273 results found
Cookson WOCM, Moffatt MF, 2020, In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: Microbial Misplacement and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 201, Pages: 506-507, ISSN: 1073-449X
Groves HT, Higham SL, Moffatt MF, et al., Respiratory viral infection alters the gut microbiota by inducing inappetence, mBio, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2150-7511
Respiratory viral infections are extremely common, but their impacts on the composition and function of the gut microbiota are poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here, we show that weight loss during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that the fasting of mice altered gut microbiota composition independently of infection. While the acute phase tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, the depletion of CD8+ cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss, resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the fecal gut metabolome, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate were all increased in abundance in the fecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota are part of a protective anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined.
Zhu Z, Guo Y, Shi H, et al., 2020, Shared genetic and experimental links between obesity-related traits and asthma subtypes in UK Biobank, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 537-549, ISSN: 0091-6749
Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, Molyneaux PL, et al., 2019, Utility of nuclear grading system in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma in biopsy-heavy setting, The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0147-5185
Nuclear grading systems for epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been proposed but it remains uncertain if they could be applied in a biopsy-heavy setting. Using the proposed system, we conducted an independent, external validation study using 563 consecutive cases of epithelioid MPM diagnosed at our institution between 2003 and 2017, of which 87% of patients underwent biopsies only. The median number of sites sampled was 1, with a median maximum tissue dimension of 17 mm (biopsy) and 150 mm (resection). The median overall survival (OS) was 14.7 months. The frequencies of grade I, II, and III tumors were 31% (132/563), 52% (292/563), and 17% (94/563). Grade I tumors were associated with the most favorable median OS (24.7 mo) followed by grades II (12.7 mo) and III (7.2 mo). The 2-tier nuclear grade separated tumors into low grade (19.3 mo) and high grade (8.9 mo). In multivariate analysis, 3-tier nuclear grade, 2-tier nuclear grade, and mitosis-necrosis score predicted OS independent of age, procedural type, solid-predominant growth pattern, necrosis, and atypical mitosis (all P<0.001 except 2-tier nuclear grade, P=0.001). In the scenario of a single- site biopsy with tissue dimension ≤10 mm, none but age (P=0.002) were independently predictive. Our data also suggested sampling 3 sites or a maximum tissue dimension of at least 20 mm from a single site is optimal for nuclear grade assessment. In conclusion our study confirmed the utility of nuclear grade in epithelioid MPM using a biopsy-heavy cohort provided the tissue sample met minimum dimensional criteria.
Hoang LT, Domingo-Sabugo C, Starren ES, et al., 2019, Metabolomic, transcriptomic and genetic integrative analysis reveals important roles of adenosine diphosphate in haemostasis and platelet activation in non-small-cell lung cancer, Molecular Oncology, Vol: 13, Pages: 2406-2421, ISSN: 1574-7891
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‐related deaths in the world. The most prevalent subtype, accounting for 85% of cases, is non‐small‐cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are the most common subtypes. Despite recent advances in treatment, the low 5‐year survival rate of NSCLC patients (approximately 13%) reflects the lack of early diagnostic biomarkers and incomplete understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. We hypothesized that integration of metabolomic, transcriptomic and genetic profiles of tumours and matched normal tissues could help to identify important factors and potential therapeutic targets that contribute to tumorigenesis. We integrated omics profiles in tumours and matched adjacent normal tissues of patients with LUSC (N = 20) and LUAD (N = 17) using multiple system biology approaches. We confirmed the presence of previously described metabolic pathways in NSCLC, particularly those mediating the Warburg effect. In addition, through our combined omics analyses we found that metabolites and genes that contribute to haemostasis, angiogenesis, platelet activation and cell proliferation were predominant in both subtypes of NSCLC. The important roles of adenosine diphosphate in promoting cancer metastasis through platelet activation and angiogenesis suggest this metabolite could be a potential therapeutic target.
Domingo-Sabugo C, Starren E, Mandal A, et al., 2019, Comprehensive Molecular Profiling and Comparison of Common and Rarer Subtypes of Lung Cancer, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S686-S686, ISSN: 1556-0864
Januszewski A, Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, et al., 2019, Correlation of Mutations in TP53, CDKN2A and PIK3CA with VISTA Expression in Pleomorphic Lung Carcinoma, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S465-S466, ISSN: 1556-0864
Nastase A, Mandal A, Lu SK, et al., 2019, Low Number of Mutations and Frequent Co-Deletions of CDKN2A and IFN Type I Characterize Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S345-S345, ISSN: 1556-0864
Mandal A, Nastase A, Lu SK, et al., 2019, Analysis of Immune Phenotype Composition in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) Using Bulk RNA Sequencing, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S345-S346, ISSN: 1556-0864
Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, Rice A, et al., 2019, WDPM-Like but Not Cribriform as Secondary Growth Patterns Modify Survival in Epithelioid Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S480-S481, ISSN: 1556-0864
Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, Rice A, et al., 2019, Growth Patterns in Epithelioid Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Clinicopathological Review of 614 Cases Over 15 Years, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S295-S296, ISSN: 1556-0864
Hoang L, Domingo-Sabugo C, Starren E, et al., 2019, Integrative Omics Analysis Reveals Important Roles of Adenosine Diphosphate in Haemostasis and Platelet Activation in NSCLC, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S419-S419, ISSN: 1556-0864
Sugier P-E, Sarnowski C, Granell R, et al., 2019, Genome-wide interaction study of early-life smoking exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood, Clinical and Experimental Allergy, Vol: 49, Pages: 1342-1351, ISSN: 0954-7894
BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset, results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Early-life tobacco smoke (ELTS) exposure is a major asthma risk factor. Only a few genetic loci have been reported to interact with ELTS exposure in asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify new loci interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset (TAO) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide interaction analyses of ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood in five European-ancestry studies (totaling 8,273 subjects) using Cox proportional-hazard model. The results of all five genome-wide analyses were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: The 13q21 locus showed genome-wide significant interaction with ELTS exposure (P=4.3x10-8 for rs7334050 within KLHL1 with consistent results across the five studies). Suggestive interactions (P<5x10-6 ) were found at three other loci: 20p12 (rs13037508 within MACROD2; P=4.9x10-7 ), 14q22 (rs7493885 near NIN; P=2.9x10-6 ) and 2p22 (rs232542 near CYP1B1; P=4.1x10-6 ). Functional annotations and the literature showed that the lead SNPs at these four loci influence DNA methylation in the blood and are located nearby CpG sites reported to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke components, which strongly support our findings. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We identified novel candidate genes interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood. These genes have plausible biological relevance related to tobacco smoke exposure. Further epigenetic and functional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Singanayagam A, Glanville N, Cuthbertson L, et al., 2019, Inhaled corticosteroid suppression of cathelicidin drives dysbiosis and bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1946-6234
Bacterial infection commonly complicates inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanisms of increased infection susceptibility and how use of the commonly prescribed therapy inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) accentuates pneumonia risk in COPD are poorly understood. Here, using analysis of samples from patients with COPD, we show that ICS use is associated with lung microbiota disruption leading to proliferation of streptococcal genera, an effect that could be recapitulated in ICS-treated mice. To study mechanisms underlying this effect, we used cellular and mouse models of streptococcal expansion with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important pathogen in COPD, to demonstrate that ICS impairs pulmonary clearance of bacteria through suppression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin. ICS impairment of pulmonary immunity was dependent on suppression of cathelicidin because ICS had no effect on bacterial loads in mice lacking cathelicidin (Camp-/-) and exogenous cathelicidin prevented ICS-mediated expansion of streptococci within the microbiota and improved bacterial clearance. Suppression of pulmonary immunity by ICS was mediated by augmentation of the protease cathepsin D. Collectively, these data suggest a central role for cathepsin D/cathelicidin in the suppression of antibacterial host defense by ICS in COPD. Therapeutic restoration of cathelicidin to boost antibacterial immunity and beneficially modulate the lung microbiota might be an effective strategy in COPD.
Wilkinson S, Hodgson U, Honti F, et al., 2019, The application of targeted sequencing and whole exome analysis to identify disease-causing variants in familial pulmonary fibrosis, 51st Conference of the European-Society-of-Human-Genetics (ESHG) in conjunction with the European Meeting on Psychosocial Aspects of Genetics (EMPAG), Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: 83-84, ISSN: 1018-4813
Ciano M, Mantellato G, Connolly M, et al., 2019, EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition promotes a slow-twitch oxidative, over a fast-twitch, muscle phenotype, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
A low quadriceps slow-twitch (ST), oxidative (relative to fast-twitch) fiber proportion is prevalent in chronic diseases such Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is associated with exercise limitation and poor outcomes. Benefits of an increased ST fiber proportion are demonstrated in genetically modified animals. Pathway analysis of published data of differentially expressed genes in mouse ST and FT fibers, mining of our microarray data and a qPCR analysis of quadriceps specimens from COPD patients and controls were performed. ST markers were quantified in C2C12 myotubes with EGF-neutralizing antibody, EGFR inhibitor or an EGFR-silencing RNA added. A zebrafish egfra mutant was generated by genome editing and ST fibers counted. EGF signaling was (negatively) associated with the ST muscle phenotype in mice and humans, and muscle EGF transcript levels were raised in COPD. In C2C12 myotubes, EGFR inhibition/silencing increased ST, including mitochondrial, markers. In zebrafish, egfra depletion increased ST fibers and mitochondrial content. EGF is negatively associated with ST muscle phenotype in mice, healthy humans and COPD patients. EGFR blockade promotes the ST phenotype in myotubes and zebrafish embryos. EGF signaling suppresses the ST phenotype, therefore EGFR inhibitors may be potential treatments for COPD-related muscle ST fiber loss.
Groves H, Higham S, Moffatt M, et al., 2019, Respiratory viral infection alters the gut microbiota by inducing inappetence, Publisher: bioRxiv
Abstract The gut microbiota has an important role in health and disease. Respiratory viral infections are extremely common but their impact on the composition and function of the gut microbiota is poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here we show that weight loss during Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that fasting mice independently of infection altered gut microbiota composition. While the acute phase TNF-α response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, depleting CD8 + cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the faecal gut metabolome during RSV infection, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate all increased in abundance in the faecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this, and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota, are part of a protective, anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined.
Januszewski A, Zhang YZ, Chang W-C, et al., 2019, Impact of MET variants on PD-L1 expression in pleomorphic lung carcinoma, European Lung Cancer Congress (ELCC), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0923-7534
Ahmed B, Cox M, Cuthbertson L, et al., 2019, Longitudinal development of the airway microbiota in infants with cystic fibrosis, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
The pathogenesis of airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly understood. We performed a longitudinal study coupling clinical information with frequent sampling of the microbiota to identify changes in the airway microbiota in infancy that could underpin deterioration and potentially be targeted therapeutically. Thirty infants with CF diagnosed on newborn screening (NBS) were followed for up to two years. Two hundred and forty one throat swabs were collected as a surrogate for lower airway microbiota (median 35 days between study visits) in the largest longitudinal study of the CF oropharyngeal microbiota. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene were performed. Data analyses were conducted in QIIME and Phyloseq in R. Streptococcus spp. and Haemophilus spp. were the most common genera (55% and 12.5% of reads respectively) and were inversely related. Only beta (between sample) diversity changed with age (Bray Curtis r2 = 0.15, P = 0.03). Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were rarely detected. These results suggest that Streptococcus spp. and Haemophilus spp., may play an important role in early CF. Whether they are protective against infection with more typical CF micro-organisms, or pathogenic and thus meriting treatment needs to be determined.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Normal airway microbial communities play a central role in respiratory health but are poorly characterized. Cigarette smoking is the dominant global environmental influence on lung function, and asthma has become the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide. Both conditions have major microbial components that are also poorly defined.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We investigated airway bacterial communities in a general population sample of 529 Australian adults. Posterior oropharyngeal swabs were analysed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and methionine aminopeptidase genes. The microbiota were characterised according to their prevalence, abundance, and network memberships.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Microbial communities were similar across the population and were strongly organized into co-abundance networks. Smoking associated with diversity loss, negative effects on abundant taxa, profound alterations to network structure and expansion of <jats:italic>Streptococcus</jats:italic> spp. By contrast, the asthmatic microbiota were selectively affected by an increase in <jats:italic>Neisseria</jats:italic> spp. and by reduced numbers of low abundance but prevalent organisms.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Interpretation</jats:title><jats:p>Our study shows healthy airway microbiota are contained within a highly structured ecosystem, indicating balanced relationships between the microbiome and human host factors. The marked abnormalities in smokers may be pathogenic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. The narrow spectrum of abnormalities in asthmatics encourages investigation of damaging and
Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, et al., 2019, Author Correction: Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza., Nature Immunology, Vol: 20, Pages: 373-373, ISSN: 1529-2908
In the version of this article initially published, a source of funding was not included in the Acknowledgements section. That section should include the following: P.J.M.O. was supported by EU FP7 PREPARE project 602525. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
Wootton DG, Cox MJ, Gloor GB, et al., 2019, A haemophilus sp. dominates the microbiota of sputum from UK adults with non-severe community acquired pneumonia and chronic lung disease, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
The demographics and comorbidities of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) vary enormously but stratified treatment is difficult because aetiological studies have failed to comprehensively identify the pathogens. Our aim was to describe the bacterial microbiota of CAP and relate these to clinical characteristics in order to inform future trials of treatment stratified by co-morbidity. CAP patients were prospectively recruited at two UK hospitals. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the dominant bacteria in sputum and compositional data analysis to determine associations with patient characteristics. We analysed sputum samples from 77 patients and found a Streptococcus sp. and a Haemophilus sp. were the most relatively abundant pathogens. The Haemophilus sp. was more likely to be dominant in patients with pre-existing lung disease, and its relative abundance was associated with qPCR levels of Haemophilus influenzae. The most abundant Streptococcus sp. was associated with qPCR levels of Streptococcus pneumoniae but dominance could not be predicted from clinical characteristics. These data suggest chronic lung disease influences the microbiota of sputum in patients with CAP. This finding could inform a trial of stratifying empirical CAP antibiotics to target Haemophilus spp. in addition to Streptococcus spp. in those with chronic lung disease.
Zhang Y, Willis-Owen S, Spiegel S, et al., 2019, The ORMDL3 asthma gene regulates ICAM1 and has multiple effects on cellular inflammation, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 199, Pages: 478-488, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Polymorphisms on chromosome 17q21 confer the major genetic susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma. Risk alleles positively correlate with ORMDL3 expression. The locus influences disease severity and the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV) initiated exacerbations. ORMDL3 is known to regulate sphingolipid synthesis by binding serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), but its role in inflammation is incompletely understood. Objectives: To investigate the role of ORMDL3 in cellular inflammation. Methods: We modelled time-series of IL1B-induced inflammation in A549 cells, using cytokine production as outputs and testing effects of ORMDL3 siRNA knockdown, ORMDL3 overexpression, and the SPT inhibitor myriocin. We replicated selected findings in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Cytokine and metabolite levels were analysed by ANOVA. Transcript abundances were analysed by group means parameterisation, controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) below 0.05. Measurements and Main Results: Silencing ORMDL3 led to steroid-independent reduction of IL6 and IL8 release and reduced ER stress after IL1B. Overexpression and myriocin conversely augmented cytokine release. Knockdown reduced expression of genes regulating host-pathogen interactions, stress responses and ubiquitination: in particular ORMDL3 knockdown strongly reduced expression of the HRV receptor ICAM1. Silencing led to changes in levels of transcripts and metabolites integral to glycolysis. Increased levels of ceramides and the immune mediator sphingosine-1-P (S1P) were also observed. Conclusions: The results show ORMDL3 has pleiotropic effects during cellular inflammation, consistent with its substantial genetic influence on childhood asthma. Actions on ICAM1 provide a mechanism for the locus to confer susceptibility to HRV-induced asthma.
Cuthbertson L, Oo SWC, Cox MJ, et al., 2019, Viral respiratory infections and the oropharyngeal bacterial microbiota in acutely wheezing children., PLoS One, Vol: 14
Acute viral wheeze in children is a major cause of hospitalisation and a major risk factor for the development of asthma. However, the role of the respiratory tract microbiome in the development of acute wheeze is unclear. To investigate whether severe wheezing episodes in children are associated with bacterial dysbiosis in the respiratory tract, oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 109 children with acute wheezing attending the only tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Australia. The bacterial community from these samples was explored using next generation sequencing and compared to samples from 75 non-wheezing controls. No significant difference in bacterial diversity was observed between samples from those with wheeze and healthy controls. Within the wheezing group, attendance at kindergarten or preschool was however, associated with increased bacterial diversity. Rhinovirus (RV) infection did not have a significant effect on bacterial community composition. A significant difference in bacterial richness was observed between children with RV-A and RV-C infection, however this is likely due to the differences in age group between the patient cohorts. The bacterial community within the oropharynx was found to be diverse and heterogeneous. Age and attendance at day care or kindergarten were important factors in driving bacterial diversity. However, wheeze and viral infection were not found to significantly relate to the bacterial community. Bacterial airway microbiome is highly variable in early life and its role in wheeze remains less clear than viral influences.
Cowman SA, James P, Wilson R, et al., 2018, Profiling mycobacterial communities in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
The diagnosis of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (pNTM) is dependent on the isolation of NTM in culture, which is prone to overgrowth and contamination and may not capture the diversity of mycobacteria present, including rare or unidentified species. This study aimed to develop a culture independent method of detecting and identifying mycobacteria from sputum samples using partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene. DNA was extracted from sputum samples from subjects with pNTM and disease controls. Multiplexed partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene was performed using the Illumina MiSeq and custom primers. A reference database of hsp65 sequences was created for taxonomy assignment. Sequencing results were obtained from 42 subjects (31 cases, 11 controls). Mycobacterial sequences were identified in all subjects. In 90.5% of samples more than one species was found (median 5.5). The species isolated in culture was detected by sequencing in 81% of subjects and was the most abundant species in 62%. The sequencing of NTM from clinical samples reveals a far greater diversity than conventional culture and suggests NTM are present as communities rather than a single species. NTM were found to be present even in the absence of isolation in culture or clinical disease.
Januszewski A, Zhang YZ, Chang W, et al., 2018, Heterogeneity in MET Copy Number and Intratumoural Subsets in Pleomorphic Lung Carcinoma: Implications for MET Directed Therapy in NSCLC, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S430-S430, ISSN: 1556-0864
Zhang YZ, Adefila-Ideozu T, Bowman A, et al., 2018, Differentiating Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma from Pleomorphic Carcinoma and Chest Wall Sarcoma Using GATA-3/MUC4/BAP1 IHC, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S758-S759, ISSN: 1556-0864
Garcia AD, Lidwien AMS, Bossers A, et al., 2018, Indoor airborne microbiota composition associated with asthma and atopy in rural children, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Tregoning JS, Mallia P, Webber J, et al., 2018, Role of airway glucose in bacterial infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 142, Pages: 815-823.e6, ISSN: 0091-6749
BackgroundPatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, which contributes to disease progression and mortality, but mechanisms of increased susceptibility to infection remain unclear.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether glucose concentrations were increased in airway samples (nasal lavage fluid, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from patients with stable COPD and to determine the effects of viral infection on sputum glucose concentrations and how airway glucose concentrations relate to bacterial infection.MethodsWe measured glucose concentrations in airway samples collected from patients with stable COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function. Glucose concentrations were measured in patients with experimentally induced COPD exacerbations, and these results were validated in patients with naturally acquired COPD exacerbations. Relationships between sputum glucose concentrations, inflammatory markers, and bacterial load were examined.ResultsSputum glucose concentrations were significantly higher in patients with stable COPD compared with those in control subjects without COPD. In both experimental virus-induced and naturally acquired COPD exacerbations, sputum and nasal lavage fluid glucose concentrations were increased over baseline values. There were significant correlations between sputum glucose concentrations and sputum inflammatory markers, viral load, and bacterial load. Airway samples with higher glucose concentrations supported more Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in vitro.ConclusionsAirway glucose concentrations are increased in patients with stable COPD and further increased during COPD exacerbations. Increased airway glucose concentrations might contribute to bacterial infections in both patients with stable and those with exacerbated COPD. This has important implications for the development of nonantibiotic therapeutic strategies for the prev
Willis-Owen SAG, Thompson AR, Kemp P, et al., 2018, COPD is accompanied by co-ordinated transcriptional perturbation in the quadriceps affecting the mitochondria and extracellular matrix, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a frequent extra-pulmonary manifestation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with implications for both quality of life and survival. The underlying biology nevertheless remains poorly understood. We measured global gene transcription in the quadriceps using Affymetrix HuGene1.1ST arrays in an unselected cohort of 79 stable COPD patients in secondary care and 16 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We detected 1,826 transcripts showing COPD-related variation. Eighteen exhibited ≥2fold changes (SLC22A3, FAM184B, CDKN1A, FST, LINC01405, MUSK, PANX1, ANKRD1, C12orf75, MYH1, POSTN, FRZB, TNC, ACTC1, LINC00310, MYH3, MYBPH and AREG). Thirty-one transcripts possessed previous reported evidence of involvement in COPD through genome-wide association, including FAM13A. Network analysis revealed a substructure comprising 6 modules of co-expressed genes. We identified modules with mitochondrial and extracellular matrix features, of which IDH2, a central component of the mitochondrial antioxidant pathway, and ABI3BP, a proposed switch between proliferation and differentiation, represent hubs respectively. COPD is accompanied by coordinated patterns of transcription in the quadriceps involving the mitochondria and extracellular matrix and including genes previously implicated in primary disease processes.
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