298 results found
Corcoran J, Leinov E, Jeketo A, et al., 2020, A guided wave inspection technique for wedge features, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol: 67, Pages: 997-1008, ISSN: 0885-3010
Numerous engineering components feature prismatic wedge-like structures that require Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) in order to ensure functionality or safety. This paper focuses on the inspection of the wedge-like seal fins of a jet engine drum, though the capabilities presented will be generic. It is proposed that anti-symmetric flexural edge modes, feature guided waves localised to the wedge tips, may be used for defect detection. Although analytical solutions exist that characterise the ultrasonic behaviour of ideal wedges, in practise real wedges will be irregular (containing for example truncated tips, are built onto an associated structure or have non straight edges) and therefore generic methodologies are required to characterise wave behaviour in non-ideal wedges. This paper uses a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) methodology to characterise guided waves in wedge-like features with irregular cross-sections to assess their suitability for NDE inspection and compare them to edge modes in ideal wedges. The science and methodologies required in this paper are necessary to select an appropriate operating frequency for the particular application at hand. Additionally, this paper addresses the practical challenge of excitation and detection of flexural edge modes by presenting a piezoelectric based dry-coupled transducer system suitable for pulse-echo operation. The paper therefore presents the scientific basis required for industrial exploitation, together with the practical tools that facilitate use. The study concludes with the experimental demonstration of the edge wave based inspection of a seal fin, achieving a signal-to-noise ratio of 28 dB from a 0.75 mm radial tip defect.
Sha G, Huang M, Lowe MJS, et al., 2020, Attenuation and velocity of elastic waves in polycrystals with generally anisotropic grains: Analytic and numerical modeling., Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 147, Pages: 2442-2465, ISSN: 0001-4966
Better understanding of elastic wave propagation in polycrystals has interest for applications in seismology and nondestructive material characterization. In this study, a second-order wave propagation (SOA) model that considers forward multiple scattering events is developed for macroscopically isotropic polycrystals with equiaxed grains of arbitrary anisotropy (triclinic). It predicts scattering-induced wave attenuation and dispersion of phase velocity. The SOA model implements the generalized two-point correlation (TPC) function, which relates to the actual numeric TPC of simulated microstructure. The analytical Rayleigh and stochastic asymptotes for both attenuation and phase velocity are derived for triclinic symmetry grains, which elucidate the effects of the elastic scattering factors and the generalized TPC in different frequency regimes. Also, the computationally efficient far field approximation attenuation model is obtained for this case; it shows good agreement with the SOA model in all frequency ranges. To assess the analytical models, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for triclinic polycrystals is developed and implemented on simulated 3D triclinic polycrystalline aggregates. Quantitative agreement is observed between the analytical and the FE simulations for both the attenuation and phase velocity. Also, the quasi-static velocities obtained from the SOA and FE models are in excellent agreement with the static self-consistent velocity.
Haslinger SG, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2020, Elastic shear wave scattering by randomly rough surfaces, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 137, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0022-5096
Characterizing cracks within elastic media forms an important aspect of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) where techniques such as time-of-flight diffraction and pulse-echo are often used with the presumption of scattering from smooth, straight cracks. However, cracks are rarely straight, or smooth, and recent attention has focussed upon rough surface scattering primarily by longitudinal wave excitations.We provide a comprehensive study of scattering by incident shear waves, thus far neglected in models of rough surface scattering despite their practical importance in the detection of surface-breaking defects, using modelling, simulation and supporting experiments. The scattering of incident shear waves introduces challenges, largely absent in the longitudinal case, related to surface wave mode-conversion, the reduced range of validity of the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) as compared with longitudinal incidence, and an increased importance of correlation length.The expected reflection from a rough defect is predicted using a statistical model from which, given the angle of incidence and two statistical parameters, the expected reflection amplitude is obtained instantaneously for any scattering angle and length of defect. If the ratio of correlation length to defect length exceeds a critical value, which we determine, there is an explicit dependence of the scattering results on correlation length, and we modify the modelling to find this dependence. The modelling is cross-correlated against Monte Carlo simulations of many different surface profiles, sharing the same statistical parameter values, using numerical simulation via ray models (KA) and finite element (FE) methods accelerated with a GPU implementation. Additionally we provide experimental validations that demonstrate the accuracy of our predictions.
Haslinger SG, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Appraising Kirchhoff approximation theory for the scattering of elastic shear waves by randomly rough defects, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol: 460, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0022-460X
Rapid and accurate methods, based on the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), are developed to evaluate the scattering of shear waves by rough defects and quantify the accuracy of this approximation. Defect roughness has a strong effect on the reflection of ultrasound, and every rough defect has a different surface, so standard methods of assessing the sensitivity of inspection based on smooth defects are necessarily limited. Accurately resolving rough cracks in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) inspections often requires shear waves since they have higher sensitivity to surface roughness than longitudinal waves. KA models are attractive, since they are rapid to deploy, however they are an approximation and it is important to determine the range of validity for the scattering of ultrasonic shear waves; this range is found here. Good agreement between KA and high fidelity finite element simulations is obtained for a range of incident/scattering angles, and the limits of validity for KA are found to be much stricter than for longitudinal wave incidence; as the correlation length of rough surfaces is reduced to the order of the incident shear wavelength, a combination of multiple scattering and surface wave mode conversion leads to KA predictions diverging from those of the true diffuse scattered fields.
Elliott JB, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Sizing Subwavelength Defects With Ultrasonic Imagery: An Assessment of Super-Resolution Imaging on Simulated Rough Defects, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, Vol: 66, Pages: 1634-1648, ISSN: 0885-3010
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, 2019, Automated and antidispersive coherent and incoherent noise reduction of waveforms that contain a reference pulse, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 105, Pages: 35-45, ISSN: 0963-8695
Shipway NJ, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, et al., 2019, Performance based modifications of random forest to perform automated defect detection for fluorescent penetrant inspection, Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0195-9298
The established Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) has previously been shown to be effective at performing automated defect detection for test pieces which have been processed using fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI). The work presented here investigates three methods (two previously proposed in other fields, one novel method) of modifying the FPI RF based on the individual performance of decision trees within the RF. Evaluating based on the 2 Score, which is the harmonic mean of precision and recall which places a larger weighting on recall, it is possible to reduce the RF in size by up to 50%, improving speed and memory requirements, whilst still gain equivalent results to a full RF. Introducing a performance based weighting or retraining decision trees which fall below a certain performance level however, offers no improvement on results for the increased computation time required to implement.
Lan B, Carpenter MA, Gan W, et al., 2018, Rapid measurement of volumetric texture using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 157, ISSN: 1359-6462
This paper presents a non-destructive evaluation method of volumetric texture using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). It is based on a general theoretical platform that links the directional wave speeds of a polycrystalline aggregate to its texture through a simple convolution relationship, and RUS is employed to obtain the speeds by measuring the elastic constants, where well-established experimental and post-processing procedures are followed. Important lower-truncation-order textures of representative hexagonal and cubic metal samples with orthorhombic sample symmetries are extracted, and are validated against independent immersion ultrasound and neutron tests. The successful deployment of RUS indicates broader applications of the general methodology.
Shipway N, Barden T, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Automated defect detection for Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection using Random Forest, NDT and E International, ISSN: 0963-8695
Lan B, Britton TB, Jun T-S, et al., 2018, Direct volumetric measurement of crystallographic texture using acoustic waves, Acta Materialia, Vol: 159, Pages: 384-394, ISSN: 1359-6454
Crystallographic texture in polycrystalline materials is often developed as preferred orientation distribution of grains during thermo-mechanical processes. Texture dominates many macroscopic physical properties and reflects the histories of structural evolution, hence its measurement and control are vital for performance optimisation and deformation history interogation in engineering and geological materials. However, exploitations of texture are hampered by state-of-the-art characterisation techniques, none of which can routinely deliver the desirable non-destructive, volumetric measurements, especially at larger lengthscales. Here we report a direct and general methodology retrieving important lower-truncation-order texture and phase information from acoustic (compressional elastic) wave speed measurements in different directions through the material volume (avoiding the need for forward modelling). We demonstrate its deployment with ultrasound in the laboratory, where the results from seven representative samples are successfully validated against measurements performed using neutron diffraction. The acoustic method we have developed includes both fundamental wave propagation and texture inversion theories which are free from diffraction limits, they are arbitrarily scalable in dimension, and can be rapidly deployed to measure the texture of large objects. This opens up volumetric texture characterisation capabilities in the areas of material science and beyond, for both scientific and industrial applications.
Eckel SF, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, et al., 2018, Establishment and validation of the channelized hotelling model observer for image assessment in industrial radiography, NDT and E International, Vol: 98, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0963-8695
A new method for industrial radiography is presented to assess image quality objectively. The assessment is performed by a modelled observer developed to interpret radiographic images in order to rate the detectability of structural defects. For the purpose of qualifying radiographic NDE procedures, computational tools simulate the image, but should additionally automatically assess the associated image quality instead of relying on human interpretation. The Channelized Hotelling Model Observer (CHO) approach, originally developed for medical imaging, is here developed for industrial NDE applications to measure objectively the defect's detectability. A validation study based on a comparison of the model's efficiency of observing circular and elongated flaws shows that the CHO outperforms other detectability models used by industry. Furthermore, the model's reliability was verified by comparing it to psychophysical data.
Choi W, Shi F, Lowe MJS, et al., 2018, Rough surface reconstruction of real surfaces for numerical simulations of ultrasonic wave scattering, NDT and E International, Vol: 98, Pages: 27-36, ISSN: 0963-8695
The scattering of waves by rough surfaces plays a significant role in many fields of physical sciences including ultrasonics where failure surfaces are often rough and their accurate identification is critical. The prediction of the strength of scattering can be hampered when the roughness is not adequately characterised and this is a particular issue when the surface roughness is within an order of the incident wavelength. Here we develop a methodology to reconstruct, and accurately represent, rough surfaces using an AutoRegressive (AR) process that then allows for rapid numerical simulations of ultrasonic wave rough surface scattering in three dimensions. Gaussian, exponential and AR surfaces are reconstructed based on real surface data and the statistics of the surfaces are compared with each other. The statistics from the AR surfaces agree well with those from actual rough surfaces, taken from experimental samples, in terms of the heights as well as the gradients, which are the two main factors in accurately predicting the wave scattering intensities. Ultrasonic rough surface scattering is simulated numerically using the Kirchhoff approximation, and comparisons with Gaussian, exponential, AR and real sample surfaces are performed; scattering intensities found using AR surfaces show the best agreement with the real sample surfaces.
Zhang C, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, 2018, Eliminating backwall effects in the phased array imaging of near backwall defects, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 144, Pages: 1075-1088, ISSN: 0001-4966
Ultrasonic array imaging is widely used to provide high quality defect detection and characterization. However, the current imaging techniques are poor at detecting and characterizing defects near a surface facing the array, as the signal scattered from the defect and the strong reflection from the planar backwall will overlap in both time and frequency domains, masking the presence of the defect. To address this problem, this paper explores imaging algorithms and relevant methods to eliminate the strong artefacts caused by the backwall reflection. The half-skip total focusing method (HSTFM), the factorization method (FM) and the time domain sampling method (TDSM) are chosen as the imaging algorithms used in this paper. Then, three methods, referred to as full matrix capture (FMC) subtraction, weighting function filtering, and the truncation method, are developed to eliminate or filter the effects caused by the strong backwall reflection. These methods can be applied easily with few tuning parameters or little prior knowledge. The performances of the proposed imaging techniques are validated in both simulation and experiments, and the results show the effectiveness of the developed methods to eliminate the artefacts caused by the backwall reflections when imaging near backwall defects.
Phillips R, Duxbury D, Huthwaite P, et al., 2018, Simulating the ultrasonic scattering from complex surface-breaking defects with a three-dimensional hybrid model, NDT and E International, Vol: 97, Pages: 32-41, ISSN: 0963-8695
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Modelling is increasingly relied on for the design and qualification of ultrasonic inspections applied to safety-critical components. Numerical methods enable the simulation of the ultrasonic interaction with realistic defect morphologies; however, the computational requirements often limit their deployment. The hybrid simulation technique, which combines semi-analytical and numerical methods, realises the potential of high fidelity numerical modelling without the limiting computational factors. The inspection of thick section components for near-backwall surface-breaking defects results in large propagation distances, making them a key application of hybrid modelling. This work presents a methodology for efficiently simulating the ultrasonic inspection of complex surface-breaking defects using a hybrid model. The model is initially verified against full numerical simulation; further validation is presented by comparison to an experimental scan over an artificially machined surface-breaking notch. The potential of the new hybrid method is then demonstrated by carrying out a Monte Carlo analysis on the scattered field from surface-breaking defects with randomly rough surfaces and the results are compared to the Kirchhoff approximation.
Van Pamel A, Sha G, Lowe MJS, et al., 2018, Numerical and analytic modelling of elastodynamic scattering within polycrystalline materials, Jornal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 143, Pages: 2394-2408, ISSN: 0001-4966
The elastodynamic behavior of polycrystalline cubic materials is studied through the fundamental propagation properties, the attenuation and wave speed, of a longitudinal wave. Predictions made by different analytical models are compared to both numerical and experimental results. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulation which provides a full-physics solution to the scattering problem. The three main analytical models include the Far-Field Approximation (FFA), the Self-Consistent Approximation (SCA) to the reference medium, and the herein derived Second Order Approximation (SOA). The classic Stanke and Kino model is also included, which by comparison to the SOA, reveals the importance of the distribution of length-scales described in terms of the two-point correlation function in determining scattering behavior. Further comparison with the FE model demonstrates that the FFA provides a simple but satisfactory approximation, whereas the SOA shows all-around excellent agreement. The experimental wave velocity data evaluated against the SOA and SC reveal a better agreement when the Voigt reference is used in second order models. The use of full-physics numerical simulations has enabled the study of wave behavior in these random media which will be important to inform the ongoing development of analytical models and the understanding of observations.
Shi F, Lowe M, Skelton EA, et al., 2018, A time-domain finite element boundary integral approach for elastic wave scattering, Computational Mechanics, Vol: 61, Pages: 471-483, ISSN: 0178-7675
The response of complex scatterers, such as rough or branched cracks, to incident elastic waves is required in many areas of industrial importance such as those in non-destructive evaluation and related fields; we develop an approach to generate accurate and rapid simulations. To achieve this we develop, in the time domain, an implementation to efficiently couple the finite element (FE) method within a small local region, and the boundary integral (BI) globally. The FE explicit scheme is run in a local box to compute the surface displacement of the scatterer, by giving forcing signals to excitation nodes, which can lie on the scatterer itself. The required input forces on the excitation nodes are obtained with a reformulated FE equation, according to the incident displacement field. The surface displacements computed by the local FE are then projected, through time-domain BI formulae, to calculate the scattering signals with different modes. This new method yields huge improvements in the efficiency of FE simulations for scattering from complex scatterers. We present results using different shapes and boundary conditions, all simulated using this approach in both 2D and 3D, and then compare with full FE models and theoretical solutions to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this numerical approach.
Zhang C, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, 2018, The application of the Factorization Method to the subsurface imaging of surfacebreaking cracks, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol: 65, Pages: 497-512, ISSN: 0885-3010
A common location for cracks to appear is at the surface of a component; at the near surface, many nondestructive evaluation techniques are available to inspect for these, but at the far surface this is much more challenging. Ultrasonic imaging is proposed to enable far surface defect detection, location, and characterization. One specific challenge here is the presence of a strong reflection from the backwall, which can often mask the relatively small response from a defect. In this paper, the factorization method (FM) is explored for the application of subsurface imaging of the surface-breaking cracks. In this application, the component has two parallel surfaces, the crack is initiated from the far side and the phased array is attached on the near side. Ideally, the pure scattered field from a defect is needed for the correct estimation of the scatterer through the FM algorithm. However, the presence of the backwall will introduce a strong specular reflection into the measured data which should be removed before applying the FM algorithm. A novel subtraction method was developed to remove the backwall reflection. The performance of the FM algorithm and this subtraction method were tested with the simulated and experimental data. The experimental results showed a good consistency with the simulated results. It is shown that the FM algorithm can generate high-quality images to provide a good detection of the crack and an accurate sizing of the crack length. The subtraction method was able to provide a good backwall reflection removal in the case of small cracks (1-3 wavelengths).
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2017, A multiband approach for accurate numerical simulation of frequency dependent ultrasonic wave propagation in the time domain, JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Vol: 142, Pages: 1270-1280, ISSN: 0001-4966
Finite element (FE) simulations are popular for studying propagation and scattering of ultrasonic waves in nondestructive evaluation. For a large number of degrees of freedom, time domain FE simulations are much more efficient than the equivalent frequency domain solution. However, unlike frequency domain simulations, time domain simulations are often poor at representing the speed and the attenuation of waves if the material is strongly damping or highly dispersive. Here, the authors demonstrate efficient and accurate representation of propagated and scattered waves, achieved by combining a set of time domain solutions that are obtained for a set of frequency ranges known as bands, such that, in combination, the authors' multiband solution accurately represents the whole wave spectrum. Consequently, high accuracy is achieved, at minor computational cost, using a modest number of bands. The multiband technique is implemented for ultrasonic wave propagation in highly attenuating polyethylene material, using three frequency bands, and can yield a reduction in empirical acoustic properties fractional error compared with respective time domain simulations, in propagation duration, of a factor of 1.4, and in full-width-half-maximum, of a factor of 10. Last, the accuracy of this approach is further exemplified in a wave scattering simulation.
Shi F, Lowe M, Craster R, 2017, Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation, PHYSICAL REVIEW B, Vol: 95, ISSN: 2469-9950
Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ≤λ/3, correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2017, Ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity of high-density polyethylene pipe material, JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Vol: 141, Pages: 1535-1545, ISSN: 0001-4966
Knowledge of acoustic properties is crucial for ultrasonic or sonic imaging and signal detection in nondestructive evaluation (NDE), medical imaging, and seismology. Accurately and reliably obtaining these is particularly challenging for the NDE of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), such as is used in many water or gas pipes, because the properties vary greatly with frequency, temperature, direction and spatial location. Therefore the work reported here was undertaken in order to establish a basis for such a multiparameter description. The approach is general but the study specifically addresses HDPE and includes measured data values. Applicable to any such multiparameter acoustic properties dataset is a devised regression method that uses a neural network algorithm. This algorithm includes constraints to respect the Kramers-Kronig causality relationship between speed and attenuation of waves in a viscoelastic medium. These constrained acoustic properties are fully described in a multidimensional parameter space to vary with frequency, depth, temperature, and direction. The resulting uncertainties in acoustic properties dependence on the above variables are better than 4% and 2%, respectively, for attenuation and phase velocity and therefore can prevent major defect imaging errors.
Hernando Quintanilla F, Lowe MJ, Craster RV, 2017, The symmetry and coupling properties of solutions in general anisotropic multilayer waveguides, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 141, ISSN: 0001-4966
Multilayered plate and shell structures play an important role in many engineering settings where, for instance, coated pipes are commonplace such as in the petrochemical, aerospace, and power generation industries. There are numerous demands, and indeed requirements, on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to detect defects or to measure material properties using guided waves; to choose the most suitable inspection approach, it is essential to know the properties of the guided wave solutions for any given multilayered system and this requires dispersion curves computed reliably, robustly, and accurately. Here, the circumstances are elucidated, and possible layer combinations, under which guided wave solutions, in multilayered systems composed of generally anisotropic layers in flat and cylindrical geometries, have specific properties of coupling and parity; the partial wave decomposition of the wave field is utilised to unravel the behaviour. A classification into five families is introduced and the authors claim that this is the fundamental way to approach generally anisotropic waveguides. This coupling and parity provides information to be used in the design of more efficient and robust dispersion curve tracing algorithms. A critical benefit is that the analysis enables the separation of solutions into categories for which dispersion curves do not cross; this allows the curves to be calculated simply and without ambiguity.
Van Pamel A, Sha G, Rokhlin SI, et al., 2017, Finite element modelling of elastic wave propagation and scattering within heterogeneous media, Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 473, ISSN: 1364-503X
The scattering treated here arises when elastic waves propagate within a heterogeneous medium defined by random spatial fluctuation of its elastic properties. Whereas classical analytical studies are based on lower order scattering assumptions, numerical method s conversely present no such limitations by inherently incorporating multiple scattering. Until now, studies have typically been limited to 2D or 1D however, due to computational constraints. The present article seizes recent advances to realise a Finite Element formulation which solves the 3D elastodynamic scattering problem. The general methodology is described and further developed to enable the study of fundamental scattering behaviour in terms of the scattering induced attenuation and dispersion. In particular, the example of elastic waves propagating within polycrystalline materials is adoptedby using an established Voronoi approach to randomly generate representative models. The numerically observed scattering behaviour is compared against entirely independent but well-established analytical scattering theory. The quantitative agreement is found to be excellent across previously unvisitedscattering regimes; it is believed that this is the first quantitative validation of its kind which provides significant support towards the existence of the transitional scattering regime and facilitates future deployment of numerical methods for these problems.
Leinov E, Lowe MJS, Cawley P, 2016, Investigation of guided wave propagation in pipes fully- and partially-embedded in concrete, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 140, ISSN: 1520-8524
The application of long-range guided-wave testing to pipes embedded in concrete results in unpredictable test-ranges. The influence of the circumferential extent of the embedding-concrete around a steel pipe on the guided wave propagation is investigated. An analytical model is used to study the axisymmetric fully embedded pipe case, while explicit finite-element and semi-analytical finite-element simulations are utilised to investigate a partially embedded pipe. Model predictions and simulations are compared with full-scale guided-wave tests. The transmission-loss of the T(0,1)-mode in an 8 in. steel pipe fully embedded over an axial length of 0.4 m is found to be in the range of 32–36 dB while it reduces by a factor of 5 when only 50% of the circumference is embedded. The transmission-loss in a fully embedded pipe is mainly due to attenuation in the embedded section while in a partially embedded pipe it depend strongly on the extent of mode-conversion at entry to the embedded-section; low loss modes with energy concentrated in the region of the circumference not-covered with concrete have been identified. The results show that in a fully embedded pipe, inspection beyond a short distance will not be possible, whereas when the concrete is debonded over a fraction of the pipe circumference, inspection of substantially longer lengths may be possible.
Van Pamel A, Nagy PB, Lowe MJS, 2016, On the dimensionality of elastic wave scattering within heterogeneous media, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 140, Pages: 4360-4366, ISSN: 0001-4966
Elastic waves scatter when the wavelength becomes comparable to random spatial fluctuations in the elastic properties of the propagation medium. It is postulated that within the long-wavelength Rayleigh regime, the scattering induced attenuation obeys a D = 1,2,3 dimensional dependence on wavenumber, kD+1, whilst within the shorter-wavelength stochastic regime, it becomes independent of the dimensions and thus varies as k2. These predictions are verified numerically with a recently developed finite element method in three dimensions (3D), two dimensions (2D), and one dimension (1D), for the example of ultrasonic waves propagating within polycrystalline materials. These findings are thought to be practically useful given the increasing uptake of numerical methods to study highly scattering environments which exhibit multiple scattering, but often remain limited to 2D given computational constraints. It is hoped that these results lay the groundwork for eventually producing computationally efficient 2D simulations that are representative of 3D.
Haith MI, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, 2016, Defect characterisation from limited view pipeline radiography, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 86, Pages: 186-198, ISSN: 0963-8695
This work presents a method of characterising pipeline defects using a small number of radiographs taken at different angles around the pipe. The method relies on knowledge of the setup geometry and use of multiple images, and does not require calibration objects to be included in the setup. It is aimed at use in situations where access is difficult such as in subsea pipeline inspections. Given a set of radiographs, a background subtraction method is used to extract defects in the images. Using a ray tracing algorithm and knowledge of the experimental setup, the range of possible locations of the defect in 3D space is then calculated. Constraints are applied on potential defect shapes and positions to further refine the defect range. The method is tested on simulated and experimental flat bottomed hole defects and simulated corrosion patch defects with lateral and axial sizes ranging from 12.5 to 33.8 mm and thickness between 3 mm and 16 mm. Results demonstrate a good, consistent ability to calculate lateral and axial defect dimensions to within ±3 mm of the true size. Defect thickness calculations are more difficult and as such errors are more significant. In most cases defect thickness is calculated to within 4 mm of the actual value, often closer. Errors in thickness are due to overestimation, meaning the calculation could be used to place a maximum limit on potential defect size rather than as an actual estimate of the thickness. This would still be useful, for example in deciding whether a defect requires further investigation.
Haith MI, Ewert U, Hohendorf S, et al., 2016, Radiographic modelling for NDE of subsea pipelines, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 86, Pages: 113-122, ISSN: 0963-8695
This work presents an investigation of the accuracy of a radiographic simulation model applied to subsea pipeline inspections. Experimental measurements of a sample in a water tank are used to develop a set of calibrated simulation parameters for the modelling software aRTist. Image quality parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, contrast and basic spatial resolution are compared with the aim of matching simulated values to experimental results. With this method signal-to-noise ratio was successfully matched while differences were still found in contrast-to-noise ratio comparisons. This means that measurements depending on absolute intensity are not accurate enough, however wall thickness measurements in tangential images, which are not based on absolute intensity, were found to produce similar results in simulated and experimental cases. The differences in contrast and intensity are thought to be due to detector backscatter and additional scatter from out-of-setup objects within the exposure bay, due to a lack of source collimation. These would affect the experimental results but were not included in the simulated setup. This was investigated by including different proportions of peripheral water and other objects in the modelled setup and examining the effect on image quality parameters. Results show that this additional scatter has a significant impact on the radiograph, particularly on image contrast, and is therefore the likely cause of differences between experimental and simulated images. This implies that it will be very difficult to completely match simulated to experimental results, as including all possible scattering objects in the model would be very complex. An improvement could be made by using real subsea data to estimate this additional scattering, which could then be used to calibrate the model. However there would still be significant uncertainty in the ability of the model to accurately produce realistic intensity and contrast.
Shi F, Lowe MJS, Craster RV, 2016, Recovery of correlation function of internal random rough surfaces from diffusely scattered elastic waves, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 99, Pages: 483-494, ISSN: 0022-5096
We propose an ultrasonic methodology to reconstruct the height correlation function of remotely inaccessible random rough surfaces in solids. The inverse method is based on the Kirchhoff approximation(KA), and it requires measuring the angular distribution of diffuse scattering intensities by sending in a narrow band incident pulse. Near field scattering effects are also included by considering the Fresnel assumption. The proposed approach is successfully verified by simulating the scattering from multiple realizations of rough surfaces whose correlation function is known, calculating the mean scattering intensities from these received signals, and then deploying the inverse method on these to reconstruct the original correlation function. Very good agreement between the reconstructed correlation function and the original is found, for a wide range of roughness parameters. In addition, the effect of reducing the number of realizations to approximate the mean intensity are investigated, providing confidence bounds for the experiment. An experiment on a corrugated rough surface is performed with a limited number of scans using a phased array, which further validates the proposed inversion algorithm.
Seher M, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, 2016, Experimental Studies of the Inspection of Areas With Restricted Access Using A0 Lamb Wave Tomography, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol: 63, Pages: 1455-1467, ISSN: 0885-3010
Corrosion damage in inaccessible regions presents a significant challenge to the petrochemical industry, and determining the remaining wall thickness is important to establish the remaining service life. Guided wave tomography is one solution to this and involves transmitting Lamb waves through the area of interest and, subsequently, using the received signals to reconstruct a thickness map of the remaining wall thickness. This avoids the need to access all points on the surface, making the technique well suited to inspection for areas with restricted access. The influence of these areas onto the ability to detect and size surface conditions, such as corrosion damage, using guided wave tomography is assessed. For that, a guided wave tomography system is employed, which is based on low-frequency A0 Lamb waves that are excited and detected with two arrays of electromagnetic acoustic transducers. Two different defect depths are considered with different contrasts relative to the nominal wall thickness, both of which are smoothly varying and well-defined. The influence of areas with restricted surface access, support locations, pipe clamps, and STOPAQ(R) coatings is experimentally tested, and their influence assessed through comparison to a baseline reconstruction without the respective restriction in place, demonstrating only a small influence on the detected value of the remaining wall thickness.
Craster RV, Lowe M, Shi F, et al., 2016, Diffuse scattered field of elastic waves from randomly rough surfaces using an analytical Kirchhoff theory, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 92, Pages: 260-277, ISSN: 0022-5096
We develop an elastodynamic theory to predict the diffuse scattered field ofelastic waves by randomly rough surfaces, for the first time, with the aid of theKirchhoff approximation (KA). Analytical expressions are derived incorporatingsurface statistics, to represent the expectation of the angular distribution of thediffuse intensity for different modes. The analytical solutions are successfullyverified with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, and also validated by comparisonwith experiments. We then apply the theory to quantitatively investigatethe effects of the roughness and the shear-to-compressional wave speed ratio onthe mode conversion and the scattering intensity, from low to high roughnesswithin the valid region of KA. Both the direct and the mode converted intensitiesare significantly affected by the roughness, which leads to distinct scatteringpatterns for different wave modes. The mode conversion effect is very strongaround the specular angle and it is found to increase as the surface appearsto be more rough. In addition, the 3D roughness induced coupling betweenthe out-of-plane shear horizontal (SH) mode and the in-plane modes is studied.The intensity of the SH mode is shown to be very sensitive to the out-of-planecorrelation length, being influenced more by this than by the RMS value of theroughness. However, it is found that the depolarization pattern for the diffusefield is independent of the actual value of the roughness.
Van Pamel A, Huthwaite P, Brett CR, et al., 2016, Numerical simulations of ultrasonic array imaging of highly scattering materials, NDT & E International, Vol: 81, Pages: 9-19, ISSN: 0963-8695
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