95 results found
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, Hooey B, 2016, RATIONALE MAPPING AND FUNCTIONAL MODELLING ENHANCED ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS, Safety Science, Vol: 85, Pages: 241-257, ISSN: 0925-7535
Objective: The process of understanding the causes of adverse events associated with complex engineered systems can be time consuming and expensive. It often requires substantial human and physical resources ranging from a few engineers up to multiple teams of domain specialists from collaborating organisations. The research presented in this article aims to provide more effective support to the analysts involved in root cause analysis (RCA) by exploring the combined application of the Issue Based Information System (IBIS) and the Function Analysis Diagram (FAD) methods. The first method (IBIS) introduces the concept of argument-based rationale for explicit justification of the nodes of a cause-effect chain as well as of redesign decisions, while the second method (FAD) introduces the notion of structure-dependent functional modelling of complex systems in normal and failure states. Method: Causation data from publicly available technical reports of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was reverse-engineered using a root cause analysis approach based on the IBIS and FAD notations. IBIS and FAD were implemented using a free and open source software tool known as designVUE. The approach was evaluated by comparing it to a method for root cause analysis widely used in industry and assessing how it satisfies generic requirements for root cause analysis.Results: The results show that the proposed IBIS-FAD approach provides a rich description of the causes for an accident presented in a manner that facilitates information access and understanding. The IBIS notation allowed for explicit modelling of the reasons supporting or refuting failure hypotheses along with evidence. The FAD notation provided a clear and concise method to visualise the complex set of non-linear interactions leading to the failure of a system by annotating graphical schematics of the design with the functions exchanged between its components. Finally, the results show that the approach supports the c
Baxter W, Childs PRN, Aurisicchio M, 2015, Using psychological ownership to guide strategies for slower consumption, Product Lifetimes And The Environment (PLATE), Publisher: Nottingham Trent University
Baxter WL, Aurisicchio M, Childs PRN, 2015, A psychological ownership approach to designing object attachment, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol: 26, Pages: 140-156, ISSN: 0954-4828
The mental state in which an individual claims an object as theirs is called psychological ownership. Psychological ownership is associated with motives, routes, affordances, and outcomes directly linked to attachment. This research introduces psychological ownership in the context of designing object attachment and identifies affordance principles that help facilitate it. A framework presenting the motives for and routes to psychological ownership is proposed to provide a holistic understanding of object attachment. In the framework each route to psychological ownership, that is, control, intimate knowledge, and self-investment, has a corresponding class of affordances. Overall a total of 16 affordance principles are identified through contextual inquiry with 4 objects (a car, a mobile phone, a pair of shoes, and a park bench). Previous studies have identified various elements of this framework but have fallen short of clearly defining and relating the motives, routes, and affordances to psychological ownership identified here. These affordance principles are readily mapped to experience design models and provide a practical resource for designers. Together, the framework and the affordances inform design decisions and move towards a prescriptive design method for facilitating object attachment.
Baxter WL, Aurisicchio M, Childs PRN, 2015, Materials, use and contaminated interaction, Materials & Design, Vol: 90, Pages: 1218-1227, ISSN: 0261-3069
Materials help communicate meaning to users. This meaning changes with time as the object transforms due to use. Through a two-phase study, this research develops new understanding of how people appraise used objects and the mechanisms driving contamination—the aversion that one has towards engaging with used objects. In the first phase, observations of indicators of use were collected from participants in order to develop a general typology for indicators of use and deduce the sensorial properties of used objects. In the second phase, these observations were analysed to isolate the data, which caused feelings of aversion. The subset of observations marked with aversion was labelled as contaminated. Further analysis revealed three mechanisms driving contamination—hygiene, utility, and territory—presented together as the HUT contamination model. Sensorial properties from the first study were mapped to contamination mechanisms and properties most frequently contributing to contamination were identified. The properties contributing to the various contamination mechanisms differ significantly. Hygienic contamination typically results from transient object states, utility contamination from permanent changes to object characteristics, and territorial contamination from object settings and contextual factors. As expected, the majority of the indicators contributing to contamination are related to material properties. This work acts as a link between material selection and contaminated interaction with used objects.
Michalakoudis I, Childs P, Aurisiccio M, et al., 2015, Using Functional Analysis Diagrams as a Design Tool, ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
This paper presents the process and outcomes of the pilot introduction of Functional Analysis Diagram (FAD) as a design assist tool within a Small Medium Enterprise (SME). During this study, two sets of Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) sessions were conducted using the traditional and the proposed, FAD assisted (FMEA-FAD) method developed, aiming to optimize the failure mode selection phase of the process. The results have shown that the FMEA-FAD method has significantly improved the efficiency and the effectiveness of the process. They were also consistent with previous research, suggesting that FAD is relatively easy to use, supports high levels of understanding through functional decomposition, and can be used as an interdisciplinary communication platform (Aurisicchio et al., 2011). Given the resource limitations in SMEs, such an efficiency improvement could be vital for a resource intensive process such as FMEA.FAD discourages disciplinary terminologies in function descriptions; instead, the functions can be represented simply by the combination of an active verb and a measurable noun. Breaking the system down into lower level subsystems and studying the functional interrelationships between system components, can help us understand the overall system functions (Pahl et al., 1996). As market needs are mostly determined based on past user experience (Norman, 2010), innovation commonly occurs incrementally. Although this practice reduces risks — being, as it is, based on already tested platforms, incremental innovation often leads to the retention of superfluous components and outdated technologies. The process of functional modeling prompts the users to question the existence of every component and feature within a product or process, potentially leading to a radical reassessment of a design against the need which created it.
Aurisicchio M, Baroni P, Pellegrini D, et al., 2015, Comparing and integrating argumentation-based with matrix-based decision support in Arg&Dec, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0302-9743
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. The need of making decisions pervades every field of human activity. Several decision support methods and software tools are available in the literature, relying upon different modelling assumptions and often producing different results. In this paper we investigate the relationships between two such approaches: the recently introduced QuAD frameworks, based on the IBIS model and quantitative argumentation, and the decision matrix method, widely adopted in engineering. In addition, we describe Arg&Dec (standing for Argue & Decide), a prototype web application for collaborative decision-making, encompassing the two methodologies and assisting their comparison through automated transformation.
Baroni P, Romano M, Toni F, et al., 2015, Automatic evaluation of design alternatives with quantitative argumentation, ARGUMENT & COMPUTATION, Vol: 6, Pages: 24-49, ISSN: 1946-2166
Hooey BL, Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, et al., 2014, Evidence-Based Error Analysis: Supporting the Design of Error-Tolerant Systems, 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Ortíz Nicolás JC, Aurisicchio M, Desmet PMA, 2014, Pleasantness and arousal of twenty-five positive emotions elicited by durable products, 9th Design and Emotion Conference
Dai W, Aurisicchio M, 2013, An Empirical Investigation of Requirement Evolution in an Industrial Project, International Conference on Engineering Design 2013
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, Armstrong G, 2013, The function analysis diagram: Intended benefits and coexistence with other functional models, AI EDAM-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN ANALYSIS AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 27, Pages: 249-257, ISSN: 0890-0604
Ortiz Nicolas JC, Aurisicchio M, Desmet PMA, 2013, DIFFERENTIATING POSITIVE EMOTIONS ELICITED BY PRODUCTS: AN EXPLORATION OF PERCEIVED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 25 POSITIVE EMOTIONS BY USERS AND DESIGNERS, 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, ISSN: 2220-4334
Baroni P, Romano M, Toni F, et al., 2013, An Argumentation-Based Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Design Debates, Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
Ortíz Nicolás JC, Aurisicchio M, Desmet PMA, 2013, Understanding 25 positive emotions in product development: Frequency and preference of experience, and difficulty in eliciting them., 19th International Conference on Engineering Design
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, Armstrong G, 2013, Supporting communication in the supply chain with design rationale maps, 19th International Conference on Engineering Design
Dai W, Aurisicchio M, 2013, An empirical investigation of requirement evolution in an industrial project, 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13)
Hall A, Rodgers P, Winton E, et al., 2013, Are we all designers?, Engineering & Product Design Education
Baroni P, Romano M, Toni F, et al., 2013, An Argumentation-Based Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Design Debates, CLIMA XIV, Publisher: Springer, Heidelberg, Pages: 340-356
Ortíz Nicolás JC, Aurisicchio M, Desmet PMA, 2013, How users experience great products, 5th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell RH, 2013, The Function Analysis Diagram: intended benefits and co-existence with other functional models, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Vol: 27
Understanding product functions is a key aspect of the work undertaken by engineers involved in complex system design. The support offered to these engineers by existing modelling tools such as the Function Tree and the Function Structure is limited as they are not intuitive and do not scale well to deal with real world engineering problems. A research collaboration between two universities and a major power system company in the aerospace domain has allowed the authors to further develop a method for function analysis known as Function Analysis Diagram (FAD) which was already in use by line engineers. The capability to generate and edit these diagrams was implemented in the Decision Rationale editor (DRed) a software tool for capturing design rationale. This article presents the intended benefits of the method and justifies them using an engineering case study. The results of the research have shown that the FAD method has a simple notation, permits the modelling of product functions together with structure, allows the generation of rich and accurate descriptions of product functionality, is useful to work with variant and adaptive design tasks and can co-exist with other functional modelling methods.
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell RH, 2013, Capturing an integrated design information space with a diagram based approach, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol: 24, Pages: 397-428
The Decision Rationale editor (DRed), an issue-based information system derivative, originally developed to support the capture of design rationale has progressively evolved into a tool to map an integrated information space-covering product planning, specification, design, and service. This article presents theresearch undertaken to enable this evolution and to test the application of the tool in industry. The work consisted of extending the notation and the functionality of the DRed tool in the service of new methods for information representation and developing a newapproach to designing and its documentation by integrateddiagrams. Thus far, the approach has been taught for two years and a half to engineering graduates involvedin the training programme of the collaborating company. The application of the approach to an aerospace engineering design task is illustrated through a case study. The results of the evaluation have shown thatcreating large digital information spaces is feasible and delivers benefits to users.
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell RH, Wallace KM, 2013, Characterising the information requests of aerospace engineering designers, Research in Engineering Design, Vol: 24, Pages: 43-63
During product development, engineering designers raise several information requests that make them search through human and documentary sources. This paper reports research to characterise, in detail, these requests for designers working in a major aerospace engineering company. The research found that at a high level, a distinction can be made between requests to acquire information and to process information. The former are raised to access design and domain information. The latter, instead, are formed to define designs. For researchers, this study extends existing knowledge of information requests by characterising key differences in their nature and explaining how they are used in the design process. For practitioners, these findings can be used as a basis to understand the diverseness of information requests and how to channel efforts to support designers in information seeking. In particular, the research indicates that a strategy to support designers should enable the development of engineering communities that share information effectively and the introduction of techniques that facilitate the documentation of information.
Ortíz Nicolás JC, Aurisicchio M, Desmet PMA, 2013, Designing for anticipation, confidence, and inspiration, Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
Dai W, Aurisicchio M, Armstrong G, 2012, An IBIS Based Approach for the Analysis of Non-Functional Requirements, ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Eng N, Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, et al., 2012, MORE SPACE TO THINK: EIGHT YEARS OF VISUAL SUPPORT FOR RATIONALE CAPTURE, CREATIVITY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences / Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE), Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Pages: 225-235
Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, Armstrong G, 2012, THE FUNCTION ANALYSIS DIAGRAM, ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers Information in Engineering Conference, Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Pages: 849-+
Eng N, Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, et al., 2012, MAPPING FOR DESIGN DECISION SUPPORT IN INDUSTRY, ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers Information in Engineering Conference, Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Pages: 579-+
Deken F, Kleinsmann M, Aurisicchio M, et al., 2012, Tapping into past design experiences: knowledge sharing and creation during novice-expert design consultations, Research in Engineering Design, Vol: 23, Pages: 203-218
Designing is a knowledge-intensive activity. For novice design engineers, an important means of acquiring knowledge is to consult experienced colleagues. We observed novice–expert consultations as part of three engineering projects in a large aerospace company. Seven meetings were analysed in detail regarding the design activity, the content, and the form of interaction. Although the meetings were initiated for the purpose of information seeking , this process amounted to only 8% of the time compared to knowledge creation between novices and experts (47% of meeting time), and contextual information sharing (45% of meeting time). Both experts and novices were found to contribute equally and interactively to the discussion and analysis of solutions. The analysis showed how the processes alternated in the meetings. We identified tentative patterns on how these consultation processes change over the course of the design process phases. The micro-level analysis of the design activities and form of interaction provided a deeper understanding of how the consultation processes are discursively produced by the experts and novices. Finally, implications for design engineering practitioners are derived and suggestions for further research are provided.
Eng N, Marfisi E, Aurisicchio M, 2011, ADAPTING AEROSPACE DESIGN RATIONALE MAPPING TO CIVIL ENGINEERING: A PRELIMINARY STUDY, 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 468-479, ISSN: 2220-4334
Nicolas JCO, Aurisicchio M, 2011, A SCENARIO OF USER EXPERIENCE, 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 182-193, ISSN: 2220-4334
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