Imperial College London

Professor Molly Stevens

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Materials

Professor of Biomedical Materials and Regenerative Medicine



+44 (0)20 7594 6804m.stevens




208Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Mahat, MM and Mawad, D and Nelson, GW and Fearn, S and Palgrave, RG and Payne, DJ and Stevens, MM},
doi = {10.1039/c5tc01038a},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry C},
pages = {7180--7186},
title = {Elucidating the deprotonation of polyaniline films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy},
url = {},
volume = {3},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Spin-coated polyaniline (PANI) thin films can be made conductive following treatment with a dopant (reducing or oxidising agent). However, de-doping results in loss of electrical properties. We chemically doped PANI films using p-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and examined their ability to retain these dopants and their conductive properties in physiological media. Changes in the protonation level of these films were assessed by N 1s core line spectra in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PANI films were found to de-dope with a decrease in the ratio of N 1s photoelectron signal corresponding to positively charged nitrogen (i.e. –NH2+, [double bond, length as m-dash]NH+) to the total N 1s signal. De-doping of PANI films was confirmed by depletion of the dopant fragment (–SO3−) as determined from both XPS and atomic distribution in Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) images. XPS has been successfully used as a tool to elucidate the deprotonation of PANI films and the loss of the dopant from the bulk.
AU - Mahat,MM
AU - Mawad,D
AU - Nelson,GW
AU - Fearn,S
AU - Palgrave,RG
AU - Payne,DJ
AU - Stevens,MM
DO - 10.1039/c5tc01038a
EP - 7186
PY - 2015///
SN - 2050-7526
SP - 7180
TI - Elucidating the deprotonation of polyaniline films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
T2 - Journal of Materials Chemistry C
UR -
UR -
VL - 3
ER -