Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Professor of the Mechanics of Materials



+44 (0)20 7594 7246m.charalambides Website




516City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Butt, S and Mohammed, I and Raghavan, V and Powell, H and Osborne, J and Charalambides, M},
doi = {10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.05.039},
journal = {Journal of Food Engineering},
pages = {112--121},
title = {Quantifying the differences in structure and mechanical response of confectionery products resulting from the baking and extrusion processes},
url = {},
volume = {238},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Extrusion has potential advantages over baking in terms of throughput, asset cost and flexibility. However, it is challenging to achieve through extrusion the “light, crispy” texture of a more traditional baked confectionery. This study compares and contrasts for the first time confectionery products produced through these two processes, i.e. baking and extrusion. The microstructural differences are measured using imaging techniques, i.e. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT) whereas mechanical characterisation is used to highlight differences in the resulting mechanical properties. Crucial information is presented which shows that the two technologies result in different mechanical properties and microstructures, even if the level of porosity in the two products is kept constant. In addition, confectionery products whether they are produced through baking or extrusion, have irregular geometries. The latter makes mechanical characterisation a real challenge. Therefore this study also presents rigorous methods for measuring true mechanical properties such that meaningful and valid comparisons may be made. The accuracy of the chosen methodologies is verified through experiments using flat and tubular extruded geometries as well as testing the products in various directions. It was concluded that the manufacturing method and, in the case of extrusion, the initial moisture content influences the microstructure and mechanics of confectionery products, both of which have an impact on consumer sensory perception.
AU - Butt,S
AU - Mohammed,I
AU - Raghavan,V
AU - Powell,H
AU - Osborne,J
AU - Charalambides,M
DO - 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.05.039
EP - 121
PY - 2018///
SN - 0260-8774
SP - 112
TI - Quantifying the differences in structure and mechanical response of confectionery products resulting from the baking and extrusion processes
T2 - Journal of Food Engineering
UR -
UR -
VL - 238
ER -