Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering



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Ms Nina Hancock +44 (0)20 7594 7068




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BibTex format

author = {Zhang, C and Huthwaite, P and Lowe, M},
doi = {10.1109/TUFFC.2018.2793267},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control},
pages = {497--512},
title = {The application of the Factorization Method to the subsurface imaging of surfacebreaking cracks},
url = {},
volume = {65},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - A common location for cracks to appear is at the surface of a component; at the near surface, many nondestructive evaluation techniques are available to inspect for these, but at the far surface this is much more challenging. Ultrasonic imaging is proposed to enable far surface defect detection, location, and characterization. One specific challenge here is the presence of a strong reflection from the backwall, which can often mask the relatively small response from a defect. In this paper, the factorization method (FM) is explored for the application of subsurface imaging of the surface-breaking cracks. In this application, the component has two parallel surfaces, the crack is initiated from the far side and the phased array is attached on the near side. Ideally, the pure scattered field from a defect is needed for the correct estimation of the scatterer through the FM algorithm. However, the presence of the backwall will introduce a strong specular reflection into the measured data which should be removed before applying the FM algorithm. A novel subtraction method was developed to remove the backwall reflection. The performance of the FM algorithm and this subtraction method were tested with the simulated and experimental data. The experimental results showed a good consistency with the simulated results. It is shown that the FM algorithm can generate high-quality images to provide a good detection of the crack and an accurate sizing of the crack length. The subtraction method was able to provide a good backwall reflection removal in the case of small cracks (1-3 wavelengths).
AU - Zhang,C
AU - Huthwaite,P
AU - Lowe,M
DO - 10.1109/TUFFC.2018.2793267
EP - 512
PY - 2018///
SN - 0885-3010
SP - 497
TI - The application of the Factorization Method to the subsurface imaging of surfacebreaking cracks
T2 - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
UR -
UR -
VL - 65
ER -