Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Reader in Planetary Science



m.galand Website




Huxley BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

128 results found

Grün E, Agarwal J, Altobelli N, Altwegg K, Bentley MS, Biver N, Della Corte V, Edberg N, Feldman PD, Galand M, Geiger B, Götz C, Grieger B, Güttler C, Henri P, Hofstadter M, Horanyi M, Jehin E, Krüger H, Lee S, Mannel T, Morales E, Mousis O, Müller M, Opitom C, Rotundi A, Schmied R, Schmidt F, Sierks H, Snodgrass C, Soja RH, Sommer M, Srama R, Tzou C-Y, Vincent J-B, Yanamandra-Fisher P, A'Hearn MF, Erikson AI, Barbieri C, Barucci MA, Bertaux J-L, Bertini I, Burch J, Colangeli L, Cremonese G, Da Deppo V, Davidsson B, Debei S, De Cecco M, Deller J, Feaga LM, Ferrari M, Fornasier S, Fulle M, Gicquel A, Gillon M, Green SF, Groussin O, Gutiérrez PJ, Hofmann M, Hviid SF, Ip W-H, Ivanovski S, Jorda L, Keller HU, Knight MM, Knollenberg J, Koschny D, Kramm J-R, Kührt E, Küppers M, Lamy PL, Lara LM, Lazzarin M, Lòpez-Moreno JJ, Manfroid J, Epifani EM, Marzari F, Naletto G, Oklay N, Palumbo P, Parker JW, Rickman H, Rodrigo R, Rodrìguez J, Schindhelm E, Shi X, Sordini R, Steffl AJ, Stern SA, Thomas N, Tubiana C, Weaver HA, Weissman P, Zakharov VV, Taylor MGGTet al., 2016, The 2016 Feb 19 outburst of comet 67P/CG: an ESA Rosetta multi-instrument study, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 462, Pages: S220-S234, ISSN: 1365-2966

On 2016 Feb 19, nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 09:40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50 per cent of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors >100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors >10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from ∼−16 V to −20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta (34 km from the nucleus): within 15 min the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (∼25 m s−1) while 100 μm radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument ∼1 h later at a speed of 6 m s−1. The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined.

Journal article

Vigren E, Altwegg K, Edberg NJT, Eriksson AI, Galand M, Henri P, Johansson F, Odelstad E, Tzou C-Y, Valliéres Xet al., 2016, MODEL-OBSERVATION COMPARISONS OF ELECTRON NUMBER DENSITIES IN THE COMA OF 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO DURING 2015 JANUARY, Astronomical Journal, Vol: 152, ISSN: 1538-3881

During 2015 January 9–11, at a heliocentric distance of ~2.58–2.57 au, the ESA Rosetta spacecraft resided at a cometocentric distance of ~28 km from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, sweeping the terminator at northern latitudes of 43°N–58°N. Measurements by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA/COPS) provided neutral number densities. We have computed modeled electron number densities using the neutral number densities as input into a Field Free Chemistry Free model, assuming H2O dominance and ion-electron pair formation by photoionization only. A good agreement (typically within 25%) is found between the modeled electron number densities and those observed from measurements by the Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC/MIP) and the Langmuir Probe (RPC/LAP), both being subsystems of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. This indicates that ions along the nucleus-spacecraft line were strongly coupled to the neutrals, moving radially outward with about the same speed. Such a statement, we propose, can be further tested by observations of H3O+/H2O+ number density ratios and associated comparisons with model results.

Journal article

Vigren E, Galand M, Wellbrock A, Coates AJ, Cui J, Edberg NJT, Lavvas P, Sagnieres L, Snowden D, Vuitton V, Wahlund J-Eet al., 2016, Suprathermal electrons in Titan's sunlit ionosphere: model-observation comparisons, Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 826, ISSN: 1538-4357

Journal article

Mandt KE, Eriksson A, Edberg NJT, Koenders C, Broiles T, Fuselier SA, Henri P, Nemeth Z, Alho M, Biver N, Beth A, Burch J, Carr CM, Chae K, Coates AJ, Cupido E, Galand M, Glassmeier K-H, Goetz C, Goldstein R, Hansen KC, Haiducek J, Kallio E, Lebreton J-P, Luspay-Kuti A, Mokashi P, Nilsson H, Opitz A, Richter I, Samara M, Szego K, Tzou C-Y, Volwerk M, Simon Wedlund C, Stenberg Wieser Get al., 2016, RPC observation of the development and evolution of plasma interaction boundaries at 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 462, Pages: S9-S22, ISSN: 1365-2966

One of the primary objectives of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, a suite of five plasma instruments on-board the Rosetta spacecraft, is to observe the formation and evolution of plasma interaction regions at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/CG). Observations made between 2015 April and 2016 February show that solar wind–cometary plasma interaction boundaries and regions formed around 2015 mid-April and lasted through early 2016 January. At least two regions were observed, separated by an ion-neutral collisionopause boundary. The inner region was located on the nucleus side of the boundary and was characterized by low-energy water-group ions, reduced magnetic field pileup and enhanced electron densities. The outer region was located outside of the boundary and was characterized by reduced electron densities, water-group ions that are accelerated to energies above 100 eV and enhanced magnetic field pileup compared to the inner region. The boundary discussed here is outside of the diamagnetic cavity and shows characteristics similar to observations made on-board the Giotto spacecraft in the ion pileup region at 1P/Halley. We find that the boundary is likely to be related to ion-neutral collisions and that its location is influenced by variability in the neutral density and the solar wind dynamic pressure.

Journal article

Moore L, Stallard T, Galand MIF, 2016, Upper atmospheres of the giant planets, Heliophysics: Active Stars, their Astrospheres, and Impacts on Planetary Environments, Editors: Schrijver, Bagenal, Sojka, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, Pages: 175-200, ISBN: 9781107090477

Book chapter

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