Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Professor of the Mechanics of Materials



+44 (0)20 7594 7246m.charalambides Website




516City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Mohagheghian, I and Charalambides, M and Wang, Y and Jiang, L and Zhang, X and Yan, Y and Kinloch, A and Dear, JP},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2018.06.002},
journal = {International Journal of Impact Engineering},
pages = {150--170},
title = {Effect of the polymer interlayer on the high-velocity soft impact response of laminated glass plates},
url = {},
volume = {120},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The choice of the polymer interlayer is a key consideration for laminated aircraft windshields. Such windshields often employ chemically strengthened glasses and are required to withstand impact by birds, hail-stones and other foreign bodies. In the present study, windshields employing three different polymer interlayer materials were investigated under high-velocity impact by a soft projectile: Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU), Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) and Ionoplast interlayer-SentryGlas® Plus (SGP). Parameters such as the polymer interlayer type and thickness, multi-layering the interlayer and the sensitivity of the behaviour of the windshield to the environmental temperature were studied. The performance was assessed through a series of laboratory-scale impact experiments (using a bird-substitute material) and modelled via finite element simulations (using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics approach). The experimental and numerical results were found to be in good agreement for the three polymer interlayers investigated. The polymer interlayer type was found to have the most significant effect on both the deformation and the failure of the laminated glass windows at room temperature, i.e. 25 °C. However, the influence of the polymer interlayer type became less pronounced at lower temperatures. The novel modelling that has been developed assists in the choice of the best polymer interlayer, including the multi-layering of interlayers, for complex windshield designs.
AU - Mohagheghian,I
AU - Charalambides,M
AU - Wang,Y
AU - Jiang,L
AU - Zhang,X
AU - Yan,Y
AU - Kinloch,A
AU - Dear,JP
DO - 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2018.06.002
EP - 170
PY - 2018///
SN - 0734-743X
SP - 150
TI - Effect of the polymer interlayer on the high-velocity soft impact response of laminated glass plates
T2 - International Journal of Impact Engineering
UR -
UR -
VL - 120
ER -