Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Professor of the Mechanics of Materials



+44 (0)20 7594 7246m.charalambides Website




516City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Skamniotis, C and Patel, Y and Elliott, M and Charalambides, M},
doi = {10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.06.004},
journal = {Food Hydrocolloids},
pages = {515--528},
title = {Toughening and stiffening of starch food extrudates through the addition of cellulose fibres and minerals},
url = {},
volume = {84},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Pet food, one of the largest type of commercial packaged foods, continuously sets new challenges, amongst them the possibility to enhance palatability via adjusting product composition. This will optimise texture perception across consumer groups of diverse chewing capabilities, as well as improve food oral breakdown efficiency with further impact on metabolic health and nutrient bioavailability in the digestive process. Our aim is to pioneer new methods of controlling texture by answering longstanding questions such as the impact of nutrients on the mechanical properties of foods. The impact of cellulose fibres and minerals on the fracture toughness and stiffness properties of starch food extrudates is investigated for the first time through employing tensile tests and two fracture toughness tests namely Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) and cutting, on four different compositions. Fibres alone are found to increase stiffness (stiffening) and toughness (toughening) whereas minerals decrease stiffness (softening) with a minor influence on toughness. Interestingly, fibres and minerals combined maximise toughening at 28% compared to pure starch, due to the synergistic effect of fibre-matrix de-bonding and fibre breakage mechanisms at the crack tip. These new results indicate that texture can be significantly altered through the addition of minerals and short fibres. Such information is critical in the design of products that need to satisfy both nutritional and textural criteria.
AU - Skamniotis,C
AU - Patel,Y
AU - Elliott,M
AU - Charalambides,M
DO - 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.06.004
EP - 528
PY - 2018///
SN - 0268-005X
SP - 515
TI - Toughening and stiffening of starch food extrudates through the addition of cellulose fibres and minerals
T2 - Food Hydrocolloids
UR -
UR -
VL - 84
ER -