Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Reader in Planetary Science



m.galand Website




Huxley BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

120 results found

Moore L, Melin H, O'Donoghue J, Stallard TS, Moses J, Galand M, Miller S, Schmidt CAet al., 2019, Modelling H-3(+) in planetary atmospheres: effects of vertical gradients on observed quantities, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Vol: 377, ISSN: 1364-503X

Journal article

Carnielli G, Goland M, Leblanc F, Leclercq L, Modolo R, Beth A, Huybrighs HLF, Jia Xet al., 2019, First 3D test particle model of Ganymede's ionosphere, ICARUS, Vol: 330, Pages: 42-59, ISSN: 0019-1035

Journal article

Bockelée-Morvan D, Filacchione G, Altwegg K, Bianchi E, Bizzarro M, Blum J, Bonal L, Capaccioni F, Codella C, Choukroun M, Cottin H, Davidsson B, Sanctis MCD, Drozdovskaya M, Engrand C, Galand M, Güttler C, Henri P, Herique A, Ivanoski S, Kokotanekova R, Levasseur-Regourd A-C, Miller KE, Rotundi A, Schönbächler M, Snodgrass C, Thomas N, Tubiana C, Ulamec S, Vincent J-Bet al., 2019, AMBITION -- Comet nucleus cryogenic sample return (white paper for ESA's voyage 2050 programme), Publisher: arXiv

This white paper proposes that AMBITION, a Comet Nucleus Sample Returnmission, be a cornerstone of ESA's Voyage 2050 programme. We summarise some ofthe most important questions still open in cometary science after the successesof the Rosetta mission, many of which require sample analysis using techniquesthat are only possible in laboratories on Earth. We then summarisemeasurements, instrumentation and mission scenarios that can address thesequestions, with a recommendation that ESA select an ambitious cryogenic samplereturn mission. Rendezvous missions to Main Belt comets and Centaurs arecompelling cases for M-class missions, expanding our knowledge by exploring newclasses of comets. AMBITION would engage a wide community, drawing expertisefrom a vast range of disciplines within planetary science and astrophysics.With AMBITION, Europe will continue its leadership in the exploration of themost primitive Solar System bodies.

Working paper

Wedlund CS, Behar E, Nilsson H, Alho M, Kallio E, Gunell H, Bodewits D, Heritier K, Galand M, Beth A, Rubin M, Altwegg K, Volwerk M, Gronoff G, Hoekstra Ret al., 2019, Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres III. Results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN: 0004-6361

Solar wind charge-changing reactions are of paramount importance to thephysico-chemistry of the atmosphere of a comet. The ESA/Rosetta mission tocomet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) provides a unique opportunity to studycharge-changing processes in situ. To understand the role of these reactions inthe evolution of the solar wind plasma, and interpret the complex in-situmeasurements made by Rosetta, numerical or analytical models are necessary. Weuse an extended analytical formalism describing solar wind charge-changingprocesses at comets along solar wind streamlines. The model is driven by solarwind ion measurements from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium-Ion CompositionAnalyzer (RPC-ICA) and neutral density observations from the RosettaSpectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis-Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA-COPS),as well as charge-changing cross sections of hydrogen and helium particles in awater gas. A mission-wide overview of charge-changing efficiencies at comet 67Pis presented. Electron capture cross sections dominate and favor the productionof He and H energetic neutral atoms, with fluxes expected to rival those of H+and He2+ ions. Neutral outgassing rates are retrieved from local RPC-ICA fluxmeasurements, and match ROSINA's estimates very well. From the model, we findthat solar wind charge exchange is unable to fully explain the magnitude of thesharp drop of solar wind ion fluxes observed by Rosetta for heliocentricdistances below 2.5 AU. This is likely because the model does not take intoaccount the relative ion dynamics and, to a lesser extent, ignore the formationof bow shock-like structures upstream of the nucleus. This work also shows thatthe ionization by solar EUV radiation and energetic electrons dominates thesource of cometary ions, although solar wind contributions may be significantduring isolated events.

Journal article

Beth A, Galand M, Heritier K, Comparative study of photo-produced ionosphere in the close environment of comets, Astronomy & Astrophysics, ISSN: 0004-6361

Journal article

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