Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Organic Materials



+44 (0)20 7594 1248m.heeney Website




401GMolecular Sciences Research HubWhite City Campus






BibTex format

author = {Bannock, JH and Krishnadasan, SH and Nightingale, AM and Yau, CP and Khaw, K and Burkitt, D and Halls, JJM and Heeney, H and de, Mello JC},
doi = {10.1002/adfm.201203014},
journal = {Advanced Functional Materials},
title = {Continuous Synthesis of Device-Grade Semiconducting Polymers in Droplet-Based Microreactors},
url = {},
year = {2012}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - A method is reported for the controlled synthesis of device-grade semiconducting polymers, utilizing a droplet-based microfluidic reactor. Using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a test material, the reactor is shown to provide a controlled and stable environment for polymer synthesis, enabling control of molecular weight via tuning of flow conditions, reagent composition or temperature. Molecular weights of up to 92 000 Da are readily attainable, without leakage or reactor fouling. The method avoids the usual deterioration in materials quality that occurs when conventional batch syntheses are scaled from the sub-gram level to higher quantities, with a prototype five-channel reactor producing material of consistent molecular weight distribution and high regioregularity (>98%) at a rate of ≈60 g/day. The droplet-synthesized P3HT compares favorably with commercial material in terms of absorption spectrum, polydispersity, regioregularity, and crystallinity, yielding power conversion efficiencies of up to 4% in bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester.
AU - Bannock,JH
AU - Krishnadasan,SH
AU - Nightingale,AM
AU - Yau,CP
AU - Khaw,K
AU - Burkitt,D
AU - Halls,JJM
AU - Heeney,H
AU - de,Mello JC
DO - 10.1002/adfm.201203014
PY - 2012///
TI - Continuous Synthesis of Device-Grade Semiconducting Polymers in Droplet-Based Microreactors
T2 - Advanced Functional Materials
UR -
UR -
ER -