Imperial College London

Prof Milo Shaffer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Materials Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 5825m.shaffer Website




Mr John Murrell +44 (0)20 7594 2845




M221Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Sehmi, SK and Lourenco, C and Alkhuder, K and Pike, SD and Noimark, S and Williams, CK and Shaffer, MSP and Parkin, IP and MacRobert, AJ and Allan, E},
doi = {10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00279},
journal = {ACS Infectious Diseases},
pages = {939--946},
title = {Antibacterial surfaces with activity against antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens and endospores},
url = {},
volume = {6},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Hospital-acquired bacterial infections are a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide causing an increased duration of hospital stays and prolonged patient suffering. We show that polyurethane containing crystal violet (CV) and 3–4 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) possesses excellent bactericidal activity against hospital-acquired pathogens including multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and even highly resistant endospores of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile. Importantly, we used clinical isolates of bacterial strains, a protocol to mimic the environmental conditions of a real exposure in the healthcare setting, and low light intensity equivalent to that encountered in UK hospitals (∼500 lux). Our data shows that ZnO NPs enhance the photobactericidal activity of CV under low intensity light even with short exposure times, and we show that this involves both Type I and Type II photochemical pathways. Interestingly, polyurethane containing ZnO NPs alone showed significant bactericidal activity in the dark against one strain of E. coli, indicating that the NPs possess both light-activated synergistic activity with CV and inherent bactericidal activity that is independent of light. These new antibacterial polymers are potentially useful in healthcare facilties to reduce the transmission of pathogens between people and the environment.
AU - Sehmi,SK
AU - Lourenco,C
AU - Alkhuder,K
AU - Pike,SD
AU - Noimark,S
AU - Williams,CK
AU - Shaffer,MSP
AU - Parkin,IP
AU - MacRobert,AJ
AU - Allan,E
DO - 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00279
EP - 946
PY - 2020///
SN - 2373-8227
SP - 939
TI - Antibacterial surfaces with activity against antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens and endospores
T2 - ACS Infectious Diseases
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 6
ER -