77 results found
Berdeni D, Cotton TEA, Daniell TJ, et al., 2018, The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation on nutrient status, growth, productivity, and canker resistance of apple (Malus pumila), Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-302X
We assess whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improve growth, nutritional status, phenology, flower and fruit production, and disease resistance in woody perennial crops using apple (Malus pumila) as a study system. In a fully factorial experiment, young trees were grown for 3 years with or without AMF (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis), and with industrial standard fertiliser applications or restricted fertiliser (10% of standard). We use two commercial scions (Dabinett and Michelin) and rootstocks (MM111 and MM106). Industrial standard fertiliser applications reduced AMF colonisation and root biomass, potentially increasing drought sensitivity. Mycorrhizal status was influenced by above ground genotypes (scion type) but not rootstocks, indicating strong interactions between above and below ground plant tissue. The AMF inoculation significantly increased resistance to Neonectria ditissima, a globally economically significant fungal pathogen of apple orchards, but did not consistently alter leaf nutrients, growth, phenology or fruit and flower production. This study significantly advances understanding of AMF benefits to woody perennial crops, especially increased disease resistance which we show is not due to improved tree nutrition or drought alleviation. Breeding programmes and standard management practises can limit the potential for these benefits.
Kowal J, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2018, From rhizoids to roots? Experimental evidence of mutualism between liverworts and ascomycete fungi., Annals of Botany, Vol: 121, Pages: 221-227, ISSN: 0305-7364
Background and Aims: The rhizoids of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) are commonly colonized by the ascomycete fungus Pezoloma ericae. These associations are hypothesized to be functionally analogous to the ericoid mycorrhizas (ErMs) formed by P. ericae with the roots of Ericaceae plants in terms of bi-directional phosphorus for carbon exchange; however, this remains unproven. Here, we test whether associations between the leafy liverwort Cephalozia bicuspidata and P. ericae are mutualistic. Methods: We measured movement of phosphorus and carbon between C. bicuspidata and P. ericae using [33P]orthophosphate and 14CO2 isotope tracers in monoxenic cultures. We also measured leafy liverwort growth, with and without P. ericae. Key Results: We present the first demonstration of nutritionally mutualistic symbiosis between a non-vascular plant and an ErM-forming fungus, showing transfer of fungal-acquired P to the liverwort and of liverwort-fixed C to the fungus alongside increased growth in fungus-colonized liverworts. Conclusions: Thus, this ascomycete-liverwort symbiosis can now be described as mycorrhiza-like, providing further insights into ericoid mycorrhizal evolution and adding Ascomycota fungi to mycorrhizal fungal groups engaging in mutualisms with plants across the land plant phylogeny. As P. ericae also colonizes the rhizoids of Schistochilaceae liverworts, which originated in the Triassic and are sister to all other jungermannialean liverworts associated with fungi, our findings point toward an early origin of ascomycete-liverwort symbioses, possibly pre-dating their evolution in the Ericales by some 150 million years.
Osborne OG, De-Kayne R, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2018, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote coexistence and niche divergence of sympatric palm species on a remote oceanic island, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 217, Pages: 1254-1266, ISSN: 0028-646X
Schweiger JM-I, Bidartondo MI, Gebauer G, 2018, Stable isotope signatures of underground seedlings reveal the organic matter gained by adult orchids from mycorrhizal fungi, Functional Ecology, Vol: 32, Pages: 870-881, ISSN: 0269-8463
Orchids produce dust seeds dependent on the provision of organic carbon by mycorrhizal fungi for their early development stages. Hence, all chlorophyllous orchids experience a dramatic switch in trophic strategies from initial mycoheterotrophy to either autotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy during ontogeny. Yet, the degree to which partially mycoheterotrophic orchids gain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi is unclear based on existing approaches. Here, we propose a novel approach to quantify the fungal‐derived organic matter gain of chlorophyllous mature orchids mycorrhizal with rhizoctonia fungi, using the stable isotope signatures of their fully mycoheterotrophic (FMH) seedlings in a linear two‐source mixing model. We conducted a field germination experiment with seven orchid species and measured carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen stable isotope natural abundances and nitrogen concentrations of mature orchids, underground seedlings, and autotrophic references. After in situ burial for 19–30 months, germination rates varied considerably among five orchid species and failed for two. On average, underground seedlings were enriched in 13C and 15N relative to mature orchids and had higher nitrogen concentrations. Using the mean enrichment factors ε13C and ε2H of seedlings as FMH endpoint, the organic matter gain derived by mature orchids from mycorrhizas was c. 20%. Chlorophyllous orchids mycorrhizal with rhizoctonias are predisposed to partially mycoheterotrophic nutrition due to their initially mycoheterotrophic seedling stage. We show that the carbon and hydrogen isotope abundances of underground seedlings can be used in an improved mixing‐model to identify a significant proportion of fungal‐derived organic matter in mature orchids.
van der Linde S, Suz LM, Orme CDL, et al., 2018, Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi, NATURE, Vol: 558, Pages: 243-+, ISSN: 0028-0836
Bidartondo MI, Hijri M, 2017, The Ninth International Conference on Mycorrhiza in Prague: across mycorrhizal symbioses from molecules to global scales., Mycorrhiza, Vol: 28, Pages: 203-205, ISSN: 0940-6360
Brunner I, Frey B, Hartmann M, et al., 2017, Ecology of Alpine Macrofungi - Combining Historical with Recent Data, FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1664-302X
Desiro A, Rimington WR, Jacob A, et al., 2017, Multigene phylogeny of Endogonales, an early diverging lineage of fungi associated with plants, IMA FUNGUS, Vol: 8, Pages: 245-+, ISSN: 2210-6340
Gomes SIF, Aguirre-Gutierrez J, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2017, Arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions of mycoheterotrophic Thismia are more specialized than in autotrophic plants, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 213, Pages: 1418-1427, ISSN: 0028-646X
Merckx VSFT, Gomes SIF, Wapstra M, et al., 2017, The biogeographical history of the interaction between mycoheterotrophic Thismia (Thismiaceae) plants and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus (Glomeraceae) fungi, JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Vol: 44, Pages: 1869-1879, ISSN: 0305-0270
Renny M, Cristina Acosta M, Cofre N, et al., 2017, Genetic diversity patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with the mycoheterotroph Arachnitis uniflora Phil. (Corsiaceae), ANNALS OF BOTANY, Vol: 119, Pages: 1279-1294, ISSN: 0305-7364
Rimington WR, Pressel S, Field KJ, et al., 2017, Reapprasing the origins of mycorrhizas, Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, Editors: Martin, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Pages: 21-32, ISBN: 9781118951415
Schiebold JM-I, Bidartondo MI, Karasch P, et al., 2017, You are what you get from your fungi: nitrogen stable isotope patterns in Epipactis species, ANNALS OF BOTANY, Vol: 119, Pages: 1085-1095, ISSN: 0305-7364
Schiebold JM-I, Bidartondo MI, Lenhard F, et al., 2017, Exploiting mycorrhizas in broad daylight: Partial mycoheterotrophy is a common nutritional strategy in meadow orchids, Journal of Ecology, Vol: 106, Pages: 168-178, ISSN: 0022-0477
Partial mycoheterotrophy (PMH) is a nutritional mode in which plants utilize organic matter, i.e. carbon, both from photosynthesis and a fungal source. The latter reverses the direction of plant-to-fungus carbon flow as usually assumed in mycorrhizal mutualisms. Based on significant enrichment in the heavy isotope 13C, a growing number of PMH orchid species have been identified. These PMH orchids are mostly associated with fungi simultaneously forming ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. In contrast, the much more common orchids that associate with rhizoctonia fungi, which are decomposers, have stable isotope profiles most often characterized by high 15N enrichment and high nitrogen concentrations but either an insignificant 13C enrichment or depletion relative to autotrophic plants. Using hydrogen stable isotope abundances recent investigations showed PMH in rhizoctonia-associated orchids growing under light-limited conditions. Hydrogen isotope abundances can be used as substitute for carbon isotope abundances in cases where autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon sources are insufficiently distinctive to indicate PMH.To determine whether rhizoctonia-associated orchids growing in habitats with high irradiance feature PMH as a nutritional mode, we sampled 13 orchid species growing in montane meadows, four forest orchid species and 34 autotrophic reference species. We analysed δ2H, δ13C, δ15N and δ18O and determined nitrogen concentrations. Orchid mycorrhizal fungi were identified by DNA sequencing.As expected, we found high enrichments in 2H, 13C, 15N and nitrogen concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza-associated forest orchids, and the rhizoctonia-associated Neottia cordata from a forest site was identified as PMH. Most orchids inhabiting sunny meadows lacked 13C enrichment or were even significantly depleted in 13C relative to autotrophic references. However, we infer PMH for the majority of these meadow orchids due to both significant 2H and 15N
Suz LM, Kallow S, Reed K, et al., 2017, Pine mycorrhizal communities in pure and mixed pine-oak forests: Abiotic environment trumps neighboring oak host effects, Forest Ecology and Management, Vol: 406, Pages: 370-380, ISSN: 0378-1127
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is frequently planted as a monoculture, but it is also grown in mixed plantations with other native trees such as pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Both pine and oak form ectomycorrhizas that cover their roots and extend into the soil, facilitating tree water and nutrient uptake in exchange for photosynthetic carbon. Forming the interface between the soil and tree roots, mycorrhizal fungi are key drivers of biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the successful establishment of tree seedlings. They can, however, be susceptible to changes in the soil environment and in their hosts. Both environment and neighboring hosts affect how fungi colonize roots and may affect their host preference. Despite the importance of mycorrhizal fungi in forest ecosystems, little is known about the biodiversity and functional effects of mycorrhizal communities in mixed compared with monoculture plantations. Changes in mycorrhizal richness and composition can result in changes in functional groups with consequences for forest ecosystem stability and functioning. We compared pine mycorrhizas in eight mixed plantations of pine and oak and eight pine monocultures in two forests in England, and we investigated the main factors driving their taxonomic and functional composition. Geographical location and litter pH explained over 50% of the variation in pine mycorrhizal communities. Different environmental factors affected taxonomic and functional composition across stands, indicating functional redundancy. Pine tended to associate with more fungi in the presence of oak, but the abiotic environment exerted a stronger influence than oak presence on pine mycorrhizal diversity.
Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2016, Functional analysis of liverworts in dual symbiosis with Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina fungi under a simulated Palaeozoic CO2 decline, ISME JOURNAL, Vol: 10, Pages: 1514-1526, ISSN: 1751-7362
Kowal J, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2016, Liverworts to the rescue: an investigation of their efficacy as mycorrhizal inoculum for vascular plants, FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1014-1023, ISSN: 0269-8463
Pressel S, Bidartondo MI, Field KJ, et al., 2016, Pteridophyte fungal associations: Current knowledge and future perspectives, JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 54, Pages: 666-678, ISSN: 1674-4918
Spake R, van der Linde S, Newton AC, et al., 2016, Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol: 194, Pages: 71-79, ISSN: 0006-3207
Desiro A, Faccio A, Kaech A, et al., 2015, Endogone, one of the oldest plant-associated fungi, host unique Mollicutes-related endobacteria, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1464-1472, ISSN: 0028-646X
Field KJ, Leake JR, Tille S, et al., 2015, From mycoheterotrophy to mutualism: mycorrhizal specificity and functioning in Ophioglossum vulgatum sporophytes, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1492-1502, ISSN: 0028-646X
Hynson NA, Bidartondo MI, Read DJ, 2015, Are there geographic mosaics of mycorrhizal specificity and partial mycoheterotrophy? A case study in Moneses uniflora (Ericaceae)., New Phytol, Vol: 208, Pages: 1003-1007
Liebel HT, Bidartondo MI, Gebauer G, 2015, Are carbon and nitrogen exchange between fungi and the orchid Goodyera repens affected by irradiance?, ANNALS OF BOTANY, Vol: 115, Pages: 251-261, ISSN: 0305-7364
Rimington WR, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2015, Fungal associations of basal vascular plants: reopening a closed book?, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1394-1398, ISSN: 0028-646X
Suz LM, Barsoum N, Benham S, et al., 2015, Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy, ANNALS OF FOREST SCIENCE, Vol: 72, Pages: 877-885, ISSN: 1286-4560
Yokoya K, Zettler LW, Kendon JP, et al., 2015, Preliminary findings on identification of mycorrhizal fungi from diverse orchids in the Central Highlands of Madagascar, MYCORRHIZA, Vol: 25, Pages: 611-625, ISSN: 0940-6360
Bateman RM, Rudall PJ, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2014, Speciation via floral heterochrony and presumed mycorrhizal host switching of endemic butterfly orchids on the Azorean archipelago., American Journal of Botany, Vol: 101, Pages: 979-1001, ISSN: 1537-2197
Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2014, First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2, New Phytologist, ISSN: 1469-8137
The discovery that Mucoromycotina, an ancient and partially saprotrophic fungal lineage, associates with the basal liverwort lineage Haplomitriopsida casts doubt on the widely held view that Glomeromycota formed the sole ancestral plant-fungus symbiosis. Whether this association is mutualistic, and how its functioning was affected by the fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration that followed plant terrestrialization in the Palaeozoic, remains unknown. We measured carbon-for-nutrient exchanges between Haplomitriopsida liverworts and Mucoromycotina fungi under simulated mid-Palaeozoic (1500 ppm) and near-contemporary (440 ppm) CO2 concentrations using isotope tracers, and analysed cytological differences in plant-fungal interactions. Concomitantly, we cultured both partners axenically, resynthesized the associations in vitro, and characterized their cytology. We demonstrate that liverwort-Mucoromycotina symbiosis is mutualistic and mycorrhiza-like, but differs from liverwort-Glomeromycota symbiosis in maintaining functional efficiency of carbon-for-nutrient exchange between partners across CO2 concentrations. Inoculation of axenic plants with Mucoromycotina caused major cytological changes affecting the anatomy of plant tissues, similar to that observed in wild-collected plants colonized by Mucoromycotina fungi. By demonstrating reciprocal exchange of carbon for nutrients between partners, our results provide support for Mucoromycotina establishing the earliest mutualistic symbiosis with land plants. As symbiotic functional efficiency was not compromised by reduced CO2 , we suggest that other factors led to the modern predominance of the Glomeromycota symbiosis.
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