, Liu Y, Segura K, He J, Qin G, Temmer M, Vial J-C, Xiong M, Davies JA, Rouillard AP, Pinto R, Auchere F, Harrison RA, Eyles C, Gan W, Lamy P, Xia L, Eastwood JP, Kong L, Wang J, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zhang S, Zong Q, Soucek J, An J, Prech L, Zhang A, Rochus P, Bothmer V, Janvier M, Maksimovic M, Escoubet CP, Kilpua EKJ, Tappin J, Vainio R, Poedts S, Dunlop MW, Savani N, Gopalswamy N, Bale SD, Li G, Howard T, DeForest C, Webb D, Lugaz N, Fuselier SA, Dalmasse K, Tallineau J, Vranken D, Fernandez JG, Lavraud B, Liu Y, Segura K, He J, Qin G, Temmer M, Vial JC, Xiong M, Davies JA, Rouillard AP, Pinto R, Auchère F, Harrison RA, Eyles C, Gan W, Lamy P, Xia L, Eastwood JP, Kong L, Wang J, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zhang S, Zong Q, Soucek J, An J, Prech L, Zhang A, Rochus P, Bothmer V, Janvier M, Maksimovic M, Escoubet CP, Kilpua EKJ, Tappin J, Vainio R, Poedts S, Dunlop MW, Savani N, Gopalswamy N, Bale SD, Li G, Howard T, DeForest C, Webb D, Lugaz N, Fuselier SA, Dalmasse K, Tallineau J, Vranken D, Fernández JG, Lavraud B, Liu Y, Segura K, He J, Qin G, Temmer M, Vial J-C, Xiong M, Davies JA, Rouillard AP, Pinto R, Auchère F, Harrison RA, Eyles C, Gan W, Lamy P, Xia L, Eastwood JP, Kong L, Wang J, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zhang S, Zong Q, Soucek J, An J, Prech L, Zhang A, Rochus P, Bothmer V, Janvier M, Maksimovic M, Escoubet CP, Kilpua EKJ, Tappin J, Vainio R, Poedts S, Dunlop MW, Savani N, Gopalswamy N, Bale SD, Li G, Howard T, DeForest C, Webb D, Lugaz N, Fuselier SA, Dalmasse K, Tallineau J, Vranken D, Fernández JG, Lavraud B, Liu Y, Segura K, He J, Qin G, Temmer M, Vial JC, Xiong M, Davies JA, Rouillard AP, Pinto R, Auchère F, Harrison RA, Eyles C, Gan W, Lamy P, Xia L, Eastwood JP, Kong L, Wang J, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zhang S, Zong Q, Soucek J, An J, Prech L, Zhang A, Rochus P, Bothmer V, Janvier M, Maksimovic M, Escoubet CP, Kilpua EKJ, Tappin J, Vainio R, Poedts S, Dunlop MW, Savani N, Gopalswamy N, Bale SD, Li G, Howard T, DeForest C, Webb D, Lugazet al., 2016, A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science, JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, Vol: 146, Pages: 171-185, ISSN: 1364-6826

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lavraud B, Zhang YC, Vernisse Y, Gershman DJ, Dorelli J, Cassak PA, Dargent J, Pollock C, Giles B, Aunai N, Argall M, Avanov L, Barrie A, Burch J, Chandler M, Chen L-J, Clark G, Cohen I, Coffey V, Eastwood JP, Egedal J, Eriksson S, Ergun R, Farrugia CJ, Fuselier SA, Genot V, Graham D, Grigorenko E, Hasegawa H, Jacquey C, Kacem I, Khotyaintsev Y, MacDonald E, Magnes W, Marchaudon A, Mauk B, Moore TE, Mukai T, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Penou E, Phan TD, Rager A, Retino A, Rong ZJ, Russell CT, Saito Y, Sauvaud J-A, Schwartz SJ, Shen C, Smith S, Strangeway R, Toledo-Redondo S, Torbert R, Turner DL, Wang S, Yokota S, Lavraud B, Zhang YC, Vernisse Y, Gershman DJ, Dorelli J, Cassak PA, Dargent J, Pollock C, Giles B, Aunai N, Argall M, Avanov L, Barrie A, Burch J, Chandler M, Chen LJ, Clark G, Cohen I, Coffey V, Eastwood JP, Egedal J, Eriksson S, Ergun R, Farrugia CJ, Fuselier SA, Génot V, Graham D, Grigorenko E, Hasegawa H, Jacquey C, Kacem I, Khotyaintsev Y, Macdonald E, Magnes W, Marchaudon A, Mauk B, Moore TE, Mukai T, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Penou E, Phan TD, Rager A, Retino A, Rong ZJ, Russell CT, Saito Y, Sauvaud JA, Schwartz SJ, Shen C, Smith S, Strangeway R, Toledo-Redondo S, Torbert R, Turner DL, Wang S, Yokota S, Lavraud B, Zhang YC, Vernisse Y, Gershman DJ, Dorelli J, Cassak PA, Dargent J, Pollock C, Giles B, Aunai N, Argall M, Avanov L, Barrie A, Burch J, Chandler M, Chen LJ, Clark G, Cohen I, Coffey V, Eastwood JP, Egedal J, Eriksson S, Ergun R, Farrugia CJ, Fuselier SA, Génot V, Graham D, Grigorenko E, Hasegawa H, Jacquey C, Kacem I, Khotyaintsev Y, Macdonald E, Magnes W, Marchaudon A, Mauk B, Moore TE, Mukai T, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Penou E, Phan TD, Rager A, Retino A, Rong ZJ, Russell CT, Saito Y, Sauvaud JA, Schwartz SJ, Shen C, Smith S, Strangeway R, Toledo-Redondo S, Torbert R, Turner DL, Wang S, Yokota S, Lavraud B, Zhang YC, Vernisse Y, Gershman DJ, Dorelli J, Cassak PA, Dargent J, Pollock C, Giles B, Aunai N, Argall M, Avanov L, Barrie A, Burch J, Chaet al., 2016, Currents and associated electron scattering and bouncing near the diffusion region at Earth's magnetopause, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 3042-3050, ISSN: 0094-8276

© 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Based on high-resolution measurements from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we present the dynamics of electrons associated with current systems observed near the diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause. Using pitch angle distributions (PAD) and magnetic curvature analysis, we demonstrate the occurrence of electron scattering in the curved magnetic field of the diffusion region down to energies of 20 eV. We show that scattering occurs closer to the current sheet as the electron energy decreases. The scattering of inflowing electrons, associated with field-aligned electrostatic potentials and Hall currents, produces a new population of scattered electrons with broader PAD which bounce back and forth in the exhaust. Except at the center of the diffusion region the two populations are collocated and appear to behave adiabatically: the inflowing electron PAD focuses inward (toward lower magnetic field), while the bouncing population PAD gradually peaks at 90° away from the center (where it mirrors owing to higher magnetic field and probable field-aligned potentials).

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mejnertsen L, Eastwood JP, Chittenden JP, Masters A, Mejnertsen L, Eastwood JP, Chittenden JP, Masters A, Mejnertsen L, Eastwood JP, Chittenden JP, Masters A, Mejnertsen L, Eastwood JP, Chittenden JP, Masters A, Mejnertsen L, Eastwood JP, Chittenden J, Masters Aet al., 2016, Global MHD simulations of Neptune's magnetosphere, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 121, Pages: 7497-7513, ISSN: 2169-9380

©2016. The Authors. A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation has been performed in order to investigate the outer boundaries of Neptune's magnetosphere at the time of Voyager 2's flyby in 1989 and to better understand the dynamics of magnetospheres formed by highly inclined planetary dipoles. Using the MHD code Gorgon, we have implemented a precessing dipole to mimic Neptune's tilted magnetic field and rotation axes. By using the solar wind parameters measured by Voyager 2, the simulation is verified by finding good agreement with Voyager 2 magnetometer observations. Overall, there is a large-scale reconfiguration of magnetic topology and plasma distribution. During the “pole-on” magnetospheric configuration, there only exists one tail current sheet, contained between a rarefied lobe region which extends outward from the dayside cusp, and a lobe region attached to the nightside cusp. It is found that the tail current always closes to the magnetopause current system, rather than closing in on itself, as suggested by other models. The bow shock position and shape is found to be dependent on Neptune's daily rotation, with maximum standoff being during the pole-on case. Reconnection is found on the magnetopause but is highly modulated by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and time of day, turning “off” and “on” when the magnetic shear between the IMF and planetary fields is large enough. The simulation shows that the most likely location for reconnection to occur during Voyager 2's flyby was far from the spacecraft trajectory, which may explain the relative lack of associated signatures in the observations.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PA, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PA, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PA, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PA, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PA, Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Haggerty CC, Shay MA, Phan TD, Hietala H, Cassak PAet al., 2016, Observations of Hall Reconnection Physics Far Downstream of the X Line, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 117, ISSN: 0031-9007

Observations made using the Wind spacecraft of Hall magnetic fields in solar wind reconnection exhausts are presented. These observations are consistent with the generation of Hall fields by a narrow ion inertial scale current layer near the separatrix, which is confirmed with an appropriately scaled particle-in-cell simulation that shows excellent agreement with observations. The Hall fields are observed thousands of ion inertial lengths downstream from the reconnection X line, indicating that narrow regions of kinetic dynamics can persist extremely far downstream.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Oieroset M, Phan TD, Haggerty C, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Drake JF, Fujimoto M, Ergun RE, Mozer FS, Oka M, Torbert RB, Burch JL, Wang S, Chen LJ, Swisdak M, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Fuselier SA, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Malakit K, Øieroset M, Phan TD, Haggerty C, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Drake JF, Fujimoto M, Ergun RE, Mozer FS, Oka M, Torbert RB, Burch JL, Wang S, Chen LJ, Swisdak M, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Fuselier SA, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Malakit K, Øieroset M, Phan TD, Haggerty C, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Drake JF, Fujimoto M, Ergun RE, Mozer FS, Oka M, Torbert RB, Burch JL, Wang S, Chen LJ, Swisdak M, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Fuselier SA, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Malakit K, Øieroset M, Phan TD, Haggerty C, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Drake JF, Fujimoto M, Ergun RE, Mozer FS, Oka M, Torbert RB, Burch JL, Wang S, Chen LJ, Swisdak M, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Fuselier SA, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Malakit Ket al., 2016, MMS observations of large guide field symmetric reconnection between colliding reconnection jets at the center of a magnetic flux rope at the magnetopause, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 5536-5544, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We report evidence for reconnection between colliding reconnection jets in a compressed current sheet at the center of a magnetic flux rope at Earth's magnetopause. The reconnection involved nearly symmetric inflow boundary conditions with a strong guide field of two. The thin (2.5 ion-skin depth (d i ) width) current sheet (at ~12 d i downstream of the X line) was well resolved by MMS, which revealed large asymmetries in plasma and field structures in the exhaust. Ion perpendicular heating, electron parallel heating, and density compression occurred on one side of the exhaust, while ion parallel heating and density depression were shifted to the other side. The normal electric field and double out-of-plane (bifurcated) currents spanned almost the entire exhaust. These observations are in good agreement with a kinetic simulation for similar boundary conditions, demonstrating in new detail that the structure of large guide field symmetric reconnection is distinctly different from antiparallel reconnection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Cassak PA, Oieroset M, Gosling JT, Gershman DJ, Mozer FS, Shay MA, Fujimoto M, Daughton W, Drake JF, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Ergun RE, Chen LJ, Wang S, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Oka M, Wilder FD, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Cassak PA, Øieroset M, Gosling JT, Gershman DJ, Mozer FS, Shay MA, Fujimoto M, Daughton W, Drake JF, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Ergun RE, Chen LJ, Wang S, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Oka M, Wilder FD, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Cassak PA, Øieroset M, Gosling JT, Gershman DJ, Mozer FS, Shay MA, Fujimoto M, Daughton W, Drake JF, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Ergun RE, Chen LJ, Wang S, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Oka M, Wilder FD, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Cassak PA, Øieroset M, Gosling JT, Gershman DJ, Mozer FS, Shay MA, Fujimoto M, Daughton W, Drake JF, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Ergun RE, Chen LJ, Wang S, Pollock C, Dorelli JC, Lavraud B, Giles BL, Moore TE, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson W, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Oka M, Wilder FDet al., 2016, MMS observations of electron-scale filamentary currents in the reconnection exhaust and near the X line, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 6060-6069, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of macroscopic and electron-scale current layers in asymmetric reconnection. By intercomparing plasma, magnetic, and electric field data at multiple crossings of a reconnecting magnetopause on 22 October 2015, when the average interspacecraft separation was ~10 km, we demonstrate that the ion and electron moments are sufficiently accurate to provide reliable current density measurements at 30 ms cadence. These measurements, which resolve current layers narrower than the interspacecraft separation, reveal electron-scale filamentary Hall currents and electron vorticity within the reconnection exhaust far downstream of the X line and even in the magnetosheath. Slightly downstream of the X line, intense (up to 3 μA/m 2 ) electron currents, a super-Alfvénic outflowing electron jet, and nongyrotropic crescent shape electron distributions were observed deep inside the ion-scale magnetopause current sheet and embedded in the ion diffusion region. These characteristics are similar to those attributed to the electron dissipation/diffusion region around the X line.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Phan TD, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Angelopoulos V, Oieroset M, Oka M, Fujimoto M, Phan TD, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Angelopoulos V, Oieroset M, Oka M, Fujimoto Met al., 2016, Establishing the Context for Reconnection Diffusion Region Encounters and Strategies for the Capture and Transmission of Diffusion Region Burst Data by MMS, Space Science Reviews, Vol: 199, Pages: 631-650, ISSN: 0038-6308

© 2015, The Author(s). This paper describes the efforts of our Inter-Disciplinary Scientist (IDS) team to (a) establish the large-scale context for reconnection diffusion region encounters by MMS at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, including the distinction between X-line and O-line encounters, that would help the identification of diffusion regions in spacecraft data, and (b) devise possible strategies that can be used by MMS to capture and transmit burst data associated with diffusion region candidates. At the magnetopause we suggest the strategy of transmitting burst data from all magnetopause crossings so that no magnetopause reconnection diffusion regions encountered by the spacecraft will be missed. The strategy is made possible by the MMS mass memory and downlink budget. In the magnetotail, it is estimated that MMS will be able to transmit burst data for all diffusion regions, all reconnection jet fronts (a.k.a. dipolarization fronts) and separatrix encounters, but less than 50 % of reconnection exhausts encountered by the spacecraft. We also discuss automated burst trigger schemes that could capture various reconnection-related phenomena. The identification of candidate diffusion region encounters by the burst trigger schemes will be verified and improved by a Scientist-In-The-Loop (SITL). With the knowledge of the properties of the region surrounding the diffusion region and the combination of automated burst triggers and further optimization by the SITL, MMS should be able to capture most diffusion regions it encounters.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Phan TD, Shay MA, Haggerty CC, Gosling JT, Eastwood JP, Fujimoto M, Malakit K, Mozer FS, Cassak PA, Oieroset M, Angelopoulos V, Phan TD, Shay MA, Haggerty CC, Gosling JT, Eastwood JP, Fujimoto M, Malakit K, Mozer FS, Cassak PA, Oieroset M, Angelopoulos V, Phan TD, Shay MA, Haggerty CC, Gosling JT, Eastwood JP, Fujimoto M, Malakit K, Mozer FS, Cassak PA, Oieroset M, Angelopoulos Vet al., 2016, Ion Larmor radius effects near a reconnection X line at the magnetopause: THEMIS observations and simulation comparison, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 43, Pages: 8844-8852, ISSN: 0094-8276

©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We report a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS-D) spacecraft crossing of a magnetopause reconnection exhaust ~9 ion skin depths (d i ) downstream of an X line. The crossing was characterized by ion jetting at speeds substantially below the predicted reconnection outflow speed. In the magnetospheric inflow region THEMIS detected (a) penetration of magnetosheath ions and the resulting flows perpendicular to the reconnection plane, (b) ion outflow extending into the magnetosphere, and (c) enhanced electron parallel temperature. Comparison with a simulation suggests that these signatures are associated with the gyration of magnetosheath ions onto magnetospheric field lines due to the shift of the flow stagnation point toward the low-density magnetosphere. Our observations indicate that these effects, ~2–3 d i in width, extend at least 9 d i downstream of the X line. The detection of these signatures could indicate large-scale proximity of the X line but do not imply that the spacecraft was upstream of the electron diffusion region.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Plotnikov I, Rouillard AP, Davies JA, Bothmer V, Eastwood JP, Gallagher P, Harrison RA, Kilpua E, Moestl C, Perry CH, Rodriguez L, Lavraud B, Genot V, Pinto RF, Sanchez-Diaz E, Plotnikov I, Rouillard AP, Davies JA, Bothmer V, Eastwood JP, Gallagher P, Harrison RA, Kilpua E, Möstl C, Perry CH, Rodriguez L, Lavraud B, Génot V, Pinto RF, Sanchez-Diaz E, Plotnikov I, Rouillard AP, Davies JA, Bothmer V, Eastwood JP, Gallagher P, Harrison RA, Kilpua E, Möstl C, Perry CH, Rodriguez L, Lavraud B, Génot V, Pinto RF, Sanchez-Diaz E, Plotnikov I, Rouillard AP, Davies JA, Bothmer V, Eastwood JP, Gallagher P, Harrison RA, Kilpua E, Möstl C, Perry CH, Rodriguez L, Lavraud B, Génot V, Pinto RF, Sanchez-Diaz Eet al., 2016, Long-Term Tracking of Corotating Density Structures Using Heliospheric Imaging, SOLAR PHYSICS, Vol: 291, Pages: 1853-1875, ISSN: 0038-0938

© 2016, The Author(s). The systematic monitoring of the solar wind in high-cadence and high-resolution heliospheric images taken by the Solar-Terrestrial Relation Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft permits the study of the spatial and temporal evolution of variable solar wind flows from the Sun out to 1 AU, and beyond. As part of the EU Framework 7 (FP7) Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) project, we have generated a catalog listing the properties of 190 corotating structures well-observed in images taken by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments onboard STEREO-A (ST-A). Based on this catalog, we present here one of very few long-term analyses of solar wind structures advected by the background solar wind. We concentrate on the subset of plasma density structures clearly identified inside corotating structures. This analysis confirms that most of the corotating density structures detected by the heliospheric imagers comprises a series of density inhomogeneities advected by the slow solar wind that eventually become entrained by stream interaction regions. We have derived the spatial-temporal evolution of each of these corotating density structures by using a well-established fitting technique. The mean radial propagation speed of the corotating structures is found to be 311±31kms−1. Such a low mean value corresponds to the terminal speed of the slow solar wind rather than the speed of stream interfaces, which is typically intermediate between the slow and fast solar wind speeds (∼400kms−1). Using our fitting technique, we predicted the arrival time of each corotating density structure at different probes in the inner heliosphere. We find that our derived speeds are systematically lower by ∼100kms−1 than those measured in situ at the predicted impact times. Moreover, for cases when a stream interaction region is clearly detected in situ at the estimated impact time, we find that our derived sp

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Wilder FD, Ergun RE, Schwartz SJ, Pouquet A, Burch JL, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Le Contel O, Lindqvist P-A, Magnes W, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Avanov LA, Dorelli JC, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Goodrich KA, Malaspina DM, Marklund GT, Mirioni L, Sturner AP, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Wilder FD, Ergun RE, Schwartz SJ, Pouquet A, Burch JL, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Contel OL, Lindqvist PA, Magnes W, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Avanov LA, Dorelli JC, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Goodrich KA, Malaspina DM, Marklund GT, Mirioni L, Sturner AP, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Wilder FD, Ergun RE, Schwartz SJ, Pouquet A, Burch JL, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Contel OL, Lindqvist PA, Magnes W, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Avanov LA, Dorelli JC, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Goodrich KA, Malaspina DM, Marklund GT, Mirioni L, Sturner AP, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Wilder FD, Ergun RE, Schwartz SJ, Pouquet A, Burch JL, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Contel OL, Lindqvist P-A, Magnes W, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Avanov LA, Dorelli JC, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Goodrich KA, Malaspina DM, Marklund GT, Mirioni L, Sturner AP, Stawarz JE, Eriksson S, Wilder FD, Ergun RE, Schwartz SJ, Pouquet A, Burch JL, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Le Contel O, Lindqvist PA, Magnes W, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Avanov LA, Dorelli JC, Eastwood JP, Gershman DJ, Goodrich KA, Malaspina DM, Marklund GT, Mirioni L, Sturner APet al., 2016, Observations of turbulence in a Kelvin-Helmholtz event on 8 September 2015 by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 121, Pages: 11021-11034, ISSN: 2169-9380

©2016. The Authors. Spatial and high-time-resolution properties of the velocities, magnetic field, and 3-D electric field within plasma turbulence are examined observationally using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Observations from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) on the Earth's magnetopause are examined, which both provides a series of repeatable intervals to analyze, giving better statistics, and provides a first look at the properties of turbulence in the KHI. For the first time direct observations of both the high-frequency ion and electron velocity spectra are examined, showing differing ion and electron behavior at kinetic scales. Temporal spectra exhibit power law behavior with changes in slope near the ion gyrofrequency and lower hybrid frequency. The work provides the first observational evidence for turbulent intermittency and anisotropy consistent with quasi two-dimensional turbulence in association with the KHI. The behavior of kinetic-scale intermittency is found to have differences from previous studies of solar wind turbulence, leading to novel insights on the turbulent dynamics in the KHI.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Vaivads A, Retino A, Soucek J, Khotyaintsev YV, Valentini F, Escoubet CP, Alexandrova O, Andre M, Bale SD, Balikhin M, Burgessl D, Camporeale E, Caprioli D, Chen CHK, Clacey E, Cully CM, De Keyser J, Eastwood JP, Fazakerley AN, Eriksson S, Goldstein ML, Graham DB, Haaland S, Hoshino M, Ji H, Karimabadi H, Kucharek H, Lavraud B, Marcucci F, Matthaeus WH, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Narita Y, Nemecek Z, Norgren C, Opgenoorth H, Palmroth M, Perrone D, Pinqon J-L, Rathsman P, Rothkaeh H, Sahraoui F, Servidio S, Sorriso-Valvo L, Vainio R, Voeroes Z, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Vaivads A, Retinò A, Soucek J, Khotyaintsev YV, Valentini F, Escoubet CP, Alexandrova O, André M, Bale SD, Balikhin M, Burgess D, Camporeale E, Caprioli D, Chen CHK, Clacey E, Cully CM, De Keyser J, Eastwood JP, Fazakerley AN, Eriksson S, Goldstein ML, Graham DB, Haaland S, Hoshino M, Ji H, Karimabadi H, Kucharek H, Lavraud B, Marcucci F, Matthaeus WH, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Narita Y, Nemecek Z, Norgren C, Opgenoorth H, Palmroth M, Perrone D, Pinçon JL, Rathsman P, Rothkaehl H, Sahraoui F, Servidio S, Sorriso-Valvo L, Vainio R, Vörös Z, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Vaivads A, Retinò A, Soucek J, Khotyaintsev YV, Valentini F, Escoubet CP, Alexandrova O, André M, Bale SD, Balikhin M, Burgess D, Camporeale E, Caprioli D, Chen CHK, Clacey E, Cully CM, De Keyser J, Eastwood JP, Fazakerley AN, Eriksson S, Goldstein ML, Graham DB, Haaland S, Hoshino M, Ji H, Karimabadi H, Kucharek H, Lavraud B, Marcucci F, Matthaeus WH, Moore TE, Nakamura R, Narita Y, Nemecek Z, Norgren C, Opgenoorth H, Palmroth M, Perrone D, Pinçon J-L, Rathsman P, Rothkaehl H, Sahraoui F, Servidio S, Sorriso-Valvo L, Vainio R, Vörös Z, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Vaivads A, Retino A, Soucek J, Khotjaintsev Y, Valentini F, Escoubet CP, Alexandrova O, Andrea M, Bale SD, Balikhin M, Burgess D, Camporeale E, Caprioli D, Chen CHK, Clacey E, Cully CM, De Keyser J, Eastwood, Fazakerley A, Eriksson S, Goldstein ML, Graham DB, Haaland S, Hoshino M, Ji J, Karimaet al., 2016, Turbulence Heating ObserveR - satellite mission proposal, JOURNAL OF PLASMA PHYSICS, Vol: 82, ISSN: 0022-3778

© Cambridge University Press 2016 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.. The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space - magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind - featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the 'Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)'. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Archer MO, Horbury TS, Brown P, Eastwood JP, Oddy TM, Whiteside BJ, Sample JG, Archer MO, Horbury TS, Brown P, Eastwood JP, Oddy TM, Whiteside BJ, Sample JG, Archer MO, Horbury TS, Brown P, Eastwood JP, Oddy TM, Whiteside BJ, Sample JG, Horbury TS, Archer MO, Brown P, Eastwood JP, Oddy TM, Whiteside BJ, Sample JGet al., 2015, The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer, ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 33, Pages: 725-735, ISSN: 0992-7689

© Author(s) 2015. We present the first in-flight results from a novel miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive space magnetometer, MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College), aboard the first CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAgnetic fields) spacecraft in low Earth orbit. An attitude-independent calibration technique is detailed using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), which is temperature dependent in the case of the outboard sensor. We show that the sensors accurately measure the expected absolute field to within 2% in attitude mode and 1% in science mode. Using a simple method we are able to estimate the spacecraft's attitude using the magnetometer only, thus characterising CINEMA's spin, precession and nutation. Finally, we show that the outboard sensor is capable of detecting transient physical signals with amplitudes of ∼ 20-60 nT. These include field-aligned currents at the auroral oval, qualitatively similar to previous observations, which agree in location with measurements from the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) spacecraft. Thus, we demonstrate and discuss the potential science capabilities of the MAGIC instrument onboard a CubeSat platform.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Balogh A, Bykov A, Eastwood J, Kaastra J, Balogh A, Bykov A, Eastwood J, Kaastra J, Balogh A, Bykov AM, Eastwood JP, Kaastra JS, Balogh A, Bykov A, Eastwood J, Kaastra Jet al., 2015, Multi-scale Structure Formation and Dynamics in Cosmic Plasmas, SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 188, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0038-6308

The Space Science Review Journal is composed from the reviews from a workshop titled 'Multi-scale structure formation and dynamics in cosmic plasmas' which was held at International Space Science Institute in April 2013. It contains review papers on the basic processes of structure formation in cosmic plasmas starting from electric currents, which produce magnetic structures in planet magnetospheres, stellar winds, and relativistic plasma outflows like pulsar wind nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei jets. The important role of the helicity concept on the structure formation and evolution of the large scale magnetic fields in highly conductive cosmic plasmas is emphasized in the book. Cosmological aspects of plasma structures are reviewed within a discussion of large-scale structure formation from the first non-linear objects to massive galaxy clusters, which is followed by a review of observations and current models of structures and components in galaxy clusters. The properties of magnetic field fluctuations and structures in the outer solar atmosphere and Earth?s magneto-tail, which have direct implications for the general problem of structure formation in hot plasmas, are discussed in depth.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Eastwood JP, Eastwood JP, Eastwood J, 2015, Observing magnetic reconnection: The influence of Jim Dungey, Magnetospheric Plasma Physics: The Impact of Jim Dungey's Research, Editors: Southwood, Cowley, Mitton, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 181-197, ISBN: 9783319183589

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. As part of the Festspiel celebrating the 90th birthday of Prof. Jim Dungey, this paper reviews his influence on experimental efforts to observe reconnection in space plasmas. Jim has influenced this area of research in two key ways: firstly, in the development of theories of magnetic reconnection and secondly, in being an early and vocal advocate of the need for multi-point observations. The advent of multi-point missions such as Cluster and THEMIS in the past decade has enabled considerable progress, and we illustrate with examples how multi-point data and techniques have indeed improved our understanding of how reconnection works.

BOOK CHAPTER

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00236001&limit=30&person=true