64 results found
Gomes SIF, Aguirre-Gutierrez J, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2017, Arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions of mycoheterotrophic Thismia are more specialized than in autotrophic plants, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 213, Pages: 1418-1427, ISSN: 0028-646X
Merckx VSFT, Gomes SIF, Wapstra M, et al., 2017, The biogeographical history of the interaction between mycoheterotrophic Thismia (Thismiaceae) plants and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus (Glomeraceae) fungi, Journal of Biogeography, ISSN: 1365-2699
AimAchlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic plants and mycorrhizal fungi often have highly specific interactions that potentially limit the plants’ distribution and diversification potential. However, specificity in biotic interactions may differ considerably over a species’ distribution range and therefore interactions need to be studied over their entire range to assess their evolution in space and time. The present study investigates the biogeographical history of the interaction between five closely related mycoheterotrophic Thismia species and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi over the distribution range of the plant species.LocationTemperate south-east Australia and New Zealand.MethodsPhylogenetic relationships of Thismia (nrITS and mtcob) and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (partial nrSSU) were reconstructed based on data from 65 plant specimens. The diversification times in Thismia were estimated with a Bayesian relaxed clock approach using a Dioscoreales framework (nrSSU, mtatp1, mtmatR, mtnad1 b-c). Ancestral geographical ranges were reconstructed using a maximum likelihood approach. The same approach was used to reconstruct ancestral mycorrhizal associations.ResultsOur analysis shows that Thismia plants have highly specific, phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily persistent interactions with Rhizophagus fungi. Nevertheless, Thismia was able to diversify and radiate recently due to the wide geographical distribution of the host fungi. In addition, we find that although the mycorrhizal interactions of this clade of mycoheterotrophs are strictly bound to a fungal lineage, host switches remain possible.Main conclusionsIn this clade of closely related mycoheterotrophs, dependency on highly specific fungal interactions is the result of phylogenetic niche conservatism, acting over at least 12 million years. Nevertheless, plants that are dependent on highly specific fungal interactions have ample opportunities to disperse and radiate over the geographic
Renny M, Acosta MC, Cofré N, et al., 2017, Genetic diversity patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with the mycoheterotroph Arachnitis uniflora Phil. (Corsiaceae)., Ann Bot, Vol: 119, Pages: 1279-1294
Background and Aims: Arachnitis uniflora is a mycoheterotrophic plant that exploits arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of neighbouring plants. We tested A. uniflora 's specificity towards fungi across its large latitudinal range, as well as the role of historical events and current environmental, geographical and altitudinal variables on fungal genetic diversity. Methods: Arachnitis uniflora mycorrhizas were sampled at 25 sites. Fungal phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed, genetic diversity was calculated and the main divergent lineages were dated. Phylogeographical analysis was performed with the main fungal clade. Fungal diversity correlations with environmental factors were investigated. Key Results: Glomeraceae fungi dominated, with a main clade that likely originated in the Upper Cretaceous and diversified in the Miocene. Two other arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal families not previously known to be targeted by A. uniflora were detected rarely and appear to be facultative associations. High genetic diversity, found in Bolivia and both northern and southern Patagonia, was correlated with temperature, rainfall and soil features. Conclusions: Fungal genetic diversity and its distribution can be explained by the ancient evolutionary history of the target fungi and by micro-scale environmental conditions with a geographical mosaic pattern.
Rimington WR, Pressel S, Field KJ, et al., 2017, Reapprasing the origins of mycorrhizas, Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, Editors: Martin, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Pages: 21-32, ISBN: 9781118951415
Schiebold JM, Bidartondo MI, Karasch P, et al., 2017, You are what you get from your fungi: nitrogen stable isotope patterns in Epipactis species., Ann Bot, Vol: 119, Pages: 1085-1095
Background and Aims: Partially mycoheterotrophic plants are enriched in 13 C and 15 N compared to autotrophic plants. Here, it is hypothesized that the type of mycorrhizal fungi found in orchid roots is responsible for variation in 15 N enrichment of leaf tissue in partially mycoheterotrophic orchids. Methods: The genus Epipactis was used as a case study and carbon and nitrogen isotope abundances of eight Epipactis species, fungal sporocarps of four Tuber species and autotrophic references were measured. Mycorrhizal fungi were identified using molecular methods. Stable isotope data of six additional Epipactis taxa and ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes were compiled from the literature. Key Results: The 15 N enrichment of Epipactis species varied between 3·2 ± 0·8 ‰ ( E. gigantea ; rhizoctonia-associated) and 24·6 ± 1·6 ‰ ( E. neglecta ; associated with ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes). Sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes (10·7 ± 2·2 ‰) were significantly more enriched in 15 N than ectomycorrhizal (5·2 ± 4·0 ‰) and saprotrophic basidiomycetes (3·3 ± 2·1 ‰). Conclusions: As hypothesized, it is suggested that the observed gradient in 15 N enrichment of Epipactis species is strongly driven by 15 N abundance of their mycorrhizal fungi; i.e. ɛ 15 N in Epipactis spp. associated with rhizoctonias < ɛ 15 N in Epipactis spp. with ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes < ɛ 15 N in Epipactis spp. with ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes and basidiomycetes < ɛ 15 N in Epipactis spp. with ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes.
Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2016, Functional analysis of liverworts in dual symbiosis with Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina fungi under a simulated Palaeozoic CO2 decline, ISME JOURNAL, Vol: 10, Pages: 1514-1526, ISSN: 1751-7362
Kowal J, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2016, Liverworts to the rescue: an investigation of their efficacy as mycorrhizal inoculum for vascular plants, FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1014-1023, ISSN: 0269-8463
Pressel S, Bidartondo MI, Field KJ, et al., 2016, Pteridophyte fungal associations: Current knowledge and future perspectives, JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 54, Pages: 666-678, ISSN: 1674-4918
Spake R, van der Linde S, Newton AC, et al., 2016, Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol: 194, Pages: 71-79, ISSN: 0006-3207
Desiro A, Faccio A, Kaech A, et al., 2015, Endogone, one of the oldest plant-associated fungi, host unique Mollicutes-related endobacteria, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1464-1472, ISSN: 0028-646X
Field KJ, Leake JR, Tille S, et al., 2015, From mycoheterotrophy to mutualism: mycorrhizal specificity and functioning in Ophioglossum vulgatum sporophytes, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1492-1502, ISSN: 0028-646X
Hynson NA, Bidartondo MI, Read DJ, 2015, Are there geographic mosaics of mycorrhizal specificity and partial mycoheterotrophy? A case study in Moneses uniflora (Ericaceae)., New Phytol, Vol: 208, Pages: 1003-1007
Liebel HT, Bidartondo MI, Gebauer G, 2015, Are carbon and nitrogen exchange between fungi and the orchid Goodyera repens affected by irradiance?, ANNALS OF BOTANY, Vol: 115, Pages: 251-261, ISSN: 0305-7364
Rimington WR, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2015, Fungal associations of basal vascular plants: reopening a closed book?, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 205, Pages: 1394-1398, ISSN: 0028-646X
Suz LM, Barsoum N, Benham S, et al., 2015, Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy, ANNALS OF FOREST SCIENCE, Vol: 72, Pages: 877-885, ISSN: 1286-4560
Yokoya K, Zettler LW, Kendon JP, et al., 2015, Preliminary findings on identification of mycorrhizal fungi from diverse orchids in the Central Highlands of Madagascar, MYCORRHIZA, Vol: 25, Pages: 611-625, ISSN: 0940-6360
Bateman RM, Rudall PJ, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2014, Speciation via floral heterochrony and presumed mycorrhizal host switching of endemic butterfly orchids on the Azorean archipelago., American Journal of Botany, Vol: 101, Pages: 979-1001, ISSN: 1537-2197
Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2014, First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2, New Phytologist, ISSN: 1469-8137
The discovery that Mucoromycotina, an ancient and partially saprotrophic fungal lineage, associates with the basal liverwort lineage Haplomitriopsida casts doubt on the widely held view that Glomeromycota formed the sole ancestral plant-fungus symbiosis. Whether this association is mutualistic, and how its functioning was affected by the fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration that followed plant terrestrialization in the Palaeozoic, remains unknown. We measured carbon-for-nutrient exchanges between Haplomitriopsida liverworts and Mucoromycotina fungi under simulated mid-Palaeozoic (1500 ppm) and near-contemporary (440 ppm) CO2 concentrations using isotope tracers, and analysed cytological differences in plant-fungal interactions. Concomitantly, we cultured both partners axenically, resynthesized the associations in vitro, and characterized their cytology. We demonstrate that liverwort-Mucoromycotina symbiosis is mutualistic and mycorrhiza-like, but differs from liverwort-Glomeromycota symbiosis in maintaining functional efficiency of carbon-for-nutrient exchange between partners across CO2 concentrations. Inoculation of axenic plants with Mucoromycotina caused major cytological changes affecting the anatomy of plant tissues, similar to that observed in wild-collected plants colonized by Mucoromycotina fungi. By demonstrating reciprocal exchange of carbon for nutrients between partners, our results provide support for Mucoromycotina establishing the earliest mutualistic symbiosis with land plants. As symbiotic functional efficiency was not compromised by reduced CO2 , we suggest that other factors led to the modern predominance of the Glomeromycota symbiosis.
Schoch CL, Robbertse B, Robert V, et al., 2014, Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi, Database, Vol: 2014, ISSN: 0162-4105
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi.
Stoeckel M, Tesitelova T, Jersakova J, et al., 2014, Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature, New Phytologist, Vol: 202, Pages: 606-615, ISSN: 1469-8137
Suz LM, Barsoum N, Benham S, et al., 2014, Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests, Molecular Ecology, ISSN: 1365-294X
Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data is scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively-monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration, responds positively to increasing N inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration, show a consistently negative response. We also determined N critical loads for moderate (9.5 - 13.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) and drastic (17 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales, and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Desiro A, Duckett JG, Pressel S, et al., 2013, Fungal symbioses in hornworts: a chequered history, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 280, ISSN: 0962-8452
Waterman RJ, Klooster MR, Hentrich H, et al., 2013, Species interactions of mycoheterotrophic plants: specialization and its potential consequences., Mycoheterotrophy, Editors: Merckx, New York, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 267-296, ISBN: 978-1-4614-5209-6
Corcoran P, Jacobson DJ, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2012, Quantifying functional heterothallism in the pseudohomothallic ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma, FUNGAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 116, Pages: 962-975, ISSN: 1878-6146
Field KJ, Cameron DD, Leake JR, et al., 2012, Contrasting arbuscular mycorrhizal responses of vascular and non-vascular plants to a simulated Palaeozoic CO2 decline, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2041-1723
Sommer J, Pausch J, Brundrett MC, et al., 2012, Limited carbon and mineral nutrient gain from mycorrhizal fungi by adult Australian orchids., American Journal of Botany
• Premise of the study: In addition to autotrophic and fully mycoheterotrophic representatives, the orchid family comprises species that at maturity obtain C and N partially from fungal sources. These partial mycoheterotrophs are often associated with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with trees. This study investigates mycorrhizal nutrition for orchids from the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot.• Methods: The mycorrhizal fungi of 35 green and one achlorophyllous orchid species were analyzed using molecular methods. Nutritional mode was identified for 27 species by C and N isotope abundance analysis in comparison to non-orchids from the same habitat. As a complementary approach, (13)CO(2) pulse labeling was applied to a subset of six orchid species to measure photosynthetic capacity.• Key results: Almost all orchids associated with rhizoctonia-forming fungi. Due to much higher than expected variation within the co-occurring nonorchid reference plants, the stable isotope approach proved challenging for assigning most orchids to a specialized nutritional mode; therefore, these orchids were classified as autotrophic at maturity. The (13)CO(2) pulse labeling confirmed full autotrophy for six selected species. Nonetheless, at least three orchid species (Gastrodia lacista, Prasophyllum elatum, Corybas recurvus) were identified as nutritionally distinctive from autotrophic orchids and reference plants.• Conclusions: Despite the orchid-rich flora in southwestern Australia, partial mycoheterotrophy among these orchids is less common than in other parts of the world, most likely because most associate with saprotrophic fungi rather than ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Hardwick KA, Fiedler P, Lee LC, et al., 2011, The Role of Botanic Gardens in the Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration, CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 265-275, ISSN: 0888-8892
Pennington HG, Bidartondo MI, Barsoum N, 2011, A few exotic mycorrhizal fungi dominate eucalypts planted in England, FUNGAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 4, Pages: 299-302, ISSN: 1754-5048
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