390 results found
, 2011, Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications, Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems: Advanced Design, Performance, Materials and Applications, Pages: 233-261, ISBN: 9781845697952
Fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that turn chemical fuel directly into electrical power as well as generating heat. They operate at high efficiency and can be applied across a wide range of applications. Micro-combined heat and power (CHP) is one area in which fuel cells are expected to have a particularly significant impact with the potential for lowering energy cost and CO2 emissions in the residential housing sector. This chapter looks at the technological aspects of fuel cells applied to micro- and small-scale CHP applications as well as examining the state of commercial development and future trends. © 2011 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.
Hawkes AD, Brett DJL, Brandon NP, 2011, Role of fuel cell based micro-cogeneration in low carbon heating, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART A-JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY, Vol: 225, Pages: 198-207, ISSN: 0957-6509
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Brandon NP, 2011, Design of networks for the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage using multi-period optimization models: The case for the Netherlands, Pages: 1057-1058
Liu M, Millan-Agorio MG, Aravind PV, et al., 2011, Influence of Operation Conditions on Carbon Deposition in SOFCs Fuelled by Tar-containing Biosyngas, 12th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 2701-2712, ISSN: 1938-5862
Liu YH, Wu ZQ, Brandon NP, 2011, Application of SOFCs to Electric Power System, Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2157-4839
Lanzini A, Leone P, Guerra C, et al., 2011, Durability of anode supported SOFC under direct dry reforming of methane, Pages: 125-126
The present work investigates the performance and durability of Ni-based anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) under direct internal dry reforming of CH4 and CO2 mixtures at around 800°C. Several experiments have been performed including catalysis experiments and long-term galvanostatic ageing (up to 300h) with different CH4/CO2 molar ration. Catalysis experiments in a microreactor bed configuration over Ni-YSZ anode samples have been performed by means of temperature programmed techniques aiming to investigate the conversion rate of methane under dry reforming as well as the operating conditions leading to carbon formation. Durability of full anode supported cells were investigated by observing the voltage evolution over the time under galvanostatic mode and by taking impedance spectra after each 50h of operation. Post-mortem analyses were performed after each experiment to verify the morphology of the carbon eventually deposited in the anode electrode.
Shearing P, Wu Y, Harris SJ, et al., 2011, In situ X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of battery materials, Electrochemical Society Interface, Vol: 20, Pages: 43-47, ISSN: 1064-8208
X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray tomography has been used as powerful techniques for probing the electrode microstructure and the atomic structure of electrode materials. Metal L-edge XAS results show that Ni ions at the surface are oxidized to Ni3+ during charge, whereas Ni ions in the bulk are further oxidized to Ni4+ during charge. The P K-edge XAS was studied to investigate the electronic structure of the delithiated Li 1-xFePO4 material, and it shows that the electrochemical delithiation of Li1-xFePO4 results in the hybridization of P 3p states with the Fe 3d states. Recent advances in tomographic techniques have enabled three dimensional microstructural characterization of a wide range of materials with unprecedented resolution. Focused ion beams (FIBs) have also been successfully been employed in the study of lithium ion battery microstructures.
Kehrwald D, Shearing PR, Brandon NP, et al., 2011, Local Tortuosity Inhomogeneities in a Lithium Battery Composite Electrode, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 158, Pages: A1393-A1399, ISSN: 0013-4651
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Kramer GJ, et al., 2010, Critical evaluation of H2 production technologies: When do other technologies become economically competitive with steam methane reforming?, 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings
Hydrogen is generally considered as one of the potential fuels of the future transportation. However the high production cost has remained a barrier that is yet to be overcome. There are various H2 production routes based on thermo-chemical, electrolytic and biological processes. These include steam methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification (CG), biomass gasification (BG) and water electrolysis (WE). Within the context of H2 production, while SMR, CG and WE are commercially available, BG is still in the development/demonstration stage (Ball and Wietschel, 2009). While SMR is currently the cheapest production technology, all these technologies are characteristically different in their cost foot-print. For instance, gasification can be twice as much capital intensive as reforming technology (NAE, 2004). On the other hand, the common feed-stocks used in gasification (i.e., coal and biomass) are usually less expensive than the feed-stock (i.e., natural gas, NG) used in SMR. Since the total production cost depends on both the capital investment and the price of raw-materials, the actual production cost in the future depends on the technological advancements and the future feed-stock price. While both the technological advancements and the feed-stock prices in future are uncertain, a recent study by Kramer and co-workers (Schoots, et al., 2008) has concluded, based on an extensive historical data since 1940, that the cost reduction potential on the basis of technology learning for SMR, CG and WE is limited. While they did not rule out the possibility of potential to reduce the electrolytic H2 production costs due to technological advancements (such as PEM-based electrolysis), the challenges on electrolysis are twofold as it is both capital and energy intensive. Subsequently, the renewable electricity driven H2 production route will have even more challenges (which is partly due to the competition from electricity sector) to overcome. Thus, in future, the feedstock price
Diomampo GP, Roach H, Chapin M, et al., 2010, Integrated dynamic reservoir modeling for multilayered tight gas sand development, Pages: 1065-1080
This paper summarizes the approach used for applying integrated reservoir modeling to the tight gas sands of the Pinedale Anticline in western Wyoming. The simulation of tight gas sands such as those at Pinedale has always been challenging because of the high degree of heterogeneity that needs to be retained to replicate reservoir performance, coupled with computing constraints. Added to this, simulating the Pinedale reservoir has its own unique challenges due to its characteristically thick gross sand interval composed of multiple, heterogeneous sand bodies produced commingled in a well. An intensive data-gathering program to investigate optimum well spacing accompanied the simulation effort. A significant part of this program was the installation of pressure monitor wells1to detect communication with surrounding producers at the hydraulic fracture stage level. This was coupled with multiple time-lapse production logs. The two data sets together allowed better definition of stage performance at producing wells. Static models were built with fine resolution to duplicate reservoir heterogeneity. However, upscaling was necessary due to computing constraints. The upscaling procedure of Li and Beckner2was utilized to maintain substantial geologic heterogeneity. The upscaled model was calibrated to mimic fine scale well performance prior to history matching. Several sector upscale models were history matched using a statistical approach without compromising key aspects such as reservoir connectivity and proper mass withdrawal from each geologic sub layer. Hydraulic fractures in each stage were characterized through history matching. Given the geostatistical nature, an exact match on every frac stage and every pressure gauge located away from the producer should not be expected. Rather, a more statistical definition of a history match should be adapted to a level that still gives confidence in forecasting the value of future infill wells. The history-matched parameters we
Cai Q, Luna-Ortiz E, Adjiman CS, et al., 2010, The Effects of Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Solid Oxide Steam Electrolyser: A Model-Based Study, FUEL CELLS, Vol: 10, Pages: 1114-1128, ISSN: 1615-6846
Konda NVSNM, Shah N, Kramer GJ, et al., 2010, An integrated spatiotemporal modelling, design and optimization framework for the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage, 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings
One of the main stumbling blocks to realize large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the huge upfront costs involved. In addition, the usual geologically-dispersed nature of the large number of CO2 point-sources and sinks calls for a perspective that is beyond 'matching each source with the nearest sink' and requires a holistic-systems perspective. Furthermore, since the CO2 emission mitigation targets are expected to gradually increase over the next several decades, it is important that the CCS network is developed in harmony with the mitigation targets while ensuring that the investments are made optimally (as and when/where they are necessary) to minimising the entire lifecycle costs. Hence, in this contribution we have proposed a comprehensive optimization framework, that is spatially and temporally explicit, to design the least-cost CCS networks and their optimal evolution with time over the next four decades (i.e., until 2050). Such a long-term perspective also helps to optimally place the future fossil fuel-based plants (e.g., power plants and H2 production plants). While spatially explicit CCS networks design is not entirely new, optimization based studies are rather limited and dynamic-model based optimization studies are even more limited in the literature. In this respect, our framework is novel and helps minimize the overall costs. We have then demonstrated the applicability and usefulness of our approach with a real case study by applying it to design CCS networks for the Netherlands. A recent study (Konda et. al., 2010) has shown that CCS must be an integral part of the Dutch CO2 mitigation portfolio to comply with the local and regional (i.e., EU level) CO2 mitigation targets. Further, the availability of a number of large-scale CO2 point-sources and large storage capacity makes CCS an attractive CO2 mitigation option for the Netherlands. Potential CO2 sources considered include 110 power and industrial sources (including refineri
Cordner M, Matian M, Offer GJ, et al., 2010, Designing, building, testing and racing a low-cost fuel cell range extender for a motorsport application, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 7838-7848, ISSN: 0378-7753
Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Leach M, et al., 2010, Energy Integration and Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Microcombined Heat and Power Systems and Other Renewable Systems Using Biomass Waste Derived Syngas, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 49, Pages: 11506-11516, ISSN: 0888-5885
Patcharavorachot Y, Brandon NP, Paengjuntuek W, et al., 2010, Analysis of planar solid oxide fuel cells based on proton-conducting electrolyte, SOLID STATE IONICS, Vol: 181, Pages: 1568-1576, ISSN: 0167-2738
, 2010, UK microgeneration. Part II: Technology overviews, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy, Vol: 163, Pages: 143-165, ISSN: 1751-4223
This paper reviews the current status of microgeneration technologies at the domestic scale. Overviews are given for nine such technologies, grouped into three sections: (a) low carbon heating: condensing boilers, biomass boilers and room heaters, air source and ground source heat pumps; (b) renewables: solar photovoltaic panels, flat plate and evacuated tube solar thermal panels and micro-wind; and (c) combined heat and power: Stirling engines, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Reviews of the construction, operation and performance are given for the leading commercial products of each technology. Wherever possible, data are presented from the field, giving the actual prices paid by customers, efficiencies and energy yields experienced in real-world use, reliability and durability, and the problems faced by users. This information has a UK focus but is generally relevant in the international context. Two issues are found to be prevalent throughout the microgeneration industry. Total installed costs are a premium and vary substantially between technologies, between specific products (e.g. different models of solar panel), and between individual installations. Performance in the field is found in many cases to differ widely from manufacturers' quotes and laboratory studies, often owing to installation and operational problems. Despite this, microgeneration has demonstrated substantial improvements over conventional generation in terms of fossil fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and energy cost, provided that the appropriate technologies are employed, being installed and operated correctly according to the load requirements of the house and their physical location.
Iora P, Taher MAA, Chiesa P, et al., 2010, A novel system for the production of pure hydrogen from natural gas based on solid oxide fuel cell-solid oxide electrolyzer, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 12680-12687, ISSN: 0360-3199
Shearing PR, Brett DJL, Brandon NP, 2010, Towards intelligent engineering of SOFC electrodes: a review of advanced microstructural characterisation techniques, INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS REVIEWS, Vol: 55, Pages: 347-363, ISSN: 0950-6608
Matian M, Marquis A, Brandon NP, 2010, Application of thermal imaging to validate a heat transfer model for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 12308-12316, ISSN: 0360-3199
Ivey DG, Brightman E, Brandon N, 2010, Structural modifications to nickel cermet anodes in fuel cell environments, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 6301-6311, ISSN: 0378-7753
Cai Q, Brett DJL, Browning D, et al., 2010, A sizing-design methodology for hybrid fuel cell power systems and its application to an unmanned underwater vehicle, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 6559-6569, ISSN: 0378-7753
Brett DJL, Kucernak AR, Aguiar P, et al., 2010, What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance, CHEMPHYSCHEM, Vol: 11, Pages: 2714-2731, ISSN: 1439-4235
Shearing PR, Gelb J, Yi J, et al., 2010, Analysis of triple phase contact in Ni-YSZ microstructures using non-destructive X-ray tomography with synchrotron radiation, ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12, Pages: 1021-1024, ISSN: 1388-2481
Shearing PR, Cai Q, Golbert JI, et al., 2010, Microstructural analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell anode using focused ion beam techniques coupled with electrochemical simulation, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 4804-4810, ISSN: 0378-7753
Weng X, Brett D, Yufit V, et al., 2010, Highly conductive low nickel content nano-composite dense cermets from nano-powders made via a continuous hydrothermal synthesis route, SOLID STATE IONICS, Vol: 181, Pages: 827-834, ISSN: 0167-2738
Shearing PR, Gelb J, Brandon NP, 2010, X-ray nano computerised tomography of SOFC electrodes using a focused ion beam sample-preparation technique, JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1809-1814, ISSN: 0955-2219
Cai Q, Brandon NP, Adjiman CS, 2010, Modelling the dynamic response of a solid oxide steam electrolyser to transient inputs during renewable hydrogen production, Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China, Vol: 4, Pages: 211-222, ISSN: 1673-7393
Hydrogen is regarded as a leading candidate for alternative future fuels. Solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOEC) may provide a cost-effective and green route to hydrogen production especially when coupled to a source of renewable electrical energy. Developing an understanding of the response of the SOEC stack to transient events that may occur during its operation with intermittent electricity input is essential before the realisation of this technology. In this paper, a one-dimensional (1D) dynamic model of a planar SOEC stack has been employed to study the dynamic behaviour of such an SOEC and the prospect for stack temperature control through variation of the air flow rate. Step changes in the average current density from 1.0 to 0.75, 0.5 and 0.2 A/cm2 have been imposed on the stacks, replicating the situation in which changes in the supply of input electrical energy are experienced, or the sudden switch-off of the stack. Such simulations have been performed both for open-loop and closed-loop cases. The stack temperature and cell voltage are decreased by step changes in the average current density. Without temperature control via variation of the air flow rate, a sudden fall of the temperature and the cell potential occurs during all the step changes in average current density. The temperature excursions between the initial and final steady states are observed to be reduced by the manipulation of the air flow rate. Provided that the change in the average current density does not result in a transition from exothermic to endothermic operation of the SOEC, the use of the air flow rate to maintain a constant steady-state temperature is found to be successful. © 2010 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Brandon NP, 2010, Understanding solid oxide fuel cell microstructure, ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 239, ISSN: 0065-7727
Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Shah N, et al., 2010, Performance analysis of integrated biomass gasification fuel cell (BGFC) and biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) systems, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, Vol: 65, Pages: 1942-1954, ISSN: 0009-2509
Mermelstein J, Millan M, Brandon N, 2010, The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 195, Pages: 1657-1666, ISSN: 0378-7753
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