Imperial College London

Dr Jonathan P. Eastwood

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8101jonathan.eastwood Website

 
 
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Location

 

6M63Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

173 results found

Horbury TS, OBrien H, Carrasco Blazquez I, Bendyk M, Brown P, Hudson R, Evans V, Oddy TM, Carr CM, Beek TJ, Cupido E, Bhattacharya S, Dominguez J-A, Matthews L, Myklebust VR, Whiteside B, Bale SD, Baumjohann W, Burgess D, Carbone V, Cargill P, Eastwood J, Erdös G, Fletcher L, Forsyth R, Giacalone J, Glassmeier K-H, Goldstein ML, Hoeksema T, Lockwood M, Magnes W, Maksimovic M, Marsch E, Matthaeus WH, Murphy N, Nakariakov VM, Owen CJ, Owens M, Rodriguez-Pacheco J, Richter I, Riley P, Russell CT, Schwartz S, Vainio R, Velli M, Vennerstrom S, Walsh R, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zank G, Müller D, Zouganelis I, Walsh APet al., 2020, The Solar Orbiter magnetometer, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol: 642, Pages: A9-A9, ISSN: 0004-6361

<jats:p>The magnetometer instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission is designed to measure the magnetic field local to the spacecraft continuously for the entire mission duration. The need to characterise not only the background magnetic field but also its variations on scales from far above to well below the proton gyroscale result in challenging requirements on stability, precision, and noise, as well as magnetic and operational limitations on both the spacecraft and other instruments. The challenging vibration and thermal environment has led to significant development of the mechanical sensor design. The overall instrument design, performance, data products, and operational strategy are described.</jats:p>

Journal article

Mihailescu AT, Desai R, Shebanits O, Haythornthwaite R, Wellbrock A, Coates A, Eastwood J, Waite JHet al., Spatial variations of low mass negative ions in Titan's upper atmosphere, The Planetary Science Journal, ISSN: 2632-3338

Observations with Cassini’s Electron Spectrometer discovered negative ions in Titan’s ionosphere,at altitudes between 1400 and 950 km. Within the broad mass distribution extending up to severalt housand amu, two distinct peaks were identified at 25.8-26.0 and 49.0-50.1 amu/q, corresponding to the carbon chain anions CN−and/orC2H−for the first peak and C3N−and/orC4H−for the second peak. In this study we present the spatial distribution of these low mass negative ions from 28 Titanflybys with favourable observations between 26 October 2004 and 22 May 2012. We report a trend of lower densities on the night side and increased densities up to twice as high on the day side at small solar zenith angles. To further understand this trend, we compare the negative ion densities to the total electron density measured by Cassini’s Langmuir Probe. We find the low mass negative ion density and the electron density to be proportional to each other on the dayside, but independent of each other on the night side. This indicates photochemical processes and is in agreement with the primary production route for the low mass negative ions being initiated by dissociative reactions with suprathermal electron populations produced by photoionisation. We also find the ratio ofCN−/C2H−toC3N−/C4H−highly constrained on the day-side, in agreement with this production channel, but notably displays large variations on the nightside.

Journal article

AkhavanTafti M, Palmroth M, Slavin JA, Battarbee M, Ganse U, Grandin M, Le G, Gershman DJ, Eastwood JP, Stawarz JEet al., 2020, Comparative analysis of the vlasiator simulations and MMS observations of multiple X‐line reconnection and flux transfer events, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 2169-9380

The Vlasiator hybrid‐Vlasov code was developed to investigate global magnetospheric dynamics at ion‐kinetic scales. Here, we focus on the role of magnetic reconnection in the formation and evolution of the magnetic islands at the low‐latitude magnetopause, under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The simulation results indicate that: 1) the magnetic reconnection ion kinetics, including the Earthward‐pointing Larmor electric field on the magnetospheric‐side of an X‐point and anisotropic ion distributions, are well‐captured by Vlasiator, thus enabling the study of reconnection‐driven magnetic island evolution processes, 2) magnetic islands evolve due to continuous reconnection at adjacent X‐points, ‘coalescence’ which refers to the merging of neighboring islands to create a larger island, ‘erosion’ during which an island loses magnetic flux due to reconnection, and ‘division’ which involves the splitting of an island into smaller islands, and 3) continuous reconnection at adjacent X‐points is the dominant source of magnetic flux and plasma to the outer layers of magnetic islands resulting in cross‐sectional growth rates up to +0.3 RE2/min. The simulation results are compared to the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) measurements of a chain of ion‐scale flux transfer events (FTEs) sandwiched between two dominant X‐lines. The MMS measurements similarly reveal: 1) anisotropic ion populations, and 2) normalized reconnection rate ~0.18, in agreement with theory and the Vlasiator predictions. Based on the simulation results and the MMS measurements, it is estimated that the observed ion‐scale FTEs may grow Earth‐sized within ~10 minutes, which is comparable to the average transport time for FTEs formed in the subsolar region to the high‐latitude magnetopause. Future simulations shall revisit reconnection‐driven island evolution processes with improved spatial resolutions.

Journal article

Eggington JWB, Eastwood JP, Mejnertsen L, Desai RT, Chittenden JPet al., 2020, Dipole tilt effect on magnetopause reconnection and the steady‐state magnetosphere‐ionosphere system: global MHD simulation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2169-9380

The Earth’s dipole tilt angle changes both diurnally and seasonally and introduces numerous variabilities in the coupled magnetosphere‐ionosphere system. By altering the location and intensity of magnetic reconnection, the dipole tilt influences convection on a global scale. However, due to the nonlinear nature of the system, various other effects like dipole rotation, varying IMF orientation and non‐uniform ionospheric conductance can smear tilt effects arising purely from changes in coupling with the solar wind. To elucidate the underlying tilt angle‐dependence, we perform MHD simulations of the steady‐state magnetosphere‐ionosphere system under purely southward IMF conditions for tilt angles from 0°‐90°. We identify the location of the magnetic separator in each case, and find that an increasing tilt angle shifts the 3‐D X‐line southward on the magnetopause due to changes in magnetic shear angle. The separator is highly unsteady above 50° tilt angle, characteristic of regular FTE generation on the magnetopause. The reconnection rate drops as the tilt angle becomes large, but remains continuous across the dayside such that the magnetosphere is open even for 90°. These trends map down to the ionosphere, with the polar cap contracting as the tilt angle increases, and region‐I field‐aligned current (FAC) migrating to higher latitudes with changing morphology. The tilt introduces a north‐south asymmetry in magnetospheric convection, thus driving more FAC in the northern (sunward‐facing) hemisphere for large tilt angles than in the south independent of conductance. These results highlight the strong sensitivity to onset time in the potential impact of a severe space weather event.

Journal article

Tilquin H, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, 2020, Solar wind reconnection exhausts in the inner heliosphere observed by helios and detected via machine learning, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 895, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0004-637X

Reconnecting current sheets in the solar wind play an important role in the dynamics of the heliosphere and offer an opportunity to study magnetic reconnection exhausts under a wide variety of inflow and magnetic shear conditions. However, progress in understanding reconnection can be frustrated by the difficulty of finding events in long time-series data. Here we describe a new method to detect magnetic reconnection events in the solar wind based on machine learning, and apply it to Helios data in the inner heliosphere. The method searches for known solar wind reconnection exhaust features, and parameters in the algorithm are optimized to maximize the Matthews Correlation Coefficient using a training set of events and non-events. Applied to the whole Helios data set, the trained algorithm generated a candidate set of events that were subsequently verified by hand, resulting in a database of 88 events. This approach offers a significant reduction in construction time for event databases compared to purely manual approaches. The database contains events covering a range of heliospheric distances from ~0.3 to ~1 au, and a wide variety of magnetic shear angles, but is limited by the relatively coarse time resolution of the Helios data. Analysis of these events suggests that proton heating by reconnection in the inner heliosphere depends on the available magnetic energy in a manner consistent with observations in other regimes such as at the Earth's magnetopause, suggesting this may be a universal feature of reconnection.

Journal article

Lavraud B, Fargette N, Réville V, Szabo A, Huang J, Rouillard AP, Viall N, Phan TD, Kasper JC, Bale SD, Berthomier M, Bonnell JW, Case AW, Dudok de Wit T, Eastwood JP, Génot V, Goetz K, Griton LS, Halekas JS, Harvey P, Kieokaew R, Klein KG, Korreck KE, Kouloumvakos A, Larson DE, Lavarra M, Livi R, Louarn P, MacDowall RJ, Maksimovic M, Malaspina D, Nieves-Chinchilla T, Pinto RF, Poirier N, Pulupa M, Raouafi NE, Stevens ML, Toledo-Redondo S, Whittlesey PLet al., 2020, The heliospheric current sheet and plasma sheet during Parker Solar Probe’s first orbit, Letters of the Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 894, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-8205

We present heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and plasma sheet (HPS) observations during Parker Solar Probe's (PSP) first orbit around the Sun. We focus on the eight intervals that display a true sector boundary (TSB; based on suprathermal electron pitch angle distributions) with one or several associated current sheets. The analysis shows that (1) the main density enhancements in the vicinity of the TSB and HCS are typically associated with electron strahl dropouts, implying magnetic disconnection from the Sun, (2) the density enhancements are just about twice that in the surrounding regions, suggesting mixing of plasmas from each side of the HCS, (3) the velocity changes at the main boundaries are either correlated or anticorrelated with magnetic field changes, consistent with magnetic reconnection, (4) there often exists a layer of disconnected magnetic field just outside the high-density regions, in agreement with a reconnected topology, (5) while a few cases consist of short-lived density and velocity changes, compatible with short-duration reconnection exhausts, most events are much longer and show the presence of flux ropes interleaved with higher-β regions. These findings are consistent with the transient release of density blobs and flux ropes through sequential magnetic reconnection at the tip of the helmet streamer. The data also demonstrate that, at least during PSP's first orbit, the only structure that may be defined as the HPS is the density structure that results from magnetic reconnection, and its byproducts, likely released near the tip of the helmet streamer.

Journal article

Adhikari S, Shay MA, Parashar TN, Pyakurel PS, Matthaeus WH, Godzieba D, Stawarz JE, Eastwood JP, Dahlin JTet al., 2020, Reconnection from a turbulence perspective, Physics of Plasmas, Vol: 27, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1070-664X

The spectral properties associated with laminar, anti-parallel reconnection are examined using a 2.5D kinetic particle in cell simulation. Both the reconnection rate and the energy spectrum exhibit three distinct phases: an initiation phase where the reconnection rate grows, a quasi-steady phase, and a declining phase where both the reconnection rate and the energy spectrum decrease. During the steady phase, the energy spectrum exhibits approximately a double power law behavior, with a slope near −5/3 at wave numbers smaller than the inverse ion inertial length and a slope steeper than −8/3 for larger wave numbers up to the inverse electron inertial length. This behavior is consistent with a Kolmogorov energy cascade and implies that laminar reconnection may fundamentally be an energy cascade process. Consistent with this idea is the fact that the reconnection rate exhibits a rough correlation with the energy spectrum at wave numbers near the inverse ion inertial length. The 2D spectrum is strongly anisotropic with most energy associated with the wave vector direction normal to the current sheet. Reconnection acts to isotropize the energy spectrum, reducing the Shebalin angle from an initial value of 70° to about 48° (nearly isotropic) by the end of the simulation. The distribution of energy over length scales is further analyzed by dividing the domain into spatial subregions and employing structure functions.

Journal article

Fargette N, Lavraud B, Øieroset M, Phan TD, ToledoRedondo S, Kieokaew R, Jacquey C, Fuselier SA, Trattner KJ, Petrinec S, Hasegawa H, Garnier P, Génot V, Lenouvel Q, Fadanelli S, Penou E, Sauvaud J, Avanov DLA, Burch J, Chandler MO, Coffey VN, Dorelli J, Eastwood JP, Farrugia CJ, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Grigorenko E, Moore TE, Paterson WR, Pollock C, Saito Y, Schiff C, Smith SEet al., 2020, On the ubiquity of magnetic reconnection inside flux transfer event‐like structures at the earth's magnetopause, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 47, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0094-8276

Flux transfer events (FTEs) are transient phenomena frequently observed at the Earth's magnetopause. Their usual interpretation is a flux rope moving away from the reconnection region. However, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission revealed that magnetic reconnection sometimes occurs inside these structures, questioning their flux rope configuration. Here we investigate 229 FTE‐type structures and find reconnection signatures inside 19% of them. We analyze their large‐scale magnetic topology using electron heat flux and find that it is significantly different across the FTE reconnecting current sheets, demonstrating that they are constituted of two magnetically disconnected structures. We also find that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) associated with reconnecting FTEs presents a strong By component. We discuss several formation mechanisms to explain these observations. In particular, the maximum magnetic shear model predicts that for large IMF By, two spatially distinct X lines coexist at the magnetopause. They can generate separate magnetic flux tubes that may become interlaced.

Journal article

Haaland S, Paschmann G, Øieroset M, Phan T, Hasegawa H, Fuselier S, Constantinescu V, Eriksson S, Trattner KJ, Fadanelli S, Tenfjord P, Lavraud B, Norgren C, Eastwood JP, Hietala H, Burch Jet al., 2020, Characteristics of the flank magnetopause: MMS results, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2169-9380

We have used a large number of magnetopause crossings by the Magnetospheric Multi Spacecraft (MMS) mission to investigate macroscopic properties of this current sheet, with emphasis on the flanks of the magnetopause. Macroscopic features such as thickness, location and motion of the magnetopause were calculated as a function of local time sector. The results show that the flanks of the magnetopause are significantly thicker than the dayside magnetopause. Thicknesses vary from about 650 km near noon to over 1000 km near the terminator. Current densities varies in a similar manner, with average current densities around noon almost twice as high as near the terminator. We also find a dawn‐dusk asymmetry in many of the macroscopic parameters; The dawn magnetopause is thicker than at dusk, while the dusk flank is more dynamic, with a higher average normal velocity.

Journal article

Phan TD, Bale SD, Eastwood JP, Lavraud B, Drake JF, Oieroset M, Shay MA, Pulupa M, Stevens M, MacDowall RJ, Case AW, Larson D, Kasper J, Whittlesey P, Szabo A, Korreck KE, Bonnell JW, de Wit TD, Goetz K, Harvey PR, Horbury TS, Livi R, Malaspina D, Paulson K, Raouafi NE, Velli Met al., 2020, Parker solar probe In situ observations of magnetic reconnection exhausts during encounter 1, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement, Vol: 246, Pages: 34-34, ISSN: 0067-0049

Magnetic reconnection in current sheets converts magnetic energy into particle energy. The process may play an important role in the acceleration and heating of the solar wind close to the Sun. Observations from Parker Solar Probe (PSP) provide a new opportunity to study this problem, as it measures the solar wind at unprecedented close distances to the Sun. During the first orbit, PSP encountered a large number of current sheets in the solar wind through perihelion at 35.7 solar radii. We performed a comprehensive survey of these current sheets and found evidence for 21 reconnection exhausts. These exhausts were observed in heliospheric current sheets, coronal mass ejections, and regular solar wind. However, we find that the majority of current sheets encountered around perihelion, where the magnetic field was strongest and plasma β was lowest, were Alfvénic structures associated with bursty radial jets, and these current sheets did not appear to be undergoing local reconnection. We examined conditions around current sheets to address why some current sheets reconnected while others did not. A key difference appears to be the degree of plasma velocity shear across the current sheets: the median velocity shear for the 21 reconnection exhausts was 24% of the Alfvén velocity shear, whereas the median shear across 43 Alfvénic current sheets examined was 71% of the Alfvén velocity shear. This finding could suggest that large, albeit sub-Alfvénic, velocity shears suppress reconnection. An alternative interpretation is that the Alfvénic current sheets are isolated rotational discontinuities that do not undergo local reconnection.

Journal article

Horbury T, Woolley T, Laker R, Matteini L, Eastwood J, Bale SD, Velli M, Chandran BDG, Phan T, Raouafi NE, Goetz K, Harvey PR, Pulupa M, Klein KG, De Wit TD, Kasper JC, Korreck KE, Case AW, Stevens ML, Whittlesey P, Larson D, MacDowall RJ, Malaspina DM, Livi Ret al., 2020, Sharp Alfvenic impulses in the near-Sun solar wind, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 246, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0004-637X

Measurements of the near-Sun solar wind by Parker Solar Probe have revealed the presence of largenumbers of discrete Alfv ́enic impulses with an anti-Sunward sense of propagation. These are similarto those previously observed near 1 AU, in high speed streams over the Sun’s poles and at 60 solarradii. At 35 solar radii, however, they are typically shorter and sharper than seen elsewhere. Inaddition, these spikes occur in “patches” and there are also clear periods within the same stream whenthey do not occur; the timescale of these patches might be related to the rate at which the spacecraftmagnetic footpoint tracks across the coronal hole from which the plasma originated. While the velocityfluctuations associated with these spikes are typically under 100 km/s, due to the rather low Alfv ́enspeeds in the streams observed by the spacecraft to date, these are still associated with large angulardeflections of the magnetic field - and these deflections are not isotropic. These deflections do notappear to be related to the recently reported large scale, pro-rotation solar wind flow. Estimates ofthe size and shape of the spikes reveal high aspect ratio flow-aligned structures with a transverse scaleof≈104km. These events might be signatures of near-Sun impulsive reconnection events.

Journal article

Escoubet CP, Hwang K-J, Toledo-Redondo S, Turc L, Haaland SE, Aunai N, Dargent J, Eastwood JP, Fear RC, Fu H, Genestreti KJ, Graham DB, Khotyaintsev YV, Lapenta G, Lavraud B, Norgren C, Sibeck DG, Varsani A, Berchem J, Dimmock AP, Paschmann G, Dunlop M, Bogdanova YV, Roberts O, Laakso H, Masson A, Taylor MGGT, Kajdič P, Carr C, Dandouras I, Fazakerley A, Nakamura R, Burch JL, Giles BL, Pollock C, Russell CT, Torbert RBet al., 2020, Cluster and MMS simultaneous observations of magnetosheath high speed jets and their impact on the magnetopause, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2296-987X

When the supersonic solar wind encounters the Earth's magnetosphere a shock, called bow shock, is formed and the plasma is decelerated and thermalized in the magnetosheath downstream from the shock. Sometimes, however, due to discontinuities in the solar wind, bow shock ripples or ionized dust clouds carried by the solar wind, high speed jets (HSJs) are observed in the magnetosheath. These HSJs have typically a Vx component larger than 200 km s−1 and their dynamic pressure can be a few times the solar wind dynamic pressure. They are typically observed downstream from the quasi-parallel bow shock and have a typical size around one Earth radius (RE) in XGSE. We use a conjunction of Cluster and MMS, crossing simultaneously the magnetopause, to study the characteristics of these HSJs and their impact on the magnetopause. Over 1 h 15 min interval in the magnetosheath, Cluster observed 21 HSJs. During the same period, MMS observed 12 HSJs and entered the magnetosphere several times. A jet was observed simultaneously by both MMS and Cluster and it is very likely that they were two distinct HSJs. This shows that HSJs are not localized into small regions but could span a region larger than 10 RE, especially when the quasi-parallel shock is covering the entire dayside magnetosphere under radial IMF. During this period, two and six magnetopause crossings were observed, respectively, on Cluster and MMS with a significant angle between the observation and the expected normal deduced from models. The angles observed range between from 11° up to 114°. One inbound magnetopause crossing observed by Cluster (magnetopause moving out at 142 km s−1) was observed simultaneous to an outbound magnetopause crossing observed by MMS (magnetopause moving in at −83 km s−1), showing that the magnetopause can have multiple local indentation places, most likely independent from each other. Under the continuous impacts of HSJs, the magnetopause is deformed significan

Journal article

Gingell I, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Stawarz JE, Burch JL, Ergun RE, Fuselier SA, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev YV, Lavraud B, Lindqvist P, Paterson WR, Phan TD, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wilder Fet al., 2020, Statistics of reconnecting current sheets in the transition region of earth's bow shock, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2169-9380

We have conducted a comprehensive survey of burst mode observations of Earth's bow shock by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to identify and characterize current sheets associated with collisionless shocks, with a focus on those containing fast electron outflows, a likely signature of magnetic reconnection. The survey demonstrates that these thin current sheets are observed within the transition region of approximately 40% of shocks within the burst mode data set of Magnetospheric Multiscale. With only small apparent bias toward quasi‐parallel shock orientations and high Alfvén Mach numbers, the results suggest that reconnection at shocks is a universal process, occurring across all shock orientations and Mach numbers. On examining the distributions of current sheet properties, we find no correlation between distance from the shock, sheet width, or electron jet speed, though the relationship between electron and ion jet speed supports expectations of electron‐only reconnection in the region. Furthermore, we find that robust heating statistics are not separable from background fluctuations, and thus, the primary consequence of reconnection at shocks is in relaxing the topology of the disordered magnetic field in the transition region.

Journal article

Bale SD, Badman ST, Bonnell JW, Bowen TA, Burgess D, Case AW, Cattell CA, Chandran BDG, Chaston CC, Chen CHK, Drake JF, De Wit TD, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Farrell WM, Fong C, Goetz K, Goldstein M, Goodrich KA, Harvey PR, Horbury TS, Howes GG, Kasper JC, Kellogg PJ, Klimchuk JA, Korreck KE, Krasnoselskikh VV, Krucker S, Laker R, Larson DE, MacDowall RJ, Maksimovic M, Malaspina DM, Martinez-Oliveros J, McComas DJ, Meyer-Vernet N, Moncuquet M, Mozer FS, Phan TD, Pulupa M, Raouafi NE, Salem C, Stansby D, Stevens M, Szabo A, Velli M, Woolley T, Wygant JRet al., 2019, Highly structured slow solar wind emerging from an equatorial coronal hole, Nature, Vol: 576, Pages: 237-242, ISSN: 0028-0836

During the solar minimum, when the Sun is at its least active, the solar wind1,2 is observed at high latitudes as a predominantly fast (more than 500 kilometres per second), highly Alfvénic rarefied stream of plasma originating from deep within coronal holes. Closer to the ecliptic plane, the solar wind is interspersed with a more variable slow wind3 of less than 500 kilometres per second. The precise origins of the slow wind streams are less certain4; theories and observations suggest that they may originate at the tips of helmet streamers5,6, from interchange reconnection near coronal hole boundaries7,8, or within coronal holes with highly diverging magnetic fields9,10. The heating mechanism required to drive the solar wind is also unresolved, although candidate mechanisms include Alfvén-wave turbulence11,12, heating by reconnection in nanoflares13, ion cyclotron wave heating14 and acceleration by thermal gradients1. At a distance of one astronomical unit, the wind is mixed and evolved, and therefore much of the diagnostic structure of these sources and processes has been lost. Here we present observations from the Parker Solar Probe15 at 36 to 54 solar radii that show evidence of slow Alfvénic solar wind emerging from a small equatorial coronal hole. The measured magnetic field exhibits patches of large, intermittent reversals that are associated with jets of plasma and enhanced Poynting flux and that are interspersed in a smoother and less turbulent flow with a near-radial magnetic field. Furthermore, plasma-wave measurements suggest the existence of electron and ion velocity-space micro-instabilities10,16 that are associated with plasma heating and thermalization processes. Our measurements suggest that there is an impulsive mechanism associated with solar-wind energization and that micro-instabilities play a part in heating, and we provide evidence that low-latitude coronal holes are a key source of the slow solar wind.

Journal article

Trenchi L, Coxon JC, Fear RC, Eastwood JP, Dunlop MW, Trattner KJ, Gershman DJ, Graham DB, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud Bet al., 2019, Signatures of magnetic separatrices at the borders of a crater flux transfer event connected to an active X‐line, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 8600-8616, ISSN: 2169-9380

In this paper, we present Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of a flux transfer event (FTE) characterized by a clear signature in the magnetic field magnitude, which shows maximum at the center flanked by two depressions, detected during a period of stable southward interplanetary magnetic field. This class of FTEs are called “crater‐FTEs” and have been suggested to be connected with active reconnection X line. The MMS burst mode data allow the identification of intense fluctuations in the components of the electric field and electron velocity parallel to the magnetic field at the borders of the FTE, which are interpreted as signatures of the magnetic separatrices. In particular, the strong and persistent fluctuations of the parallel electron velocity at the borders of this crater‐FTE reported for the first time in this paper, sustain the field‐aligned current part of the Hall current system along the separatrix layer, and confirm that this FTE is connected with an active reconnection X line. Our observations suggest a stratification of particles inside the reconnection layer, where electrons are flowing toward the X line along the separatrix, are flowing away from the X line along the reconnected field lines adjacent to the separatrices, and more internally ions and electrons are flowing away from the X line with comparable velocities, forming the reconnection jets. This stratification of the reconnection layer forming the FTE, together with the reconnection jet at the trailing edge of the FTE, suggests clearly that this FTE is formed by the single X line generation mechanism.

Journal article

Krupar V, Magdalenic J, Eastwood JP, Gopalswamy N, Kruparova O, Szabo A, Nemec Fet al., 2019, Statistical survey of coronal mass ejections and interplanetary type II bursts, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 882, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 0004-637X

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are responsible for most severe space weather events, such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms at Earth. Type II radio bursts are slow drifting emissions produced by beams of suprathermal electrons accelerated at CME-driven shock waves propagating through the corona and interplanetary medium. Here, we report a statistical study of 153 interplanetary type II radio bursts observed by the two STEREO spacecraft between 2008 March and 2014 August. The shock associated radio emission was compared with CME parameters included in the Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service catalog. We found that faster CMEs are statistically more likely to be associated with the interplanetary type II radio bursts. We correlate frequency drifts of interplanetary type II bursts with white-light observations to localize radio sources with respect to CMEs. Our results suggest that interplanetary type II bursts are more likely to have a source region situated closer to CME flanks than CME leading edge regions.

Journal article

Poh G, Slavin JA, Lu S, Le G, Ozturk DS, Sun W, Zou S, Eastwood JP, Nakamura R, Baumjohann W, Russell CT, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Pollock CJ, Moore TE, Torbert RB, Burch JLet al., 2019, Dissipation of earthward propagating flux rope through re‐reconnection with geomagnetic field: An MMS case study, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 7477-7493, ISSN: 2169-9380

Three‐dimensional global hybrid simulations and observations have shown that earthward‐moving flux ropes (FRs) can undergo magnetic reconnection (or re‐reconnection) with the near‐Earth dipole field to create dipolarization front (DF)‐like signatures that are immediately preceded by brief intervals of negative BZ. The simultaneous erosion of the southward BZ field at the leading edge of the FR and continuous reconnection of lobe magnetic flux at the X‐line tailward of the FR result in the asymmetric south‐north BZ signature in many earthward‐moving FRs and possibly DFs with negative BZ dips prior to their observation. In this study, we analyzed Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) observation of fields and plasma signatures associated with the encounter of an ion diffusion region ahead of an earthward‐moving FR on 3 August 2017. The signatures of this re‐reconnection event were (i) +/− BZ reversal, (ii) −/+ bipolar‐type quadrupolar Hall magnetic fields, (iii) northward super‐Alfvénic electron outflow jet of ~1,000–1,500 km/s, (iv) Hall electric field of ~15 mV/m, (v) intense currents of ~40–100 nA/m2, and (vi) J·E′ ~0.11 nW/m3. Our analysis suggests that the MMS spacecraft encounters the ion and electron diffusion regions but misses the X‐line. Our results are in good agreement with particle‐in‐cell simulations of Lu et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022815). We computed a dimensionless reconnection rate of ~0.09 for this re‐reconnection event and through modeling, estimating that the FR would fully dissipate by −16.58 RE. We demonstrated pertubations in the high‐latitude ionospheric currents at the same time of the dissipation of earthward‐moving FRs using ground‐ and space‐based measurements.

Journal article

Fadanelli S, Lavraud B, Califano F, Jacquey C, Vernisse Y, Kacem I, Penou E, Gershman D, Dorelli J, Pollock C, Giles B, Avanov L, Burch J, Chandler M, Coffey V, Eastwood J, Ergun R, Farrugia C, Fuselier S, Genot V, Grigorenko E, Hasegawa H, Khotyaintsev Y, Le Contel O, Marchaudon A, Moore T, Nakamura R, Paterson W, Phan T, Rager A, Russell C, Saito Y, Sauvaud J-A, Schiff C, Smith S, Toledo Redondo S, Torbert R, Wang S, Yokota Set al., 2019, Four-spacecraft measurements of the shape and dimensionality of magnetic structures in the near-Earth plasma environment, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 6850-6868, ISSN: 2169-9380

We present a new method for determining the main relevant features of the local magnetic field configuration, based entirely on the knowledge of the magnetic field gradient using four- spacecraft measurements. The method, named “Magnetic Configuration Analysis” (MCA), estimates the spatial scales on which the magnetic field varies locally. While it directly derives from the well-known Magnetic Directional Derivative (MDD) and Magnetic Rotational Analysis (MRA) procedures (Shi et al., 2005, doi:10.1029/2005GL022454; Shen et al., 2007, doi:10.1029/2005JA011584), MCA was specifically designed to address the actual magnetic field geometry. By applying MCA to multi-spacecraft data from the MMS satellites, we perform both case and statistical analyses of local magnetic field shape and dimensionality at very high cadence and small scales. We apply this technique to different near-Earth environments and define a classification scheme for the type of configuration observed. While our case studies allow us to benchmark the method with those used in past works, our statistical analysis unveils the typical shape of magnetic configurations and their statistical distributions. We show that small-scale magnetic configurations are generally elongated, displaying forms of cigar and blade shapes, but occasionally being planar in shape like thin pancakes (mostly inside current sheets). Magnetic configurations, however, rarely show isotropy in their magnetic variance. The planar nature of magnetic configurations and, most importantly, their scale lengths strongly depend on the plasma β parameter. Finally, the most invariant direction is statistically aligned with the electric current, reminiscent of the importance of electromagnetic forces in shaping the local magnetic configuration

Journal article

AkhavanTafti M, Slavin JA, Eastwood JP, Cassak PA, Gershman DJet al., 2019, MMS multi‐point analysis of FTE evolution: physical characteristics and dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 5376-5395, ISSN: 2169-9380

Previous studies have indicated that flux transfer events (FTEs) grow as they convect away from the reconnection site along the magnetopause. This increase in FTE diameter may occur via adiabatic expansion in response to decreasing external pressure away from the subsolar region or due to a continuous supply of magnetic flux and plasma to the FTEs' outer layers by magnetic reconnection. Here we investigate an ensemble of 55 FTEs at the subsolar magnetopause using Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) multi‐point measurements. The FTEs are initially modeled as quasi‐force‐free flux ropes in order to infer their geometry and the spacecraft trajectory relative to their central axis. The MMS observations reveal a radially‐inward net force at the outer layers of FTEs which can accelerate plasmas and fields toward the FTE's core region. Inside the FTEs, near the central axis, plasma density is found to decrease as the axial net force increases. It is interpreted that the axial net force accelerates plasmas along the axis in the region of compressing field lines. Statistical analysis of the MMS observations of the 55 FTEs indicates that plasma pressure, Pth, decreases with increasing FTE diameter, λ, as Pth,obsv ∝ λ−0.24. Assuming that all 55 FTEs started out with similar diameters, this rate of plasma pressure decrease with increasing FTE diameter is at least an order of magnitude slower than the theoretical rate for adiabatic expansion (i.e., Pth,adiab. ∝ λ−3.3), suggesting the presence of efficient plasma heating mechanisms, such as magnetic reconnection, to facilitate FTE growth.

Journal article

Good SW, Kilpua EKJ, LaMoury AT, Forsyth RJ, Eastwood JP, Möstl Cet al., 2019, Self‐similarity of ICME flux ropes: Observations by radially aligned spacecraft in the inner Heliosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 4960-4982, ISSN: 2169-9380

Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are a significant feature of the heliospheric environment and the primary cause of adverse space weather at the Earth. ICME propagation and the evolution of ICME magnetic field structure during propagation are still not fully understood. We analyze the magnetic field structures of 18 ICME magnetic flux ropes observed by radially aligned spacecraft in the inner heliosphere. Similarity in the underlying flux rope structures is determined through the application of a simple technique that maps the magnetic field profile from one spacecraft to the other. In many cases, the flux ropes show very strong underlying similarities at the different spacecraft. The mapping technique reveals similarities that are not readily apparent in the unmapped data and is a useful tool when determining whether magnetic field time series observed at different spacecraft are associated with the same ICME. Lundquist fitting has been applied to the flux ropes, and the rope orientations have been determined; macroscale differences in the profiles at the aligned spacecraft may be ascribed to differences in flux rope orientation. Assuming that the same region of the ICME was observed by the aligned spacecraft in each case, the fitting indicates some weak tendency for the rope axes to reduce in inclination relative to the solar equatorial plane and to align with the solar east‐west direction with heliocentric distance.Plain Language SummaryCoronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetic field and plasma from the Sun. When they arrive at the Earth, these eruptions can cause significant damage to ground and orbital infrastructure; forecasting this “space weather” impact of CMEs at the Earth remains a difficult task. The impact of individual CMEs is largely dependent on their magnetic field configurations, and an important aspect of space weather forecasting is understanding how CME field configuration changes with distance from t

Journal article

Stawarz J, Eastwood JP, Phan TD, Gingell IL, Shay MA, Burch JL, Ergun RE, Giles BL, Gershman DJ, Le Contel O, Lindqvist P-A, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Argall MR, Fischer D, Magnes W, Franci Let al., 2019, Properties of the turbulence associated with electron-only magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetosheath, Letters of the Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 877, ISSN: 2041-8205

Turbulent plasmas generate intense current structures, which have long been suggested as magnetic reconnection sites. Recent Magnetospheric Multiscale observations in Earth's magnetosheath revealed a novel form of reconnection where the dynamics only couple to electrons, without ion involvement. It was suggested that such dynamics were driven by magnetosheath turbulence. In this study, the fluctuations are examined to determine the properties of the turbulence and if a signature of reconnection is present in the turbulence statistics. The study reveals statistical properties consistent with plasma turbulence with a correlation length of ~10 ion inertial lengths. When reconnection is more prevalent, a steepening of the magnetic spectrum occurs at the length scale of the reconnecting current sheets. The statistics of intense currents suggest the prevalence of electron-scale current sheets favorable for electron reconnection. The results support the hypothesis that electron reconnection is driven by turbulence and highlight diagnostics that may provide insight into reconnection in other turbulent plasmas.

Journal article

Phan TD, Eastwood JP, Shay MA, Drake JF, Sonnerup BUÖ, Fujimoto M, Cassak PA, Øieroset M, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Rager AC, Dorelli JC, Gershman DJ, Pollock C, Pyakurel PS, Haggerty CC, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Saito Y, Oka M, Ergun RE, Retino A, Le Contel O, Argall MR, Giles BL, Moore TE, Wilder FD, Strangeway RJ, Russell CT, Lindqvist PA, Magnes Wet al., 2019, Publisher Correction: Electron magnetic reconnection without ion coupling in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath, Nature, Vol: 569, Pages: E9-E9, ISSN: 0028-0836

Change history: In this Letter, the y-axis values in Fig. 3f should go from 4 to -8 (rather than from 4 to -4), the y-axis values in Fig. 3h should appear next to the major tick marks (rather than the minor ticks), and in Fig. 1b, the arrows at the top and bottom of the electron-scale current sheet were going in the wrong direction; these errors have been corrected online.

Journal article

Barnes D, Davies JA, Harrison RA, Byrne JP, Perry CH, Bothmer V, Eastwood JP, Gallagher PT, Kilpua EKJ, Moestl C, Rodriguez L, Rouillard AP, Odstrcil Det al., 2019, CMEs in the heliosphere: II. A statistical analysis of the kinematic properties derived from single-spacecraft geometrical modelling techniques applied to CMEs detected in the heliosphere from 2007 to 2017 by STEREO/HI-1, Solar Physics, Vol: 294, ISSN: 0038-0938

Recent observations with the Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) onboard the twin NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft have provided unprecedented observations of a large number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere. In this article we discuss the generation of the HIGeoCAT CME catalogue and perform a statistical analysis of its events. The catalogue was generated as part of the EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service) project ( www.helcats-fp7.eu/ ). It is created by generating time/elongation maps for CMEs using observations from the inner (HI-1) and outer (HI-2) cameras along a position angle close to the CME apex. Next, we apply single-spacecraft geometric-fitting techniques to determine the kinematic properties of these CMEs, including their speeds, propagation directions, and launch times. The catalogue contains a total of 1455 events (801 from STEREO-A and 654 from STEREO-B) from April 2007 to the end of August 2017. We perform a statistical analysis of the properties of CMEs in HIGeoCAT and compare the results with those from the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) CDAW catalogues (Yashiro et al.J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys.109, A07105, 2004) and the COR-2 catalogue of Vourlidas et al. (Astrophys. J.838, 141, 2004) during the same period. We find that the distributions of both speeds and latitudes for the HIGeoCAT CMEs correlate with the sunspot number over the solar cycle. We also find that the HI-derived CME speed distributions are generally consistent with coronagraph catalogues over the solar cycle, albeit with greater absolute speeds due to the differing methods with which each is derived.

Journal article

Hesse M, Norgren C, Tenfjord P, Burch JL, Liu YH, Chen LJ, Bessho N, Wang S, Nakamura R, Eastwood JP, Hoshino M, Torbert RB, Ergun REet al., 2019, Erratum: "On the role of separatrix instabilities in heating the reconnection outflow region" [Phys. Plasmas 25, 122902 (2018)], Physics of Plasmas, Vol: 26, ISSN: 1070-664X

In a recent paper1 about electron heating at the reconnection separatrix, two figures depicting the contributions to the electron energy balance and the contribution to the total, quasi-viscous heating are incorrectly displayed. The correct figures are as follows: [Table Presented].

Journal article

Øieroset M, Phan TD, Drake JF, Eastwood JP, Fuselier SA, Strangeway RJ, Haggerty C, Shay MA, Oka M, Wang S, Chen L-J, Kacem I, Lavraud B, Angelopoulos V, Burch JL, Torbert RB, Ergun RE, Khotyaintsev Y, Lindqvist PA, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Pollock C, Moore TE, Russell CT, Saito Y, Avanov LA, Paterson Wet al., 2019, Reconnection with magnetic flux pileup at the interface of converging jets at the magnetopause, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 46, Pages: 1937-1946, ISSN: 0094-8276

We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of reconnection in a thin current sheet at the interface of interlinked flux tubes carried by converging reconnection jets at Earth's magnetopause. The ion skin depth‐scale width of the interface current sheet and the non‐frozen‐in ions indicate that Magnetospheric Multiscale crossed the reconnection layer near the X‐line, through the ion diffusion region. Significant pileup of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field in this and three other events on approach to the interface current sheet was accompanied by an increase in magnetic shear and decrease in Δβ, leading to conditions favorable for reconnection at the interface current sheet. The pileup also led to enhanced available magnetic energy per particle and strong electron heating. The observations shed light on the evolution and energy release in 3‐D systems with multiple reconnection sites.

Journal article

Gingell I, Schwartz SJ, Eastwood JP, Burch JL, Ergun RE, Fuselier S, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Khotyaintsev Y, Lavraud B, Lindqvist P-A, Paterson WR, Phan TD, Russell CT, Stawarz JE, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Wilder Fet al., 2019, Observations of magnetic reconnection in the ransition region of quasi-parallel hocks, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 46, Pages: 1177-1184, ISSN: 0094-8276

Using observations of Earth's bow shock by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we show for the first time that active magnetic reconnection is occurring at current sheets embedded within the quasi‐parallel shock's transition layer. We observe an electron jet and heating but no ion response, suggesting we have observed an electron‐only mode. The lack of ion response is consistent with simulations showing reconnection onset on sub‐ion time scales. We also discuss the impact of electron heating in shocks via reconnection.

Journal article

Nakamura R, Genestreti KJ, Nakamura T, Baumjohann W, Varsani A, Nagai T, Bessho N, Burch JL, Denton RE, Eastwood JP, Ergun RE, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Hasegawa H, Hesse M, Lindqvist P-A, Russell CT, Stawarz JE, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RBet al., 2019, Structure of the current sheet in the 11 July 2017 Electron Diffusion Region Event, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 124, Pages: 1173-1186, ISSN: 2169-9380

The structure of the current sheet along the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) orbit is examined during the 11 July 2017 Electron Diffusion Region (EDR) event. The location of MMS relative to the X‐line is deduced and used to obtain the spatial changes in the electron parameters. The electron velocity gradient values are used to estimate the reconnection electric field sustained by nongyrotropic pressure. It is shown that the observations are consistent with theoretical expectations for an inner EDR in 2‐D reconnection. That is, the magnetic field gradient scale, where the electric field due to electron nongyrotropic pressure dominates, is comparable to the gyroscale of the thermal electrons at the edge of the inner EDR. Our approximation of the MMS observations using a steady state, quasi‐2‐D, tailward retreating X‐line was valid only for about 1.4 s. This suggests that the inner EDR is localized; that is, electron outflow jet braking takes place within an ion inertia scale from the X‐line. The existence of multiple events or current sheet processes outside the EDR may play an important role in the geometry of reconnection in the near‐Earth magnetotail.

Journal article

Eastwood J, Hapgood MA, Biffis E, Benedetti D, Bisi MM, Green L, Bentley RD, Burnett Cet al., 2019, Quantifying the economic value of space weather forecasting for power grids: An exploratory study, Space Weather, Vol: 16, Pages: 2052-2067, ISSN: 1539-4956

An accurate understanding of space weather socioeconomic impact is fundamental to the development of appropriate operational services, forecasting capabilities, and mitigation strategies. One way to approach this problem is by developing physics‐based models and frameworks that can lead to a bottom‐up estimate of risk and likely impact. Here we describe the development of a new framework to assess the economic impact of space weather on power distribution networks and the supply of electricity. In particular, we focus on the phenomenon of the geomagnetic substorm, which is relatively localized in time and space, and occurs multiple times with varying severity during a geomagnetic storm. The framework uses the AE index to characterize substorm severity, and the impact of the substorm is modulated by the resilience of the power grid and the nature of available forecast. Possible scenarios for substorm sequences during a 1‐in‐10‐, a 1‐in‐30‐, and a 1‐in‐100‐year geomagnetic storm events are generated based on the 2003, 1989, and 1859 geomagnetic storms. Economic impact, including international spill over, can then be calculated using standard techniques, based on the duration and the geographical footprint of the power outage. Illustrative calculations are made for the European sector, for a variety of forecast and resilience scenarios. However, currently available data are highly regionally inhomogeneous, frustrating attempts to define an overall global economic impact at the present time.

Journal article

Torbert RB, Burch JL, Phan TD, Hesse M, Argall MR, Shuster J, Ergun RE, Alm L, Nakamura R, Genestreti KJ, Gershman DJ, Paterson WR, Turner DL, Cohen I, Giles BL, Pollock CJ, Wang S, Chen L-J, Stawarz JE, Eastwood JP, Hwang KJ, Farrugia C, Dors I, Vaith H, Mouikis C, Ardakani A, Mauk BH, Fuselier SA, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Moore TE, Drake JF, Shay MA, Khotyaintsev YV, Lindqvist P-A, Baumjohann W, Wilder FD, Ahmadi N, Dorelli JC, Avanov LA, Oka M, Baker DN, Fennell JF, Blake JB, Jaynes AN, Le Contel O, Petrinec SM, Lavraud B, Saito Yet al., 2018, Electron-scale dynamics of the diffusion region during symmetric magnetic reconnection in space., Science, Vol: 362, Pages: 1391-1395

Magnetic reconnection is an energy conversion process that occurs in many astrophysical contexts including Earth's magnetosphere, where the process can be investigated in situ by spacecraft. On 11 July 2017, the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft encountered a reconnection site in Earth's magnetotail, where reconnection involves symmetric inflow conditions. The electron-scale plasma measurements revealed (i) super-Alfvénic electron jets reaching 15,000 kilometers per second; (ii) electron meandering motion and acceleration by the electric field, producing multiple crescent-shaped structures in the velocity distributions; and (iii) the spatial dimensions of the electron diffusion region with an aspect ratio of 0.1 to 0.2, consistent with fast reconnection. The well-structured multiple layers of electron populations indicate that the dominant electron dynamics are mostly laminar, despite the presence of turbulence near the reconnection site.

Journal article

Hesse M, Norgren C, Tenfjord P, Burch JL, Liu YH, Chen LJ, Bessho N, Wang S, Nakamura R, Eastwood JP, Hoshino M, Torbert RB, Ergun REet al., 2018, On the role of separatrix instabilities in heating the reconnection outflow region, Physics of Plasmas, Vol: 25, ISSN: 1070-664X

A study of the role microinstabilities at the reconnection separatrix can play in heating the electrons during the transition from inflow to outflow is being presented. We find that very strong flow shears at the separatrix layer lead to counterstreaming electron distributions in the region around the separatrix, which become unstable to a beam-type instability. Similar to what has been seen in earlier research, the ensuing instability leads to the formation of propagating electrostatic solitons. We show here that this region of strong electrostatic turbulence is the predominant electron heating site when transiting from inflow to outflow. The heating is the result of heating generated by electrostatic turbulence driven by overlapping beams, and its macroscopic effect is a quasi-viscous contribution to the overall electron energy balance. We suggest that instabilities at the separatrix can play a key role in the overall electron energy balance in magnetic reconnection.

Journal article

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