402 results found
Yufit V, Brandon NP, 2011, Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell-Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 196, Pages: 801-807, ISSN: 0378-7753
Hawkes AD, Brett DJL, Brandon NP, 2011, Role of fuel cell based micro-cogeneration in low carbon heating, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART A-JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY, Vol: 225, Pages: 198-207, ISSN: 0957-6509
Brandon N, 2011, SPECIAL ISSUE ON FUEL CELLS FOR STATIONARY APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART A-JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY, Vol: 225, Pages: 151-151, ISSN: 0957-6509
Shearing PR, Bradley RS, Gelb J, et al., 2011, Using Synchrotron X-Ray Nano-CT to Characterize SOFC Electrode Microstructures in Three-Dimensions at Operating Temperature, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS, Vol: 14, Pages: B117-B120, ISSN: 1099-0062
Liu M, Millan MG, Aravind PV, et al., 2011, Influence of Operating Conditions on Carbon Deposition in SOFCs Fuelled by Tar-Containing Biosyngas, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 158, Pages: B1310-B1318, ISSN: 0013-4651
Kehrwald D, Shearing PR, Brandon NP, et al., 2011, Local Tortuosity Inhomogeneities in a Lithium Battery Composite Electrode, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 158, Pages: A1393-A1399, ISSN: 0013-4651
Shearing PR, Cai Q, Adjiman C, et al., 2011, Microstructural Characterisation of SOFC Electrodes: Observations and Simulations, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 1367-1377, ISSN: 1938-5862
Somalu MR, Brandon NP, Yufit V, 2011, A Study of the Rheological Properties of NiO/ScSZ Screen-Printing Inks and Their Application to SOFC Anodes, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY INC, Pages: 1483-1500, ISSN: 1938-5862
Taher MAA, Adjiman CS, Iora P, et al., 2011, Model-based Evaluation of the Production of Pure Oxygen through SOFC/SOEC Integration, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 2997-3006, ISSN: 1938-5862
Rhazaoui K, Cai Q, Shearing P, et al., 2011, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode 3D Microstructure and Performance Modeling, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 1097-1105, ISSN: 1938-5862
Brightman E, Maher R, Ivey DG, et al., 2011, In Situ Measurement of SOFC Anode Surface Processes, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 1407-1419, ISSN: 1938-5862
Liu M, Millan-Agorio MG, Aravind PV, et al., 2011, Influence of Operation Conditions on Carbon Deposition in SOFCs Fuelled by Tar-containing Biosyngas, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 2701-2712, ISSN: 1938-5862
Liu YH, Wu ZQ, Brandon NP, 2011, Application of SOFCs to Electric Power System, Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2157-4839
Lanzini A, Leone P, Guerra C, et al., 2011, Durability of anode supported SOFC under direct dry reforming of methane, Pages: 125-126
The present work investigates the performance and durability of Ni-based anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) under direct internal dry reforming of CH4 and CO2 mixtures at around 800°C. Several experiments have been performed including catalysis experiments and long-term galvanostatic ageing (up to 300h) with different CH4/CO2 molar ration. Catalysis experiments in a microreactor bed configuration over Ni-YSZ anode samples have been performed by means of temperature programmed techniques aiming to investigate the conversion rate of methane under dry reforming as well as the operating conditions leading to carbon formation. Durability of full anode supported cells were investigated by observing the voltage evolution over the time under galvanostatic mode and by taking impedance spectra after each 50h of operation. Post-mortem analyses were performed after each experiment to verify the morphology of the carbon eventually deposited in the anode electrode.
Shearing P, Wu Y, Harris SJ, et al., 2011, In situ X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of battery materials, Electrochemical Society Interface, Vol: 20, Pages: 43-47, ISSN: 1064-8208
X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray tomography has been used as powerful techniques for probing the electrode microstructure and the atomic structure of electrode materials. Metal L-edge XAS results show that Ni ions at the surface are oxidized to Ni3+ during charge, whereas Ni ions in the bulk are further oxidized to Ni4+ during charge. The P K-edge XAS was studied to investigate the electronic structure of the delithiated Li 1-xFePO4 material, and it shows that the electrochemical delithiation of Li1-xFePO4 results in the hybridization of P 3p states with the Fe 3d states. Recent advances in tomographic techniques have enabled three dimensional microstructural characterization of a wide range of materials with unprecedented resolution. Focused ion beams (FIBs) have also been successfully been employed in the study of lithium ion battery microstructures.
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Brandon NP, 2011, Design of networks for the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage using multi-period optimization models: The case for the Netherlands, Pages: 1057-1058
Matian M, Marquis A, Brandon NP, 2011, Model based design and test of cooling plates for an air-cooled polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack, Int. Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Zhao Y, Shah N, Brandon NP, 2011, Comparison between two optimization strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine hybrid cycles, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: in press
This paper compares the performance characteristics of a combined power system with solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) working under two thermodynamic optimization strategies. Expressions of the optimized power output and efficiency for both the subsystems and the SOFC-GT hybrid cycle are derived. Optimal performance characteristics are discussed and compared in detail through a parametric analysis to evaluate the impact of multi-irreversibilities that take into account on the system behaviour. It is found that there exist certain new optimum criteria for some important design and operating parameters. Engineers should find the methodologies developed in this paper useful in the optimal design and practical operation of complex hybrid fuel cell power plants.
Brett DJL, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, et al., 2011, Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems, Editors: Beith, Cambridge, UK, Publisher: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Pages: 233-261
Offer GJ, Contestabile M, Howey DA, et al., 2011, Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system in the UK, Energy Policy, Vol: 39, Pages: 1939-1950, ISSN: 0301-4215
Diomampo GP, Roach H, Chapin M, et al., 2010, Integrated dynamic reservoir modeling for multilayered tight gas sand development, Pages: 1065-1080
This paper summarizes the approach used for applying integrated reservoir modeling to the tight gas sands of the Pinedale Anticline in western Wyoming. The simulation of tight gas sands such as those at Pinedale has always been challenging because of the high degree of heterogeneity that needs to be retained to replicate reservoir performance, coupled with computing constraints. Added to this, simulating the Pinedale reservoir has its own unique challenges due to its characteristically thick gross sand interval composed of multiple, heterogeneous sand bodies produced commingled in a well. An intensive data-gathering program to investigate optimum well spacing accompanied the simulation effort. A significant part of this program was the installation of pressure monitor wells1to detect communication with surrounding producers at the hydraulic fracture stage level. This was coupled with multiple time-lapse production logs. The two data sets together allowed better definition of stage performance at producing wells. Static models were built with fine resolution to duplicate reservoir heterogeneity. However, upscaling was necessary due to computing constraints. The upscaling procedure of Li and Beckner2was utilized to maintain substantial geologic heterogeneity. The upscaled model was calibrated to mimic fine scale well performance prior to history matching. Several sector upscale models were history matched using a statistical approach without compromising key aspects such as reservoir connectivity and proper mass withdrawal from each geologic sub layer. Hydraulic fractures in each stage were characterized through history matching. Given the geostatistical nature, an exact match on every frac stage and every pressure gauge located away from the producer should not be expected. Rather, a more statistical definition of a history match should be adapted to a level that still gives confidence in forecasting the value of future infill wells. The history-matched parameters we
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Kramer GJ, et al., 2010, Critical evaluation of H2 production technologies: When do other technologies become economically competitive with steam methane reforming?, 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings
Hydrogen is generally considered as one of the potential fuels of the future transportation. However the high production cost has remained a barrier that is yet to be overcome. There are various H2 production routes based on thermo-chemical, electrolytic and biological processes. These include steam methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification (CG), biomass gasification (BG) and water electrolysis (WE). Within the context of H2 production, while SMR, CG and WE are commercially available, BG is still in the development/demonstration stage (Ball and Wietschel, 2009). While SMR is currently the cheapest production technology, all these technologies are characteristically different in their cost foot-print. For instance, gasification can be twice as much capital intensive as reforming technology (NAE, 2004). On the other hand, the common feed-stocks used in gasification (i.e., coal and biomass) are usually less expensive than the feed-stock (i.e., natural gas, NG) used in SMR. Since the total production cost depends on both the capital investment and the price of raw-materials, the actual production cost in the future depends on the technological advancements and the future feed-stock price. While both the technological advancements and the feed-stock prices in future are uncertain, a recent study by Kramer and co-workers (Schoots, et al., 2008) has concluded, based on an extensive historical data since 1940, that the cost reduction potential on the basis of technology learning for SMR, CG and WE is limited. While they did not rule out the possibility of potential to reduce the electrolytic H2 production costs due to technological advancements (such as PEM-based electrolysis), the challenges on electrolysis are twofold as it is both capital and energy intensive. Subsequently, the renewable electricity driven H2 production route will have even more challenges (which is partly due to the competition from electricity sector) to overcome. Thus, in future, the feedstock price
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Kramer GJ, et al., 2010, An integrated spatiotemporal modelling, design and optimization framework for the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage, 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings
One of the main stumbling blocks to realize large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the huge upfront costs involved. In addition, the usual geologically-dispersed nature of the large number of CO2 point-sources and sinks calls for a perspective that is beyond 'matching each source with the nearest sink' and requires a holistic-systems perspective. Furthermore, since the CO2 emission mitigation targets are expected to gradually increase over the next several decades, it is important that the CCS network is developed in harmony with the mitigation targets while ensuring that the investments are made optimally (as and when/where they are necessary) to minimising the entire lifecycle costs. Hence, in this contribution we have proposed a comprehensive optimization framework, that is spatially and temporally explicit, to design the least-cost CCS networks and their optimal evolution with time over the next four decades (i.e., until 2050). Such a long-term perspective also helps to optimally place the future fossil fuel-based plants (e.g., power plants and H2 production plants). While spatially explicit CCS networks design is not entirely new, optimization based studies are rather limited and dynamic-model based optimization studies are even more limited in the literature. In this respect, our framework is novel and helps minimize the overall costs. We have then demonstrated the applicability and usefulness of our approach with a real case study by applying it to design CCS networks for the Netherlands. A recent study (Konda et. al., 2010) has shown that CCS must be an integral part of the Dutch CO2 mitigation portfolio to comply with the local and regional (i.e., EU level) CO2 mitigation targets. Further, the availability of a number of large-scale CO2 point-sources and large storage capacity makes CCS an attractive CO2 mitigation option for the Netherlands. Potential CO2 sources considered include 110 power and industrial sources (including refineri
Cai Q, Luna-Ortiz E, Adjiman CS, et al., 2010, The Effects of Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Solid Oxide Steam Electrolyser: A Model-Based Study, Fuel Cells, Vol: 10, Pages: 1114-1128, ISSN: 1615-6854
To support the development of hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), the effects of operating conditions on the performance of the SOECs were investigated using a one-dimensional model of a cathode-supported planar SOEC stack. Among all the operating parameters, temperature is the most influential factor on the performance of an SOEC, in terms of both cell voltage and operation mode (i.e. endothermic, thermoneutral and exothermic). Current density is another influential factor, in terms of both cell voltage and operation mode. For the conditions used in this study it is recommended that the SOEC be operated at 1,073 K and with an average current density of 10,000 A m–2, as this results in the stack operating at almost constant temperature along the cell length. Both the steam molar fraction at the inlet and the steam utilisation factor have little influence on the cell voltage of the SOEC but their influence on the temperature distribution cannot be neglected. Changes in the operating parameters of the SOEC can result in a transition between endothermic and exothermic operation modes, calling for careful temperature control. The introduction of air into the anode stream appears to be a promising approach to ensure small temperature variations along the cell.
Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Leach M, et al., 2010, Energy Integration and Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Microcombined Heat and Power Systems and Other Renewable Systems Using Biomass Waste Derived Syngas, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 49, Pages: 11506-11516, ISSN: 0888-5885
Patcharavorachot Y, Brandon NP, Paengjuntuek W, et al., 2010, Analysis of planar solid oxide fuel cells based on proton-conducting electrolyte, SOLID STATE IONICS, Vol: 181, Pages: 1568-1576, ISSN: 0167-2738
Iora P, Taher MAA, Chiesa P, et al., 2010, A novel system for the production of pure hydrogen from natural gas based on solid oxide fuel cell-solid oxide electrolyzer, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 12680-12687, ISSN: 0360-3199
Shearing PR, Brett DJL, Brandon NP, 2010, Towards intelligent engineering of SOFC electrodes: a review of advanced microstructural characterisation techniques, INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS REVIEWS, Vol: 55, Pages: 347-363, ISSN: 0950-6608
Ivey DG, Brightman E, Brandon N, 2010, Structural modifications to nickel cermet anodes in fuel cell environments, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 6301-6311, ISSN: 0378-7753
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