405 results found
Hawkes AD, Staffell I, Bergman N, et al., 2010, A Change of Scale? Prospects for Distributed Energy Resources, Energy 2050, Editors: Skea, Ekins, Winskel, London, UK, Publisher: Earthscan
Shearing PR, Bradley RS, Gelb J, et al., 2012, Exploring microstructural changes associated with oxidation in Ni-YSZ SOFC electrodes using high resolution X-ray computed tomography, SOLID STATE IONICS, Vol: 216, Pages: 69-72, ISSN: 0167-2738
Brandon N, 2012, Can we kick our petrol pump habit?, MATERIALS TODAY, Vol: 15, Pages: 182-182, ISSN: 1369-7021
Brightman E, Maher R, Offer GJ, et al., 2012, Designing a miniaturised heated stage for in situ optical measurements of solid oxide fuel cell electrode surfaces, and probing the oxidation of solid oxide fuel cell anodes using in situ Raman spectroscopy, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Vol: 83, ISSN: 0034-6748
Lorente E, Millan M, Brandon NP, 2012, Use of gasification syngas in SOFC: Impact of real tar on anode materials, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 37, Pages: 7271-7278, ISSN: 0360-3199
Somalu MR, Brandon NP, 2012, Rheological Studies of Nickel/Scandia-Stabilized-Zirconia Screen Printing Inks for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Fabrication, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 95, Pages: 1220-1228, ISSN: 0002-7820
Offer GJ, Yufit V, Howey DA, et al., 2012, Module design and fault diagnosis in electric vehicle batteries, Journal of Power Sources
Systems integration issues, such as electrical and thermal design and management of full battery packs–often containing hundreds of cells–have been rarely explored in the academic literature. In this paper we discuss the design and construction of a 9 kWh battery pack for a motorsports application. The pack contained 504 lithium cells arranged into 2 sidepods, each containing 3 modules, with each module in a 12P7S configuration. This paper focuses particularly on testing the full battery pack and diagnosing subsequent problems related to cells being connected in parallel. We demonstrate how a full vehicle test can be used to identify malfunctioning strings of cells for further investigation. After individual cell testing it was concluded that a single high inter-cell contact resistance was causing currents to flow unevenly within the pack, leading to cells being unequally worked. This is supported by a Matlab/Simulink model of one battery module, including contact resistances. Over time the unequal current flowing through cells can lead to significant differences in cells’ state of charge and open circuit voltages, large currents flowing between cells even when the load is disconnected, cells discharging and aging more quickly than others, and jeopardise capacity and lifetime of the pack.
Wu B, Offer GJ, Yufit V, et al., 2012, Fault analysis in battery module design for electric and hybrid vehicles, Power Electronics, Machines and Drive
Brett DJL, Manage M, Agante E, et al., 2012, Fuels and fuel processing for low temperature fuel cells, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology: Fundamentals and Performance of Low Temperature Fuel Cells, Pages: 3-26, ISBN: 9781845697730
This chapter examines the role of the fuel in the operation, performance and degradation of fuel cells. The range of fuels and impurities that are of relevance to low-temperature fuel cells are discussed and the performance from a thermodynamic perspective is analysed. As a route to hydrogen, various fuel processing options are considered along with an overview of the major storage techniques. Issues associated with alternative fuels are covered along with the deleterious properties of fuels and their impurities. © 2012 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.
Cai Q, Haw AWV, Adjiman CS, et al., 2012, Hydrogen production through steam electrolysis: a model-based study, 22nd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 257-261, ISSN: 1570-7946
Lorf C, Martinez-Botas RF, Brandon N, 2012, 26,500km down the Pan-American Highway in an electric vehicle a battery's perspective, SAE Technical Papers, Vol: 1, Pages: 19-26, ISSN: 2167-4191
This paper presents a novel battery degradation model based on empirical data from the Racing Green Endurance project. Using the rainflow-counting algorithm, battery charge and discharge data from an electric vehicle has been studied in order to establish more reliable and more accurate predictions for capacity and power fade of automotive traction batteries than those currently available. It is shown that for the particular lithium-iron phosphate (LiFePO) batteries, capacity fade is 5.8% after 87 cycles. After 3,000 cycles it is estimated to be 32%. Both capacity and power fade strongly depend on cumulative energy throughput, maximum C-rate as well as temperature. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.
Shearing PR, Brandon NP, Gelb J, et al., 2012, Multi Length Scale Microstructural Investigations of a Commercially Available Li-Ion Battery Electrode, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 159, Pages: A1023-A1027, ISSN: 0013-4651
Brett DJL, Agante E, Brandon NP, et al., 2012, The role of the fuel in the operation, performance and degradation of fuel cells, Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications, Pages: 249-278, ISBN: 9780857090591
This chapter examines the role of the fuel in the operation, performance and degradation of fuel cells. The range of fuels that are of relevance to fuel cells are discussed and the performance from a thermodynamic perspective is analysed. As a route to hydrogen, various fuel processing options are considered along with an overview of the major storage techniques. Issues associated with alternative fuels are covered along with the deleterious properties of fuels and their impurities. © 2012 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.
Liu YH, Brandon NP, Liu M, 2012, Electrical models of SOFC for Power Generation, Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2157-4839
Heat pumps are a promising technology for heating (and cooling) domestic buildings that provide exceptionally high efficiencies compared with fossil fuel combustion. There are in the region of a billion heat pumps in use world-wide, but despite their maturity they are a relatively new technology to many regions. This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies and the practical issues faced when installing and operating them. It focuses on the performance obtained in real-world operation, surveying the published efficiency figures for hundreds of air source and ground source heat pumps (ASHP and GSHP), and presenting a method to relate these to results from recent UK and German field trials. It also covers commercial aspects of the technologies, the typical savings in primary energy usage, carbon dioxide emissions abatement that can be realised, and wider implications of their uptake.
Ang SMC, Brett DJL, Staffell I, et al., 2012, Design of fuel-cell micro-cogeneration systems through modeling and optimization, WIREs Energy and Environment, Vol: 1, Pages: 181-193
Cai Q, Adjiman CS, Brandon NP, 2011, Investigation of the active thickness of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes using a 3D microstructure model, Electrochimica Acta, Vol: 56, Pages: 10809-10819, ISSN: 0013-4686
A 3D microstructure model is used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode on its performance. The 3D microstructure model, which is based on 3D Monte Carlo packing of spherical particles of different types, can be used to handle different particle sizes and generate a heterogeneous network of the composite materials from which a range of microstructural properties can be calculated, including phase volume fraction, percolation and three phase boundary (TPB) length. The electrode model can also be used to perform transport and electrochemical modelling such that the performance of the synthetic electrode can be predicted. The dependence of the active electrode thickness, i.e. the region of the anode, which is electrochemically active, on operating over-potential, electrode composition and particle size is observed. Operating the electrode at an over-potential of above 200 mV results in a decrease in the active thickness with increasing over-potential. Reducing the particle size dramatically enhances the percolating TPB density and thus the performance of the electrode at smaller thicknesses; a smaller active thickness is found with electrodes made of smaller particles. Distributions of local current generation throughout the electrode reveal the heterogeneity of the 3D microstructure at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the dominant current generation in the vicinity of this interface. The active electrode thickness predicted using the model ranges from 5 μm to 15 μm, which corresponds well to many experimental observations, supporting the use of our 3D microstructure model for the investigation of SOFC electrode related phenomena.
Thiedmann R, Stenzel O, Spettl A, et al., 2011, Stochastic simulation model for the 3D morphology of composite materials in Li-ion batteries, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 50, Pages: 3365-3376, ISSN: 0927-0256
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Brandon NP, 2011, Design of networks for the large-scale deployment of CO<inf>2</inf>capture, transport and storage using multi-period optimization models: The case for the netherlands, 11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings
Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as one of the key technologies in the portfolio of actions that can help mitigate CO2emissions. CCS can play significant role especially in the short/medium term as it offers a seamless and cheaper transition route towards a more sustainable energy economy (e.g., renewables) in the long-term while allowing the continued use of fossil fuels environmentally benignly. However, one of the main stumbling blocks to realize large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the huge upfront costs involved. Hence, in this contribution we have proposed a comprehensive optimization framework, that is spatially and temporally explicit, to design the least-cost CCS networks and their optimal evolution with time over the next four decades (i.e., until 2050). This framework establishes optimal transport links amongst most potential sources and sinks (while leaving out the not-so-important ones from a global perspective), as and when they are necessary, to achieve a pre-set CO2reduction target that is to be met by CCS in every decade within this time horizon. We have then demonstrated the applicability and usefulness of our approach with a real case study by applying it to design CCS networks for the Netherlands. As demonstrated by Konda et. al., 2011, CCS must be an integral part of the Dutch CO2mitigation portfolio to comply with the local and regional (i.e., EU level) CO2mitigation targets. Furthermore, the availability of a number of large-scale CO2point-sources and large storage capacity makes CCS an attractive CO2mitigation option for the Netherlands. Potential CO2sources considered within our framework include the existing power plants (including coal/gas-fired plants and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plants) and industrial sources (including refineries, cement, steel and chemical plants such as ammonia and hydrogen production plants). In addition to the existing plants, we have also considered th
Zhao Y, Sadhukhan J, Lanzini A, et al., 2011, Optimal integration strategies for a syngas fuelled SOFC and gas turbine hybrid, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 196, Pages: 9516-9527, ISSN: 0378-7753
Ang SMC, Fraga ES, Brandon NP, et al., 2011, Fuel cell systems optimisation - Methods and strategies, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 36, Pages: 14678-14703, ISSN: 0360-3199
Zhang X, Su S, Chen J, et al., 2011, A new analytical approach to evaluate and optimize the performance of an irreversible solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 36, Pages: 15304-15312, ISSN: 0360-3199
Clague R, Shearing PR, Lee PD, et al., 2011, Stress analysis of solid oxide fuel cell anode microstructure reconstructed from focused ion beam tomography, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 196, Pages: 9018-9021, ISSN: 0378-7753
Liso V, Zhao Y, Brandon N, et al., 2011, Analysis of the impact of heat-to-power ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application under different climate regions in Europe, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 36, Pages: 13715-13726, ISSN: 0360-3199
Brightman E, Ivey DG, Brett DJL, et al., 2011, The effect of current density on H2S-poisoning of nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes, 9th European SOFC Forum, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 7182-7187, ISSN: 0378-7753
Brightman E, Brett DJL, Ivey D, et al., 2011, The effect of current density on H2S-poisoning of nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 196, Pages: 7182-7187
Millichamp J, Ali E, Brandon NP, et al., 2011, Application of a GaPO4 Crystal Microbalance for the Detection of Coke Formation in High-Temperature Reactors and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 50, Pages: 8371-8375, ISSN: 0888-5885
Cai Q, Adjiman CS, Brandon NP, 2011, Modelling the 3D microstructure and performance of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes: Computational parameters, Electrochimica Acta, Vol: 56, Pages: 5804-5814, ISSN: 0013-4686
In this paper, the computational parameters for a 3D model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes developed to link the microstructure of the electrode to its performance are investigated. The 3D microstructure model, which is based on Monte Carlo packing of spherical particles of different types, can be used to handle different particle sizes and generate a heterogeneous network of the composite materials. Once formed, the synthetic electrodes are discretized into voxels (small cubes) of equal sizes from which a range of microstructural properties can be calculated, including phase volume fraction, percolation and three-phase boundary (TPB) length. Transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions taking place within the electrode are modelled so that the performance of the synthetic electrode can be predicted. The degree of microstructure discretization required to obtain reliable microstructural analysis is found to be related to the particle sizes used for generating the structure; the particle diameter should be at least 20–40 times greater than the edge length of a voxel. The structure should also contain at least 253 discrete volumes which are called volume-of-fluid (VOF) units for the purpose of transport and electrochemical modelling. To adequately represent the electrode microstructure, the characterized volume of the electrode should be equivalent to a cube having a minimum length of 7.5 times the particle diameter. Using the modelling approach, the impacts of microstructural parameters on the electrochemical performance of the electrodes are illustrated on synthetic electrodes.
Doraswami U, Shearing P, Droushiotis N, et al., 2011, Modelling the effects of measured anode triple-phase boundary densities on the performance of micro-tubular hollow fiber SOFCs, 17th International Conference on Solid State Lonics, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 494-500, ISSN: 0167-2738
Mermelstein J, Milian M, Brandon NP, 2011, The interaction of biomass gasification syngas components with tar in a solid oxide fuel cell and operational conditions to mitigate carbon deposition on nickel-gadolinium doped ceria anodes, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 196, Pages: 5027-5034, ISSN: 0378-7753
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