64 results found
Lu Y, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Wu L, et al., 2018, A transcriptome-wide association study among 97,898 women to identify candidate susceptibility genes for epithelial ovarian cancer risk, Cancer Research, Vol: 78, Pages: 5419-5430, ISSN: 1538-7445
Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in non-coding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian-tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P<2.2×10-6, we identified 35 genes including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z=5.08, P=3.83×10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly-associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and 3 genes remained (P<1.47 x 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.
Merritt MA, Rice MS, Barnard ME, et al., 2018, Pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis use of common analgesics and ovarian cancer prognosis (NHS/NHSII): a cohort study., Lancet Oncol, Vol: 19, Pages: 1107-1116
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women in the USA. In this study, our objective was to determine whether modifiable exposures to common analgesics outside of standard treatment influence prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) are ongoing prospective studies of 121 700 and 116 429 US nurses who have completed biennial questionnaires since 1976 and 1989, respectively. We retrieved information from medical records, death certificates, or linkage to a state or Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry on ovarian cancer cases. Eligible participants had confirmed invasive, stage I-III epithelial ovarian cancer, and had data available on analgesic use. The primary objective was to determine whether self-reported regular use (≥2 days per week) of aspirin, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or paracetamol before and after ovarian cancer diagnosis, was associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for these associations, adjusting for age and year of diagnosis, disease stage, and histology. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 1976, and May 31, 2012, for the NHS and between June 1, 1989, and May 31, 2013, for NHSII, 1789 participants of the NHS and NHSII studies were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1143 (64%) were eligible to be included in this study; 1031 (90%) of 1143 cases were included in the pre-diagnosis exposure analysis and 964 cases (84%) in the post-diagnosis exposure analysis. Compared with never-users, participants who reported recent (current use in the past 2 years) post-diagnosis use of aspirin (HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·52-0·89]) and non-aspirin NSAIDs (HR 0·67 [95% CI 0·51-0·87]) had an improved ovarian cancer-specific survival. Any type of analgesic use
Ward HA, Gayle A, Jakszyn P, et al., 2018, Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, European Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol: 27, Pages: 379-383, ISSN: 1473-5709
Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.
Cramer DW, Fichorova RN, Terry KL, et al., 2018, Anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the EPIC cohort, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 27, Pages: 790-804, ISSN: 1055-9965
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic and non-neoplastic events may raise levels of mucins, CA15.3 and CA125, and generate antibodies against them; but their impact on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk has not been fully defined. METHODS: CA15.3, CA125, and IgG1 antibodies against them were measured in 806 women who developed EOC and 1,927 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation of Nutrition and Cancer. Associations between epidemiologic factors and anti-mucin antibodies were evaluated using generalized linear models; EOC risks associated with anti-mucin antibodies, by themselves or in combination with respective antigens, were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: In controls, lower antibodies against both mucins were associated with current smoking; and, in postmenopausal women, higher levels with longer oral contraceptive use and later-age-at and shorter-interval-since last birth. Lower anti-CA15.3 antibodies were associated with higher body mass and, in premenopausal women, more ovulatory cycles. Higher anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies were associated with higher risk for mucinous EOC occurring ≥ 3 years from enrollment. Long-term risk for serous EOC was reduced in women with low CA125 and high anti-CA125 antibodies relative to women with low concentrations of both. CONCLUSIONS: We found general support for the hypothesis that anti-mucin antibody levels correlate with risk factors for EOC. Antibodies alone or in combinations with their antigen may predict longer term risk of specific EOC types. IMPACT: Anti-CA125 and anti- CA15.3 antibodies alone or in perspective of antigens may be informative in the pathogenesis of EOC subtypes, but less useful for informing risk for all EOC.
Kaaks R, Fortner RT, Hüsing A, et al., 2018, Tumor-associated autoantibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer? A prospective evaluation., International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 143, Pages: 515-526, ISSN: 0020-7136
Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53 and NUDT11 proteins, for 194 patients with ovarian cancer and 705 matched controls from the European EPIC cohort, using serum samples collected up to 36 months prior to diagnosis under usual care. CA125 was measured using electrochemo-luminiscence. Diagnostic discrimination statistics were calculated by strata of lead-time between blood collection and diagnosis. With lead times ≤6 months, ovarian cancer detection sensitivity at 0.98 specificity (SE98) varied from 0.19 [95% CI 0.08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times, the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited.
Jung S, Allen N, Arslan AA, et al., 2018, Anti-Mullerian hormone and risk of ovarian cancer in nine cohorts, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 142, Pages: 262-270, ISSN: 0020-7136
Fortner RT, Schock H, Le Cornet C, et al., 2017, Ovarian cancer early detection by circulating CA125 in the context of anti-CA125 autoantibody levels: results from the EPIC cohort, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 142, Pages: 1355-1360, ISSN: 0020-7136
CA125 is the best ovarian cancer early detection marker to date; however, sensitivity is limited and complementary markers are required to improve discrimination between ovarian cancer cases and non-cases. Anti-CA125 autoantibodies are observed in circulation. Our objective was to evaluate whether these antibodies (1) can serve as early detection markers, providing evidence of an immune response to a developing tumor, and (2) modify the discriminatory capacity of CA125 by either masking CA125 levels (resulting in lower discrimination) or acting synergistically to improve discrimination between cases and non-cases. We investigated these objectives using a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC) including 250 cases diagnosed within 4 years of blood collection and up to 4 matched controls. Circulating CA125 antigen and antibody levels were quantified using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Adjusted areas under the curve (aAUCs) by 2-year lag-time intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression calibrated towards the absolute risk estimates from a pre-existing epidemiological risk model as an offset-variable. Anti-CA125 levels alone did not discriminate cases from controls. For cases diagnosed <2 years after blood collection, discrimination by CA125 antigen was suggestively higher with higher anti-CA125 levels (aAUC, highest antibody tertile: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; lowest tertile: 0.76 [0.67-0.86]; phet =0.06). We provide the first evidence of potentially synergistic discrimination effects of CA125 and anti-CA125 antibodies in ovarian early detection. If these findings are replicated, evaluating CA125 in the context of its antibody may improve ovarian cancer early detection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Fortner RT, Schock H, Jung S, et al., 2017, Anti-Mullerian hormone and endometrial cancer: a multi-cohort study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 117, Pages: 1412-1418, ISSN: 0007-0920
Chajes V, Assi N, Biessy C, et al., 2017, A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 28, Pages: 2836-2842, ISSN: 0923-7534
BackgroundIntakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting.Materials and methodsWe assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours.ResultsA high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4–Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n–7/16:0) [OR (Q4–Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07–1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3–T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03–3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor.ConclusionThese findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic p
Ose J, Poole EM, Schock H, et al., 2017, Androgens Are Differentially Associated with Ovarian Cancer Subtypes in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium, CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 77, Pages: 3951-3960, ISSN: 0008-5472
Sarink D, Schock H, Johnson T, et al., 2017, Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype: Results from the EPIC Cohort, CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH, Vol: 10, Pages: 525-534, ISSN: 1940-6207
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case–control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+), n = 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by tumor hormone receptor status (Phet = 0.05). Higher concentrations of sRANKL were positively associated with risk of ER+ breast cancer [5th vs. 1st quintile RR 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.63); Ptrend = 0.20], but not ER− disease. For both ER+ and estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer, results considering the sRANKL/OPG ratio were similar to those for sRANKL; we observed a suggestive inverse association between the ratio and ER−PR− disease [5th vs. 1st quintile RR = 0.60 (0.31–1.14); Ptrend = 0.03]. This study provides the first large-scale prospective data on circulating sRANKL and breast cancer. We observed limited evidence for an association between sRANKL and breast cancer risk.
Nichols HB, Schoemaker MJ, Wright LB, et al., 2017, The premenopausal breast cancer collaboration: a pooling project of studies participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 26, Pages: 1360-1369, ISSN: 1055-9965
Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1-10. ©2017 AACR.
Jung S, Allen N, Arslan AA, et al., 2017, Demographic, lifestyle, and other factors in relation to antimüllerian hormone levels in mostly late premenopausal women., Fertil Steril, Vol: 107, Pages: 1012-1022.e2
OBJECTIVE: To identify reproductive, lifestyle, hormonal, and other correlates of circulating antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in mostly late premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 671 premenopausal women not known to have cancer. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Concentrations of AMH were measured in a single laboratory using the picoAMH ELISA. Multivariable-adjusted median (and interquartile range) AMH concentrations were calculated using quantile regression for several potential correlates. RESULT(S): Older women had significantly lower AMH concentrations (≥40 [n = 444] vs. <35 years [n = 64], multivariable-adjusted median 0.73 ng/mL vs. 2.52 ng/mL). Concentrations of AMH were also significantly lower among women with earlier age at menarche (<12 [n = 96] vs. ≥14 years [n = 200]: 0.90 ng/mL vs. 1.12 ng/mL) and among current users of oral contraceptives (n = 27) compared with never or former users (n = 468) (0.36 ng/mL vs. 1.15 ng/mL). Race, body mass index, education, height, smoking status, parity, and menstrual cycle phase were not significantly associated with AMH concentrations. There were no significant associations between AMH concentrations and androgen or sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations or with factors related to blood collection (e.g., sample type, time, season, and year of blood collection). CONCLUSION(S): Among premenopausal women, lower AMH concentrations are associated with older age, a younger age at menarche, and currently using oral contraceptives, suggesting these factors are related to a lower number or decreased secretory activity of ovarian follicles.
Phelan CM, Kuchenbaecker KB, Tyrer JP, et al., 2017, Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 49, Pages: 680-691, ISSN: 1061-4036
To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.
Fortner RT, Vitonis AF, Schock H, et al., 2017, Correlates of circulating ovarian cancer early detection markers and their contribution to discrimination of early detection models: results from the EPIC cohort., Journal of Ovarian Research, Vol: 10, Pages: 20-20, ISSN: 1757-2215
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer early detection markers CA125, CA15.3, HE4, and CA72.4 vary between healthy women, limiting their utility for screening. METHODS: We evaluated cross-sectional relationships between lifestyle and reproductive factors and these markers among controls (n = 1910) from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Improvements in discrimination of prediction models adjusting for correlates of the markers were evaluated among postmenopausal women in the nested case-control study (n = 590 cases). Generalized linear models were used to calculate geometric means of CA125, CA15.3, and HE4. CA72.4 above vs. below limit of detection was evaluated using logistic regression. Early detection prediction was modeled using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: CA125 concentrations were lower, and CA15.3 higher, in post- vs. premenopausal women (p ≤ 0.02). Among postmenopausal women, CA125 was higher among women with higher parity and older age at menopause (ptrend ≤ 0.02), but lower among women reporting oophorectomy, hysterectomy, ever use of estrogen-only hormone therapy, or current smoking (p < 0.01). CA15.3 concentrations were higher among heavier women and in former smokers (p ≤ 0.03). HE4 was higher with older age at blood collection and in current smokers, and inversely associated with OC use duration, parity, and older age at menopause (≤ 0.02). No associations were observed with CA72.4. Adjusting for correlates of the markers in prediction models did not improve the discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into sources of variation in ovarian cancer early detection markers in healthy women and informs about the utility of individualizing marker cutpoints based on epidemiologic factors.
Sawada N, Wark PA, Merritt MA, et al., 2017, The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), PLOS One, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting height and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult height and sitting height in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Height was measured in the majority of participants; sitting height was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease) were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of height. Height was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00–1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07–1.28). In contrast, height was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.93). Although sitting height was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55–0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49–0.74) and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40–0.89). We observed opposing effects of height on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality.
Hüsing A, Fortner RT, Kühn T, et al., 2017, Added Value of Serum Hormone Measurements in Risk Prediction Models for Breast Cancer for Women Not Using Exogenous Hormones: Results from the EPIC Cohort., Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 4181-4189, ISSN: 1557-3265
Purpose: Circulating hormone concentrations are associated with breast cancer risk, with well-established associations for postmenopausal women. Biomarkers may represent minimally invasive measures to improve risk prediction models.Experimental Design: We evaluated improvements in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from risk prediction models developed by Gail and colleagues and Pfeiffer and colleagues using a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort, including 1,217 breast cancer cases and 1,976 matched controls. Participants were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Circulating sex steroids, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-binding protein 3, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated using backward elimination separately in women pre- and postmenopausal at blood collection. Improvement in discrimination was evaluated as the change in concordance statistic (C-statistic) from a modified Gail or Pfeiffer risk score alone versus models, including the biomarkers and risk score. Internal validation with bootstrapping (1,000-fold) was used to adjust for overfitting.Results: Among women postmenopausal at blood collection, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG were selected into the prediction models. For breast cancer overall, model discrimination after including biomarkers was 5.3 percentage points higher than the modified Gail model alone, and 3.4 percentage points higher than the Pfeiffer model alone, after accounting for overfitting. Discrimination was more markedly improved for estrogen receptor-positive disease (percentage point change in C-statistic: 7.2, Gail; 4.8, Pfeiffer). We observed no improvement in discrimination among women premenopausal at blood collection.Conclusions: Integration of hormone measurements in clinical risk prediction models may represent a strategy to improve breast cancer risk stratification.
Ose J, Schock H, Poole EM, et al., 2017, Pre-diagnosis insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by histological subtypes: A collaborative re-analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium, Cancer Causes and Control, Vol: 28, Pages: 429-435, ISSN: 1573-7225
PurposeBiologic evidence suggests that the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-family may be involved in the etiology of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC). However, prospective studies investigating the role of IGF-I in ovarian carcinogenesis have yielded conflicting results.MethodsWe pooled and harmonized data from 6 case–control studies nested within the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis IGF-I concentrations and subsequent risk of EOC. We evaluated IGF-I concentrations and risk of EOC overall and by tumor subtype (defined by histology, grade, stage) in 1,270 cases and 2,907 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsDoubling of IGF-I concentration was associated with significantly lower risk of overall EOC [ORlog2 = 0.82; CI 0.72–0.93]. We observed no heterogeneity by tumor characteristics (e.g., histology, p het = 0.62), menopausal status at blood collection (p het = 0.79), or age at diagnosis (p het = 0.60).ConclusionsThese results suggest that IGF-I concentrations are inversely associated with EOC risk, independent of histological phenotype. Future prospective research should consider potential mechanisms for this association, including, considering other members of the IGF-family to better characterize the role of IGF-signaling in the etiology of EOC.
Fortner RT, Sarink D, Schock H, et al., 2017, Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort., BMC Medicine, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundCirculating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circulating OPG and breast cancer risk has been examined in only one prior study.MethodsA case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 2008 incident invasive breast cancer cases (estrogen receptor (ER)+, n = 1622; ER–, n = 386), matched 1:1 to controls, were included in the analysis. Women were predominantly postmenopausal at blood collection (77%); postmenopausal women included users and non-users of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Serum OPG was quantified with an electrochemiluminescence assay. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression.ResultsThe associations between OPG and ER+ and ER– breast cancer differed significantly. Higher concentrations of OPG were associated with increased risk of ER– breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile RR = 1.93 [95% CI 1.24–3.02]; p trend = 0.03). We observed a suggestive inverse association for ER+ disease overall and among women premenopausal at blood collection. Results for ER– disease did not differ by menopausal status at blood collection (p het = 0.97), and we observed no heterogeneity by HT use at blood collection (p het ≥ 0.43) or age at breast cancer diagnosis (p het ≥ 0.30).ConclusionsThis study provides the first prospective data on OPG and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype. High circulating OPG may represent a novel risk factor for ER– breast cancer.
Fortner RT, Husing A, Kuhn T, et al., 2017, Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers: Results from the EPIC cohort, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 140, Pages: 1317-1323, ISSN: 1097-0215
Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p<0.157 indicating improvement in the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Improvement in discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic for all biomarkers alone, and change in C-statistic from addition of biomarkers to preexisting absolute risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination.
Wentzensen N, Poole EM, Trabert B, et al., 2016, Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 2888-+, ISSN: 0732-183X
Peters SA, van der Schouw YT, Wood AM, et al., 2016, Parity, breastfeeding and risk of coronary heart disease: A pan-European case–cohort study, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol: 23, Pages: 1755-1765, ISSN: 2047-4881
OBJECTIVE: There is uncertainty about the direction and magnitude of the associations between parity, breastfeeding and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the separate and combined associations of parity and breastfeeding practices with the incidence of CHD later in life among women in a large, pan-European cohort study. METHODS: Data were used from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-CVD, a case-cohort study nested within the EPIC prospective study of 520,000 participants from 10 countries. Information on reproductive history was available for 14,917 women, including 5138 incident cases of CHD. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression separately for each country followed by a random-effects meta-analysis, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHD, after adjustment for age, study centre and several socioeconomic and biological risk factors. RESULTS: Compared with nulliparous women, the adjusted HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01-1.41) among parous women; HRs were higher among women with more children (e.g., adjusted HR: 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19-3.20) for women with five or more children). Compared with women who did not breastfeed, the adjusted HR was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.52-0.98) among women who breastfed. For childbearing women who never breastfed, the adjusted HR was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.09-2.30) compared with nulliparous women, whereas for childbearing women who breastfed, the adjusted HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.99-1.43). CONCLUSION: Having more children was associated with a higher risk of CHD later in life, whereas breastfeeding was associated with a lower CHD risk. Women who both had children and breastfed did have a non-significantly higher risk of CHD.
Merritt MA, Strickler HD, Einstein MH, et al., 2016, Insulin/IGF and Sex Hormone Axes in Human Endometrium and Associations with Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors, Cancer Causes & Control, Vol: 27, Pages: 737-748, ISSN: 1573-7225
Purpose. Experimental and observational data link insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and estrogens to endometrial tumorigenesis. However, there are limited data regarding insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes protein and gene expression in normal endometrial tissues and very few studies have examined the impact of endometrial cancer risk factors on endometrial tissue biology.Methods. We evaluated endometrial tissues from 77 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications and had provided epidemiological data. Endometrial tissue mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively.Results. In postmenopausal women, we observed higher levels of phosphorylated IGF-I/insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women (P-value=0.02), while women who reported regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use versus no use had higher levels of insulin and progesterone receptors (both P-values≤0.03). We also noted differences in pIGF1R/pIR staining with OC use (postmenopausal women only), and the proportion of estrogen receptor positive tissues varied by the number of live births and PTEN status (premenopausal only) (P-values≤0.04). Compared to premenopausal proliferative phase women, postmenopausal women exhibited lower mRNA levels of IGF1, but higher IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 expression (all P-values≤0.004), and higher protein levels of the receptors for estrogen, insulin and IGF-I (all P-values≤0.02). Conversely, pIGF1R/pIR levels were higher in premenopausal proliferative phase versus postmenopausal endometrium (P-value=0.01).Conclusions. These results highlight links between endometrial cancer risk factors and mechanistic factors that may contribute to early events in the multi-stage process of endometrial carcinogenesis.
Terry KL, Schock H, Fortner RT, et al., 2016, A prospective evaluation of early detection biomarkers for ovarian cancer in the European EPIC cohort, Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN: 1557-3265
Roura E, Travier N, Waterboer T, et al., 2016, Correction: The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort., PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147029.].
Roura E, Travier N, Waterboer T, et al., 2016, The Influence of hormonal factors on the risk of developing cervical cancer and pre-cancer: results from the EPIC cohort, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundIn addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).Methods and FindingsWe followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7).ConclusionsEven though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to cur
Merritt MA, Tzoulaki J, van den Brandt PA, et al., 2016, Nutrient-wide association study of 57 foods/nutrients and epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 103, Pages: 161-167, ISSN: 1938-3207
Background: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk.Objective: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort.Design: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs.Results: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41).Conclusion: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.
Obon-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Travis RC, et al., 2015, Acrylamide and Glycidamide Hemoglobin Adducts and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in Nonsmoking Postmenopausal Women from the EPIC Cohort, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol: 25, Pages: 127-134, ISSN: 1538-7755
Background: Acrylamide was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case–control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.Methods: A nested case–control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.Results: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96–3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94–3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose–response trends were observed.Conclusion: This EPIC nested case–control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.Impact: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.
Bešević J, Gunter MJ, Fortner RT, et al., 2015, Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study., British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 113, Pages: 1622-1631, ISSN: 1532-1827
BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521 330 total participants (approximately 370 000 women) aged 25-70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000. METHODS: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (±3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62-1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (⩾5 years use vs never use, HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50-0.99, Ptrend=0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 10 November 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.377 www.bjcancer.com.
Ose J, Fortner RT, Schock H, et al., 2015, Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumour characteristics: results from the EPIC cohort, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 112, Pages: 162-166, ISSN: 1532-1827
Background: Prospective studies on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk are inconclusive.Data suggest risk associations vary by tumour characteristics.Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)to evaluate IGF-I concentrations and EOC risk by tumour characteristics (n ¼ 565 cases). Multivariable conditional logisticregression models were used to estimate associations.Results: We observed no association between IGF-I and EOC overall or by tumour characteristics.Conclusions: In the largest prospective study to date was no association between IGF-I and EOC risk. Pre-diagnostic serumIGF-I concentrations may not influence EOC risk.
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