96 results found
Zeeuw van der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, A framework to use product-service systems as plans to produce closed-loop resource flows, Journal of Cleaner Production, Pages: 119733-119733, ISSN: 0959-6526
The circular economy is a model of production and consumption to address the relentless depletion of resources and the accumulation of waste. In the circular economy literature, there are sparse suggestions that Product-Service Systems (PSSs) have the potential to produce closed-loop resource flows. This study explored this potential using a systematic literature review focused on the use phase and obsolescence. We identified twenty-one PSS elements that contribute to closed loops and categorised them by six architectural levels, i.e. services, resources, stakeholders, contract, value delivery, and systems and tools. We then structured the PSS elements and their contributions to closed loops under four subfunctions and consolidated them in a novel framework. Intercepting and transitioning obsolete resources are subfunctions demanded by a PSS to achieve an operational solution. Stating and governing resource lifetime are subfunctions wanted by a PSS to improve the solution. The results call for a functional approach to PSS design and consideration of obsolescence of products, components and materials. The implications of the results are that PSS elements contribute to achieving circularity by satisfying specific subfunctions and the data in the framework provide a basis for selecting suitable PSS elements.
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, Archetypical consumer roles in closing the loops of resource flows for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 236, ISSN: 0959-6526
After the depletion of their consumable components, Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) become obsolete. In an attempt to close the loop of resources (i.e. products, components or materials) FMCGs can be designed with revalorisation services. In these product-service systems (PSSs) consumers are assigned a key role in closing the loops of resource flows. To understand and define this role, we dissected eighteen examples of PSSs. From this analysis, four dimensions emerged that characterise distinct aspects of the PSSs: the form of obsolescence; the change of resources from obsolete to operative or recoverable; the prerequisite activities required of consumers for revalorisation; and the facilitators of activities (i.e. investments and incentives). These dimensions were used to model four data-driven archetypical roles of consumers named after the interaction between consumers and the resource in the obsolete state, namely keep, bring, consign or abandon obsolete components. The research concluded that revalorisation always takes place in designated locations. The roles that consumers fulfil in closed-loop PSSs involve carrying out activities to position resources in such locations. The roles always come at a cost, but PSSs can be designed to reduce it. PSSs can also be designed to induce a perceivable value of obsolete resources, which can be used to increase role fulfilment. This research presents a comprehensive understanding of the roles of consumers in the specific context of closed-loop FMCGs, identifies tactics to increase the fulfilment of these roles and suggests further research on behaviours and PSSs to understand the roles of other stakeholders in various type of PSSs.
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2019, Risk-averse supply chain for modular construction projects, Automation in Construction, Vol: 106, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0926-5805
The traditional in-situ construction method is currently being replaced by modular building systems, that take advantage of modern manufacturing, transportation, and assembly methods. This transformation poses a challenge to construction supply chains, which have, thus far, been concentrated on raw material transportation only. A mathematical model is conceived in this study for the design and optimisation of risk-averse logistics configurations for modular construction projects under operational uncertainty. The model considers the manufacturing, storage, and assembly stages, along with the selection of optimal warehouse locations. Using robust optimisation, the model accounts for common causes of schedule deviations in construction sites, including inclement weather, late deliveries, labour productivity fluctuations and crane malfunctions. A school dormitory construction project is used as a case study, demonstrating that the proposed model outperforms existing techniques in settings with multiple sources of uncertainty.
Aurisicchio M, Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Tennant M, Material-Service Systems for Sustainable Resource Management, EcoDesign 2019
Yang X, Aurisicchio M, Baxter W, 2019, Understanding Affective Experiences With Conversational Agents, CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Publisher: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, Designing Product-Service Systems to Close Resource Loops: Circular Design Guidelines, CIRP Lifecycle Engineering, Publisher: Elsevier BV, Pages: 631-636, ISSN: 2212-8271
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, Gateways to Revalorisation in Future Circular Cities: A Vision for Closed-Loop Resource Flows, Sustainable Innovations 22nd International Conference
Hsu P-Y, Panagiotis A, Aurisicchio M, 2018, Optimal logistics planning for modular construction using two-stage stochastic programming, Automation in Construction, Vol: 94, Pages: 47-61, ISSN: 0926-5805
The construction sector is currently undergoing a shift from stick-built construction to modular building systems that take advantage of modern prefabrication techniques. Long established in-situ construction practices are thus being replaced by processes imported from the manufacturing sector, where component fabrication takes place within a factory environment. As a result of this transformation, current construction supply chains, which have focused on the delivery of raw materials to sites, are no longer apt and need to make way to new, strengthened, and time-critical logistics systems. The aim of this study is to establish a mathematical model for the optimisation of logistics processes in modular construction covering three tiers of operation: manufacturing, storage and assembly. Previous studies have indicated that construction site delays constitute the largest cause of schedule deviations. Using the model outlined in this paper we seek to determine how factory manufacturing and inventory management should react to variations in the demand on construction sites. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed to capture all possible demand variations on site. The model is evaluated using a case study from the residential construction sector. The application shows that the model is effective and can serve as decision support to optimise modular construction logistics.
Piselli A, Baxter W, Simonato M, et al., 2018, Development and evaluation of a methodology to integrate technical and sensorial properties in materials selection., Materials and Design, Vol: 153, Pages: 259-272, ISSN: 0261-3069
In the materials selection process, the use of different tools, languages and perspectives frequently causes disagreement between engineers and industrial designers.The aim of the paper is to define an integrated method for materials selection that provides industrial designers with measurable data to support and explain aesthetic decisions on materials.A new method for materials selection consisting of multiple tools structured in a two-step framework is presented. The method is tested through a case study of professional kitchen appliances where metal components are replaced with polymers. The first step involved the application of an established technique to identify polymeric bulk solutions, based on their technical properties. The second step employed a sensory analysis test to choose suitable finishes. Thirty-seven individuals performed the test: the subjects highlighted their main perceptions of metal and metal-look polymer finishes.The research demonstrates that the proposed method is suitable for the evaluation of both technical and sensorial properties of materials. In particular, Mapping test represents a rapid, low cost and effective tool to help industrial designers justify Colour Materials and Finish (CMF) choices with quantifiable information.
Michalakoudis I, Aurisicchio M, Childs P, et al., 2018, Empowering manufacturing personnel through functional understanding, Production Planning and Control, Vol: 29, Pages: 688-703, ISSN: 0953-7287
A growing interest in organizational knowledge management, along with increasingly widespread adoption of Quality Standards such as ISO 9001, has increasingly led organizations to implement training programs for all employees. Training for the manufacturing workforce, however, remains limited to informal “On-the-Job” training, administered by peer colleagues or supervisors - particularly in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) where economic, educational, cognitive and cultural constraints to training are often deeply embedded. This paper proposes a methodology for training the manufacturing workforce on the functions of products and their constituent parts, and presents a case study conducted in a UK-based manufacturing SME - aiming to verify our two research hypotheses: Functional Analysis Diagrams (FAD) of the company’s products and parts would assist in knowledge assimilation; and, the knowledge assimilation has a positive effect on work quality and productivity levels. This intervention provided training on the purpose of the processes the participants are involved, aiming to empower them in supporting the optimization of these same processes. By using surveys and applying statistical inference on long-term quantitative data, the study confirmed subjective observations of substantial improvements in work quality (scrap reduction of 63%) and increased productivity (setup time reduced by 67%). To our knowledge, we were the first to examine the effect of functional modelling methods for workforce training in a manufacturing setup. Although this paper presents a single case study, the results suggest that the proposed methodology can be a promising solution for the industry.
Haughton TW, Angeloudis P, Parpas P, et al., Optimal Component Modularisation of Process Plants for Modular Construction, EURO 2018
Bin Bahrudin FI, Aurisicchio M, 2018, The appraisal of sustainable materials, Design 2018, Publisher: Design Society, Pages: 2575-2584, ISSN: 1847-9073
This paper seeks to understand how users appraise and perceive sustainable materials. Using thinking aloud sessions, appraisals of sustainable materials embodied in commercial products were collected from users and categorised. To account for the appraisalof systemic features of materials we have extended a previous categorisation ofmaterial appraisals. We have also investigated the relationships between the appraisal themes of sustainable materials. The results stress the influence of material origin in the appraisal.This understanding is useful to facilitate the uptake of the materials.
Morrone M, Garion C, Aurisicchio M, et al., 2018, A coupled multiphysics FEM model to investigate electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical effects in complex assemblies: the design of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider beam screen, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol: 57, Pages: 280-301, ISSN: 0307-904X
In the framework of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project, new beam screens will be installed by 2024 within the cold bore of the superconducting magnets. The beam screen is an octagonal shaped pipe that shields the 1.9 K magnet cryogenic system from the heat loads and damage to the magnet coils that would be otherwise induced by the highly penetrating collision debris. It also ensures that proper vacuum conditions required for the stability of the beam are met.A failure scenario of the beam screen is represented by the magnet quench, a resistive transition of the superconducting magnets, that can compromise its mechanical integrity. During a quench the magnet gradient of the quadrupole, in which the beam screen is inserted, decays from 140 T/m to about 0 T/m in 0.4 s inducing high magnitude forces in the assembly. Understanding the magnetic, thermal and mechanical behaviours of the beam screen assembly during the quench is critical to enable its effective design and operation. A numerical model, that can accurately predict the behaviours of the beam screen during a magnet quench, has been developed.Compared to the analytical formulations used to design the beam screen currently installed in the LHC, the multiphysics FEM model developed in this research introduces multiple elements of novelty and improved performance. First, self-inductance effects are accounted for and found to reduce the induced forces up to approximately 2000 % at high electrical conductivity values. Second, the one-way and two-way coupling of the magnetic with the mechanical and thermal interfaces are explored and the best trade-off is defined. Third, the mechanical response of the assembly is evaluated dynamically over the evolution of the magnetic field decay rather than just in a quasi-static manner. Fourth, three dimensional geometries can also be studied enabling the design of the components to be placed along the beam axis.The model has been verified by comparison to a
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, 2018, Ownership by Design, Psychological Ownership and Consumer Behaviour, Editors: Peck, Shu
Ownership is central to the successful design of many offerings. This is made more evident with large contextual shifts in terms of immaterial ownership, ownership by multiple users, and time dependent ownership. Psychological ownership theory links naturally to existing experience design models and is thus useful in approaching how to design for ownership. Designers should consider the motives and routes to ownership described by psychological ownership theory but also the paths to ownership formed through interaction with an object. The result is a new frame for design in which the objective is to create a possession, not simply an object. Designing an object, which is owned, means focusing on the interactions between a user and the object through the entire lifecycle including consideration of when an object enters and exits a person’s possessions. Within this new frame, there are at least four main ways in which designers can create intentional ownership experiences. Specifically, they can help: give meaning to the ownership deprived experiences increasingly prevalent in modern digital and shared contexts; structure the ownership experience; reduce redundant effort made once an object is taken into a person's possession; and mitigate contaminated interaction, which is likely to prevent ownership from occurring.
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2017, Investigating Schedule Deviation in Construction Projects through Root Cause Analysis, International Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems (CENTERIS) / International Conference on Project MANagement (ProjMAN) / International Conference on Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies (HCist), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 732-739, ISSN: 1877-0509
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio MARCO, Angeloudis P, 2017, Establishing outsourcing and supply chain plans for prefabricated construction projects under uncertain productivity, International Conference on Computational Logistics - 2017, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 529-543, ISSN: 1611-3349
Yang X, Aurisicchio M, Mackrill J, et al., 2017, ON THE PRODUCTS AND EXPERIENCES THAT MAKE US HAPPY, 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 499-508, ISSN: 2220-4334
Wee TPY, Aurisicchio M, Starzyk I, 2017, THE APPLICATION OF QUALITY FUNCTIONAL DEPLOYMENT TO MODULAR OFFSITE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS, 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 523-532, ISSN: 2220-4334
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2017, Supply chain design for modular construction projects, 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC), Publisher: IGLC, ISSN: 2309-0979
The construction sector is currently undergoing a shift from stick-built construction techniques to modular building systems. If construction supply chains are to support this transformation, they need to be modified and strengthened using an adapted logistics system. The aim of this study is to establish a mathematical model for the logistics of modular construction covering the three common tiers of operations: manufacturing, storage and construction. Previous studies have indicated that construction site delays constitute the largest cause of schedule deviations. Using the model outlined in this paper we seek to determine how factory manufacturing and inventory management should be adapted to variations in demand on the construction site. We propose a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model that captures construction scenarios with demands for modular products that are either foreseeable or abruptly disrupted. The use of the model is illustrated through a case study of bathroom pods for a building project. The model outputs include supply chain configurations that reduce total costs across a range of scenarios. The model could serve as a decision support tool for modular construction logistics.
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Mugge R, et al., Decontaminating experiences with circular offerings, Product Lifetimes and The Environment (PLATE) 2017
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Mugge R, et al., Decontaminating experiences with circular offerings, Product Lifetimes and The Environment (PLATE) 2017
Bahrudin F, Aurisicchio MARCO, Baxter WESTON, 2017, Sustainable materials in design projects, EKSIG 2017, Publisher: TU Delft Open
New types of sustainable materials are introduced in our markets every year to minimise the environmental impact of products. The search for more environmentally benign materials is crucial in reducing the depletion of non-renewable material resources. Recent literature indicates that there is a growing interest and rapid technological progression from various industry stakeholders on this matter. Nevertheless, the sustainability issues pursued by designers and other material developers are still ambiguous. The overall aim of this research is to develop new understanding of the sustainable materials being developed and applied in product design. Seventy-two material-centred design projects are analysed in terms of resource renewability and resource origin. The data obtained are further classified according to the material group and products produced with such materials. Renewable materials make up half of the materials used. Moreover, waste materials comprise up to half of the materials used. Three materials groups were found to be more frequently used, namely natural composites, synthetic polymers and organic materials. Most of these materials are being made into furniture, household objects and clothing and accessories. Within the natural composites and organic materials, various extraordinary materials were used, reflecting the dynamicity of designers’ work and experimentation with materials. As for synthetic polymers, recycled plastics are the main materials used and this is not surprising given their abundance in the environment. In general, the application of sustainable materials seems to be at its infancy but explorations are vibrant and progressive. The impact of these materials in the mainstream market is unknown and other sustainability factors need further evaluation. As such, design as a discipline is yet to facilitate the uptake of these materials.
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Childs PRN, 2017, Contaminated interaction: another barrier to circular material flows, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol: 21, Pages: 507-516, ISSN: 1530-9290
Contamination poses a significant problem to the circular economy (CE), which derives much of its value from maintaining pure material flows. The aim of this article is to frame contaminated interaction among other forms of contamination and investigate its effects on the CE. The research is based on a review of the contamination literature and case studies. We differentiate between three types of contamination influencing circular material flows: technical, which deals with fitness for use; systemic, which deals with efficiency in processing; and interaction, which deals with user-object interaction and decision making. Our focus is on developing a foundational understanding of contaminated interaction and how it influences circular processes. Through multiple examples, contaminated interaction is shown to create three barriers to the CE: downcycling, disposal, and hindered circulation. Among other proposals to address contaminated interaction, the research calls for the development of experientially transferrable design—products that can move between users and uses without negative consequences.
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Mugge R, et al., Positive and negative contamination in user interactions, ICED17: 21st International Conference on Engineering Design, Publisher: Design Society
The purpose of this paper is to present contaminated interaction as a design construct. Interactions with an object can be altered,positively, neutrallyor negatively,due to some prior use. In such cases, the interaction departs from the designed condition and is said to be contaminated. This is particularly significant as objects, physical or non-physical, have multiple uses or are shared amongst users. We propose an ontological model of contaminated interaction based on a review of literature and an analysis of user experiences. The model outlines the process of contaminated interaction including the drivers and outcomes. In a negative context, contamination can lead to consumers misusing, negatively experiencing, or avoiding the object altogether. Positive contamination sees the opposite effect in which usability can increase, users report more positive experiences and users seek out or cherish the object. Together, this model presents an approach to understanding and addressing contamination in the design process to enable the creation and maintenance of meaningful experiences.
Eng N, Aurisicchio M, Bracewell R, Mapping software augments engineering design thinking, Journal of Mechanical Design, ISSN: 1528-9001
Objective: Maps have longbeenadvocated tosupport thinking with loosely-structured design information. This paperevaluatesthe applicationof mapping methods supported by the Decision Rationale editor (DRed)in the aerospace engineering industry. Specifically,the research investigateswhatDRed mapping methodsare used, whereengineers find them useful and why.Method: DRed was selected because it has been formally embedded in the design processes of the partner company and all engineering staff have access to it.The toolwas investigated usingsemi-structured interviews with fourteen engineers each already trained with DRed through their work and representing diverse departments and experience levels. Nineteen use cases were collected ranging from high-profile,multi-stakeholder projects to everyday individual work. Collected caseswere analysedfor methodsapplied, common contexts of use and reasons for use. Results: The resultsvalidate baselineDRed mapping methods to capture design rationale and analyse the root causes of engineering problems.Further, it providesempiricalevidencefor new DRed mapping methods to manage requirements, analyse functional interactions in complex systems and manage personal information.The contextswithin whichmapping methodsare usedtendtowards: system-level informationthat cut across sub-system boundaries; irregular intervalsbetween map applications; dealing with loosely-structured information; individual use or small team collaborations;and application to problemsfaced during regular design practice. The reasons to use mapping methods, as articulated by engineers,point towards supportforengineering design thinking, communication and planning. Conclusion: Using empirical evidence of its recurrentuse, this research establishesthat DRed is a powerful and versatile tool for engineers in industryand its mapping methodsaidimportant and otherwiseunsupportedwork.The
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2017, Planned obsolescence in the circular economy, 2nd Conference on Product Lifetimes and the Environment (PLATE), Publisher: IOS PRESS, Pages: 446-452
Michalakoudis I, Childs P, Aurisicchio M, et al., 2016, Using functional analysis diagrams to improve product reliability and cost, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1687-8140
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Value Engineering (VE) are well-established methods in the manufacturing industry, commonly applied to optimize product reliability and cost respectively. Both processes, however, require cross-functional teams to identify and evaluate the product/process functions and are resource-intensive, hence their application is mostly limited to large organizations. In this paper, we present a methodology involving the concurrent execution of FMEA and VE, assisted by a set of hierarchical Functional Analysis Diagram (FAD) models, along with the outcomes of a pilot application in a UK-based manufacturing Small-Medium Enterprise (SME). Analysis of the results indicate that this new approach could significantly enhance the resource efficiency and effectiveness of both FMEA and VE processes.
Baxter W, Yang, Aurisicchio, et al., Exploring a human-centred design of possessions, NordDesign 2016
Understanding the idea of possession is essential for creating successful products and services, particularly in digital and access contexts. This paper examines current shortcomings in conceptualising ownership and possessions before presenting a framework for the process of developing user possession. The framework is grounded in psychological ownership theory and informed by interviews with thirteen participants. The theory considers ownership as a mental state in which users feel the object is theirs. The interviews explored this mental state underthree contexts: traditional material possession, digital possession, and access-based possession. This work helps inform the meaning of possessions, and can aid designers and policy makers in how to approach the notion of designing possessions from a human-centered viewpoint.
Rago A, Toni F, Aurisicchio M, et al., 2016, Discontinuity-free decision support with quantitative argumentation debates, Fifteenth International Conference, KR 2016, Publisher: AAAI
IBIS (Issue Based Information System) provides a widelyadopted approach for knowledge representation especiallysuitable for the challenging task of representing wicked decisionproblems. While many tools for visualisation and collaborativedevelopment of IBIS graphs are available, automateddecision support in this context is still underdeveloped, eventhough it would benefit several applications. QuAD (QuantitativeArgumentation Debate) frameworks are a recently proposedIBIS-based formalism encompassing automated decisionsupport by means of an algorithm for quantifying thestrength of alternative decision options, based on aggregationof the strength of their attacking and supporting arguments.The initially proposed aggregation method, however, maygive rise to discontinuities. In this paper we propose a novel,discontinuity-free algorithm for computing the strength of decisionoptions in QuAD frameworks. We prove that this algorithmfeatures several desirable properties and we comparethe two aggregation methods, showing that both may be appropriatein the context of different application scenarios.
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Childs PRN, Tear Here: the Impact of Object Transformations on Proper Disposal, IAPRI 20th World Conference on Packaging
Efforts promoting proper disposal of packaging generally focus on infrastructure and messaging. Significantly less attention has been given to how the attributes of packaging can be used to change disposal behaviour. This research shows how changes in packaging attributes (e.g. alterations in shape, colour, or size) influence two disposal behaviours: recycling and littering. Specifically, we use an implicit association test to measure the subconscious tendency to categorize altered objects as trash rather than recycling. The results indicate that 82% or respondents showed at least a slight effect and 53% showed a strong effect towards associating altered objects with waste. Next, we evaluate object transformations on littering behaviour through an observational field study. Observations (N = 2823) indicated that littering is influenced by deformed, torn, disassembled, and partially full packaging. No significant effect was found with regard to packaging that is wet, sticky, has undergone colour changes or that is has remains (e.g. sauce) on it. These findings suggest that the (re)design of packaging can significantly influence proper disposal. Based on this, packaging can be (re)designed in two ways. First, many types of packaging have scripted alterations such as the iconic ‘tear here’ indicator. These can be changed to preserve properties associated with recyclables and non-littering. Second, packaging can be designed so that there are fewer alterations during use. This work can also help identify inherent attributes that encourage proper disposal.
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