Imperial College London

Dr Ke Han

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 5682k.han Website CV




Mrs Maya Mistry +44 (0)20 7594 6100




605Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Tian, Y and Wan, L and Han, K and Ye, B},
doi = {10.1016/j.trd.2018.06.018},
journal = {Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment},
pages = {872--889},
title = {Optimization of terminal airspace operation with environmental considerations},
url = {},
volume = {63},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The rapid growth in air traffic has resulted in increased emission and noise levels in terminal areas, which brings negative environmental impact to surrounding areas. This study aims to optimize terminal area operations by taking into account environmental constraints pertaining to emission and noise. A multi-objective terminal area resource allocation problem is formulated by employing the arrival fix allocation (AFA) problem, while minimizing aircraft holding time, emission, and noise. The NSGA-II algorithm is employed to find the optimal assignment of terminal fixes with given demand input and environmental considerations, by incorporating the continuous descent approach (CDA). A case study of the Shanghai terminal area yields the following results: (1) Compared with existing arrival fix locations and the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) strategy, the AFA reduces emissions by 19.6%, and the areas impacted by noise by 16.4%. AFA and CDA combined reduce the emissions by 28% and noise by 38.1%; (2) Flight delays caused by the imbalance of demand and supply can be reduced by 72% (AFA) and 81% (AFA and CDA) respectively, compared with the FCFS strategy. The study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed optimization framework to reduce the environmental impact in terminal areas while improving the operational efficiency, as well as its potential to underpin sustainable air traffic management.
AU - Tian,Y
AU - Wan,L
AU - Han,K
AU - Ye,B
DO - 10.1016/j.trd.2018.06.018
EP - 889
PY - 2018///
SN - 1361-9209
SP - 872
TI - Optimization of terminal airspace operation with environmental considerations
T2 - Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
UR -
UR -
VL - 63
ER -