Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Reader in Planetary Science



m.galand Website




Huxley BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

129 results found

Schrijver K, Bagenal F, Bastian T, Beer J, Bisi M, Bogdan T, Bougher S, Boteler D, Brain D, Brasseur G, Brownlee D, Charbonneau P, Cohen O, Christensen U, Crowley T, Fischer D, Forbes T, Fuller-Rowell T, Galand M, Giacalone J, Gloeckler G, Gosling J, Green J, Guetersloh S, Hansteen V, Hartmann L, Horanyi M, Hudson H, Jakowski N, Jokipii R, Kivelson M, Krauss-Varban D, Krupp N, Lean J, Linsky J, Longcope D, Marsh D, Miesch M, Moldwin M, Moore L, Odenwald S, Opher M, Osten R, Rempel M, Schmidt H, Siscoe G, Siskind D, Smith C, Solomon S, Stallard T, Stanley S, Sojka J, Tobiska K, Toffoletto F, Tribble A, Vasyliunas V, Walterscheid R, Wang J, Wood B, Woods T, Zapp Net al., 2019, Principles Of Heliophysics: a textbook on the universal processes behind planetary habitability, Publisher: arXiv

This textbook gives a perspective of heliophysics in a way that emphasizesuniversal processes from a perspective that draws attention to what providesEarth (and similar (exo-)planets) with a relatively stable setting in whichlife as we know it can thrive. The book is intended for students in physicalsciences in later years of their university training and for beginning graduatestudents in fields of solar, stellar, (exo-)planetary, and planetary-systemsciences.

Working paper

Wedlund CS, Behar E, Nilsson H, Alho M, Kallio E, Gunell H, Bodewits D, Heritier K, Galand M, Beth A, Rubin M, Altwegg K, Volwerk M, Gronoff G, Hoekstra Ret al., 2019, Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres III. Results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol: 630, ISSN: 0004-6361

Solar wind charge-changing reactions are of paramount importance to thephysico-chemistry of the atmosphere of a comet. The ESA/Rosetta mission tocomet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) provides a unique opportunity to studycharge-changing processes in situ. To understand the role of these reactions inthe evolution of the solar wind plasma, and interpret the complex in-situmeasurements made by Rosetta, numerical or analytical models are necessary. Weuse an extended analytical formalism describing solar wind charge-changingprocesses at comets along solar wind streamlines. The model is driven by solarwind ion measurements from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium-Ion CompositionAnalyzer (RPC-ICA) and neutral density observations from the RosettaSpectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis-Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA-COPS),as well as charge-changing cross sections of hydrogen and helium particles in awater gas. A mission-wide overview of charge-changing efficiencies at comet 67Pis presented. Electron capture cross sections dominate and favor the productionof He and H energetic neutral atoms, with fluxes expected to rival those of H+and He2+ ions. Neutral outgassing rates are retrieved from local RPC-ICA fluxmeasurements, and match ROSINA's estimates very well. From the model, we findthat solar wind charge exchange is unable to fully explain the magnitude of thesharp drop of solar wind ion fluxes observed by Rosetta for heliocentricdistances below 2.5 AU. This is likely because the model does not take intoaccount the relative ion dynamics and, to a lesser extent, ignore the formationof bow shock-like structures upstream of the nucleus. This work also shows thatthe ionization by solar EUV radiation and energetic electrons dominates thesource of cometary ions, although solar wind contributions may be significantduring isolated events.

Journal article

Moore L, Melin H, O'Donoghue J, Stallard TS, Moses J, Galand M, Miller S, Schmidt CAet al., 2019, Modelling H-3(+) in planetary atmospheres: effects of vertical gradients on observed quantities, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 377, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1364-503X

Since its detection in the aurorae of Jupiter approximately 30 years ago, the H3+ ion has served as an invaluable probe of giant planet upper atmospheres. However, the vast majority of monitoring of planetary H3+ radiation has followed from observations that rely on deriving parameters from column-integrated paths through the emitting layer. Here, we investigate the effects of density and temperature gradients along such paths on the measured H3+ spectrum and its resulting interpretation. In a non-isothermal atmosphere, H3+ column densities retrieved from such observations are found to represent a lower limit, reduced by 20% or more from the true atmospheric value. Global simulations of Uranus' ionosphere reveal that measured H3+ temperature variations are often attributable to well-understood solar zenith angle effects rather than indications of real atmospheric variability. Finally, based on these insights, a preliminary method of deriving vertical temperature structure is demonstrated at Jupiter using model reproductions of electron density and H3+ measurements. The sheer diversity and uncertainty of conditions in planetary atmospheres prohibits this work from providing blanket quantitative correction factors; nonetheless, we illustrate a few simple ways in which the already formidable utility of H3+ observations in understanding planetary atmospheres can be enhanced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘Advances in hydrogen molecular ions: H3+, H5+ and beyond’.

Journal article

Mandt KE, Eriksson A, Beth A, Galand M, Vigren Eet al., 2019, Influence of collisions on ion dynamics in the inner comae of four comets, ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 630, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1432-0746

Context. Collisions between cometary neutrals in the inner coma of a comet and cometary ions that have been picked up into the solar wind flow and return to the coma lead to the formation of a broad inner boundary known as a collisionopause. This boundary is produced by a combination of charge transfer and chemical reactions, both of which are important at the location of the collisionopause boundary. Four spacecraft measured ion densities and velocities in the inner region of comets, exploring the part of the coma where an ion-neutral collisionopause boundary is expected to form.Aims. The aims are to determine the dominant physics behind the formation of the ion-neutral collisionopause and to evaluate where this boundary has been observed by spacecraft.Methods. We evaluated observations from three spacecraft at four different comets to determine if a collisionopause boundary was observed based on the reported ion velocities. We compared the measured location of the ion-neutral collisionopause with measurements of the collision cross sections to evaluate whether chemistry or charge exchange are more important at the location where the collisionopause is observed.Results. Based on measurements of the cross sections for charge transfer and for chemical reactions, the boundary observed by Rosetta appears to be the location where chemistry becomes the more probable result of a collision between H2O and H2O+ than charge exchange. Comparisons with ion observations made by Deep Space 1 at 19P/Borrelly and Giotto at 1P/Halley and 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup show that similar boundaries were observed at 19P/Borrelly and 1P/Halley. The ion composition measurements made by Giotto at Halley confirm that chemistry becomes more important inside of this boundary and that electron-ion dissociative recombination is a driver for the reported ion pileup boundary.

Journal article

Myllys M, Henri P, Galand M, Heritier KL, Gilet N, Goldstein R, Eriksson A, Johansson F, Deca Jet al., 2019, Plasma properties of suprathermal electrons near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with Rosetta, Astronomy and Astrophysics: a European journal, Vol: 630, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0004-6361

Context. The Rosetta spacecraft escorted comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from 2014 to September 2016. The mission provided in situ observations of the cometary plasma during different phases of the cometary activity, which enabled us to better understand its evolution as a function of heliocentric distance.Aims. In this study, different electron populations, called warm and hot, observed by the Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) are investigated near the comet during the escorting phase of the Rosetta mission.Methods. The estimates for the suprathermal electron densities and temperatures were extracted using IES electron data by fitting a double-kappa function to the measured velocity distributions. The fitting results were validated using observations from other RPC instruments. We give upgraded estimates for the warm and hot population densities compared to values previously shown in literature.Results. The fitted density and temperature estimates for both electron populations seen by IES are expressed as a function of heliocentric distance to study their evolution with the cometary activity. In addition, we studied the dependence between the electron properties and cometocentric distance.Conclusions. We observed that when the neutral outgassing rate of the nucleus is high (i.e., near perihelion) the suprathermal electrons are well characterized by a double-kappa distribution. In addition, warm and hot populations show a significant dependence with the heliocentric distance. The populations become clearly denser near perihelion while their temperatures are observed to remain almost constant. Moreover, the warm electron population density is shown to be strongly dependent on the radial distance from the comet. Finally, based on our results we reject the hypothesis that hot electron population seen by IES consists of solely suprathermal (halo) solar wind electrons, while we suggest that the hot electron population mainly consists of

Journal article

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