Imperial College London

Prof Milo Shaffer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Materials Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 5825m.shaffer Website




Mr John Murrell +44 (0)20 7594 2845




M221Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Au, H and Rubio, N and Buckley, DJ and Mattevi, C and Shaffer, MSP},
doi = {10.1002/chem.202000422},
journal = {Chemistry: A European Journal},
pages = {6545--6553},
title = {Thermal decomposition of ternary sodium graphite intercalation compounds},
url = {},
volume = {26},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are often used to produce exfoliated or functionalised graphene related materials (GRMs) in a specific solvent. This study explores the formation of the Na-tetrahydrofuran (THF)-GIC and a new ternary system based on dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Detailed comparisons of in situ temperature dependent XRD with TGA-MS and Raman measurements reveal a series of dynamic transformations during heating. Surprisingly, the bulk of the intercalation compound is stable under ambient conditions, trapped between the graphene sheets. The heating process drives a reorganisation of the solvent and Na molecules, then an evaporation of the solvent; however, the solvent loss is arrested by restacking of the graphene layers, leading to trapped solvent bubbles. Eventually, the bubbles rupture, releasing the remaining solvent and creating expanded graphite. These trapped dopants may provide useful property enhancements, but also potentially confound measurements of grafting efficiency in liquid-phase covalent functionalization experiments on 2D materials.
AU - Au,H
AU - Rubio,N
AU - Buckley,DJ
AU - Mattevi,C
AU - Shaffer,MSP
DO - 10.1002/chem.202000422
EP - 6553
PY - 2020///
SN - 0947-6539
SP - 6545
TI - Thermal decomposition of ternary sodium graphite intercalation compounds
T2 - Chemistry: A European Journal
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 26
ER -