Imperial College London

Emeritus ProfessorNigelGooderham

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Emeritus Professor of Molecular Toxicology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3188n.gooderham Website

 
 
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Location

 

Office no. 370Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

228 results found

Cohen SM, Eisenbrand G, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IMCM, Bastaki M, Davidsen JM, Harman CL, McGowen MM, Taylor SVet al., 2019, FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Mint, buchu, dill and caraway derived flavoring ingredients, Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN: 0278-6915

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. NFC flavor materials include a variety of essential oils and botanical extracts. The re-evaluation of NFCs is conducted based on a constituent-based procedure outlined in 2005 and updated in 2018 to evaluate the safety of NFCs for their intended use as flavor ingredients. This procedure is applied in the re-evaluation of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of NFCs with constituent profiles that are dominated by alicyclic ketones such as menthone and carvone, secondary alcohols such as menthol and carveol, and related compounds. The FEMA Expert Panel affirmed the GRAS status of Peppermint Oil (FEMA 2848), Spearmint Oil (FEMA 3032), Spearmint Extract (FEMA 3031), Cornmint Oil (FEMA 4219), Erospicata Oil (FEMA 4777), Curly Mint Oil (FEMA 4778), Pennyroyal Oil (FEMA 2839), Buchu Leaves Oil (FEMA 2169), Caraway Oil (FEMA 2238) and Dill Oil (FEMA 2383) and determined FEMA GRAS status for Buchu Leaves Extract (FEMA 4923), Peppermint Oil, Terpeneless (FEMA 4924) and Spearmint Oil, Terpeneless (FEMA 4925).

Journal article

Malik D-E-S, David R, Gooderham N, 2019, Interleukin-6 selectively induces drug metabolism to potentiate the genotoxicity of dietary carcinogens in mammary cells, Archives of Toxicology, Vol: 93, Pages: 3005-3020, ISSN: 0340-5761

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in females, the aetiology beingmultifactorial and includes the role of lifestyle exposure to DNA damaging chemicals such asdietary carcinogens benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Both compounds require cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolic activationto DNA damaging species, and both induce transcriptional responses through the nuclearreceptors Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα). BaP and PhIP aremammary carcinogens in rodents. Clinically, circulating IL-6 expression is linked with poorprognosis of cancer and 35% of the deaths in breast cancer are linked with inflammation. Theobjective of this work was to investigate the molecular toxicology and local activation of BaP andPhIP in the presence of IL-6. Our laboratory has previously reported that miR27b can regulateCYP1B1 expression in colorectal cells, here we have investigated if this mechanism is working inmammary cell models, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment (24h) of cells with BaP (10nM10µM) and PhIP (100nM-100µM) significantly induced genetic damage (micronuclei formation) ina dose dependent manner in both cell lines. This effect was potentiated in the presence humanIL-6 at concentrations reported to be expressed in clinical breast cancer. On its own, IL-6treatment failed to induce micronuclei frequency above control levels in these cells. Compared toBaP or PhIP treatment alone, IL-6 plus BaP or PhIP, selectively induced CYP1B1 significantly inboth cell lines. Additionally, miR27b expression was downregulated by IL-6 treatments andtransfection with miR27b inhibitor confirmed that miR27b is a regulator of CYP1B1 in both celllines. These data show that BaP- and PhIP-induced DNA damage in mammary cells is potentiatedby the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and that inflammation-induced CYP expression, specificallyCYP1B1 via miR27b, is responsible for this effect.

Journal article

Gooderham N, Alkandari A, Ashrafian H, Sathyapalan T, Darzi A, Holmes E, Athanasiou T, Atkin Set al., 2019, Bariatric surgery modulates urinary levels of microRNAs involved in the regulation of renal function, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1664-2392

Background: Obesity and diabetes cause chronic kidney disease with a common pathophysiology that is characterized by the accumulation of collagen in the extracellular matrix. Recent evidence has implicated the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a key step in this pathology with regulation by microRNAs. Weight loss leads to improvements in renal function; therefore, this study hypothesized that bariatric-surgery aided weight loss would lead to changes in urinary microRNAs involved in the regulation of renal function.Materials and methods: Twenty-four bariatric patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy donated urine pre-operatively and at 2–6 months and 1–2 years post-operatively. Urine samples were also obtained from 10 healthy weight and 7 morbidly obese non-surgical controls. Expression levels of kidney microRNAs were assessed in urine and the function of microRNAs was assessed through the in vitro transfection of HK-2 cells, a kidney proximal tubule cell line.Results: Levels of miR 192, miR 200a, and miR 200b were upregulated in urine following bariatric surgery. This increase was consistent across surgical type and diabetes status and was maintained and enhanced with time. Bariatric surgery alters urinary miR 192 expression from levels seen in morbidly obese patients to levels seen in healthy weight control patients. In mechanistic studies, the transfection of miR 192 in HK-2 cells increased miR 200a expression and decreased ZEB2, a key transcriptional promoter of kidney fibrosis.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery increased miR 192 and miR 200 urinary levels, key anti-fibrotic microRNAs that could contribute to a renal-protective mechanism and may be of value as urinary biomarkers following surgery. These findings suggest that urinary microRNAs may represent potential novel biomarkers for obesity-associated renal function.

Journal article

Abdul Rahim MBH, Chilloux J, Martinez-Gili L, Neves AL, Myridakis A, Gooderham N, Dumas M-Eet al., 2019, Diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome: importance of short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indoles, Acta Diabetologica, Vol: 56, Pages: 493-500, ISSN: 0940-5429

The human gut is a home for more than 100 trillion bacteria, far more than all other microbial populations resident on the body's surface. The human gut microbiome is considered as a microbial organ symbiotically operating within the host. It is a collection of different cell lineages that are capable of communicating with each other and the host and has an ability to undergo self-replication for its repair and maintenance. As the gut microbiota is involved in many host processes including growth and development, an imbalance in its ecological composition may lead to disease and dysfunction in the human. Gut microbial degradation of nutrients produces bioactive metabolites that bind target receptors, activating signalling cascades, and modulating host metabolism. This review covers current findings on the nutritional and pharmacological roles of selective gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indoles, as well as discussing nutritional interventions to modulate the microbiome.

Journal article

Cohen SM, Eisenbrand G, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IMCM, Bastaki M, Davidsen JM, Harman CL, McGowen M, Taylor SVet al., 2019, FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Citrus-derived flavoring ingredients, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol: 124, Pages: 192-218, ISSN: 0278-6915

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients. This publication is the first in a series and summarizes the evaluation of 54 Citrus-derived NFCs using the procedure outlined in Smith et al. (2005) and updated in Cohen et al. (2018) to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavoring ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of each NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC's chemical constituents into well-defined congeneric groups. The safety of the NFC is evaluated using the well-established and conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. As a result of the application of the procedure, 54 natural flavor complexes derived from botanicals of the Citrus genus were affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavoring ingredients based on an evaluation of each NFC and the constituents and congeneric groups therein.

Journal article

David RM, Gooderham NJ, 2018, Dose-dependent synergistic and antagonistic mutation responses of binary mixtures of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene with food-derived carcinogens, Archives of Toxicology, Vol: 92, Pages: 3459-3469, ISSN: 0340-5761

Cooking food at high temperatures produces genotoxic chemicals and there is concern about their impact on human health. DNA damage caused by individual chemicals has been investigated but few studies have examined the consequences of exposure to mixtures as found in food. The current study examined the mutagenic response to binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with glycidamide (GA), BaP with acrylamide (AC), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) with GA at human-relevant concentrations (sub-nM). The metabolically competent human MCL-5 cells were exposed to these chemicals individually or in mixtures and mutagenicity was assessed at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Mixture exposures gave dose-responses that differed from those for the individual chemicals; for the BaP-containing mixtures, an increased mutation frequency (MF) at low concentration combinations that were not mutagenic individually, and decreased MF at higher concentration combinations, compared to the calculated predicted additive MF of the individual chemicals. In contrast, the mixture of PhIP with GA did not increase MF above background levels. These data suggest BaP is driving the mutation response and that metabolic activation plays a role; in mixtures with BaP the increased/decreased MF above/below the expected additive MF the order is PhIP > AC > GA. The increase in MF at some low concentration combinations that include BaP is interesting and supports our previous work showing a similar response for BaP with PhIP, confirming this response is not limited to the BaP/PhIP combination. Moreover, the lack of a mutation response for PhIP with GA relative to the response of the individual chemicals at equivalent doses is interesting and may represent a potential avenue for reducing the risk of exposure to environmental carcinogens; specifically, removal of BaP from the mixture may reduce the mutation effect, although in the context of food this wou

Journal article

Dumas M-E, Chilloux J, Myridakis A, Hoyles L, Everard A, Plovier H, Cani P, Brial F, Gauguier D, Smyth D, Zhang L, Liu Pet al., 2018, Microbiome inhibition of IRAK-4 by trimethylamine mediates metabolic and immune benefits in high fat diet-induced insulin resistance, 54th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S267-S268, ISSN: 0012-186X

Conference paper

Malik D-E-S, David RM, Gooderham NJ, 2018, Mechanistic evidence that benzo[a]pyrene promotes an inflammatory microenvironment that drives the metastatic potential of human mammary cells, Archives of Toxicology, Vol: 92, Pages: 3223-3239, ISSN: 0340-5761

Benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) is a major cancer-causing contaminant present in food such as cooked meats and cereals, and is ubiquitous in the environment in smoke derived from the combustion of organic material. Exposure to B(a)P is epidemiologically linked with the incidence of breast cancer. Although B(a)P is recognized as a complete genotoxic carcinogen, thought to act primarily via CYP-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, there is also evidence that B(a)P exposure elicits other biological responses that promote development of the cancer phenotype. Here in mechanistic studies using human mammary cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, we have explored mechanisms whereby B(a)P (10- 8 to 10- 5M) promotes inflammation pathways via TNF-α and NFκB leading to IL-6 upregulation, microRNA (Let7a, miR21 and miR29b) dysregulation and activation of VEGF. The miRNA dysregulation is associated with altered expression of inflammation mediators and increased migration and invasive potential of human mammary cancer cells. Our data suggest that mammary cell exposure to B(a)P results in perturbation of inflammation mediators and dysregulation of tumorigenic miRNAs, leading to an inflammation microenvironment that facilitates migration and invasion of mammary epithelial cells. These properties of B(a)P, together with its well-established metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, offer mechanistic insights into its carcinogenic mode of action.

Journal article

Smith RL, Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Hecht SS, Guengerich FP, Rietjens IMCM, Bastaki M, Harman CL, McGowen MM, Taylor SVet al., 2018, The safety evaluation of food flavouring substances: the role of metabolic studies, Toxicology Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 618-646, ISSN: 2045-452X

The safety assessment of a flavour substance examines several factors, including metabolic and physiological disposition data. The present article provides an overview of the metabolism and disposition of flavour substances by identifying general applicable principles of metabolism to illustrate how information on metabolic fate is taken into account in their safety evaluation. The metabolism of the majority of flavour substances involves both a series of enzymatic and non-enzymatic biotransformation that often result in products that are more hydrophilic and more readily excretable than their precursors. Flavours can undergo metabolic reactions, such as oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis that alter a functional group relative to the parent compound. The altered functional group may serve as a reaction site for a subsequent metabolic transformation. Metabolic intermediates undergo conjugation with an endogenous agent such as glucuronic acid, sulphate, glutathione, amino acids, or acetate. Such conjugates are typically readily excreted through the kidneys and liver. This paper summarizes the types of metabolic reactions that have been documented for flavour substances that are added to the human food chain, the methodologies available for metabolic studies, and the factors that affect the metabolic fate of a flavour substance.

Journal article

Alkandari A, Ashrafian H, Sathyapalan T, Sedman P, Darzi A, Holmes E, Athanasiou T, Atkin6 SL, Gooderham NJet al., Improved physiology and metabolic flux after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with temporal changes in the circulating microRNAome: a longitudinal study in humans., BMC Obesity, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2052-9538

BackgroundThe global pandemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Bariatric surgery leads to sustained weight loss and improves obesity-associated morbidity including remission of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs are small, endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, controlling most of the human transcriptome and contributing to the regulation of systemic metabolism. This preliminary, longitudinal, repeat sampling study, in which subjects acted as their own control, aimed to assess the temporal effect of bariatric surgery on circulating microRNA expression profiles.MethodsWe used Exiqon’s optimized circulating microRNA panel (comprising 179 validated miRNAs) and miRCURY locked nucleic acid plasma/serum Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess circulating microRNA expression. The microRNAome was determined for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients examined preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months postoperatively. Data was analysed using multivariate and univariate statistics.ResultsCompared to the preoperative circulating microRNA expression profile, RYGB altered the circulating microRNAome in a time dependent manner and the expression of 48 circulating microRNAs were significantly different. Importantly, these latter microRNAs are associated with pathways involved in regulation and rescue from metabolic dysfunction and correlated with BMI, the percentage of excess weight loss and fasting blood glucose levels.ConclusionsThe results of this pilot study show that RYGB fundamentally alters microRNA expression in circulation with a time-dependent progressive departure in profile from the preoperative baseline and indicate that microRNAs are potentially novel biomarkers for the benefits of bariatric surgery.

Journal article

Malik D-E-S, David RM, Gooderham NJ, 2018, Ethanol potentiates the genotoxicity of the food-derived mammary carcinogen PhIP in human estrogen receptor-positive mammary cells: mechanistic support for lifestyle factors (cooked red meat and ethanol) associated with mammary cancer, Archives of Toxicology, Vol: 92, Pages: 1639-1655, ISSN: 0340-5761

Consumption of cooked/processed meat and ethanol are lifestyle risk factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Cooking meat generates heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Epidemiology, mechanistic and animal studies indicate that PhIP is a mammary carcinogen that could be causally linked to breast cancer incidence; PhIP is DNA damaging, mutagenic and oestrogenic. PhIP toxicity involves cytochrome P450 (CYP1 family)-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, and transcriptional responses through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen-receptor-α (ER-α). Ethanol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor strongly associated with breast cancer risk. Ethanol toxicity involves alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism to reactive acetaldehyde, and is also a substrate for CYP2E1, which when uncoupled generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. Here, using human mammary cells that differ in estrogen-receptor status, we explore genotoxicity of PhIP and ethanol and mechanisms behind this toxicity. Treatment with PhIP (10-7-10-4 M) significantly induced genotoxicity (micronuclei formation) preferentially in ER-α positive human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, ER-α+) compared to MDA-MB-231 (ER-α-) cells. PhIP-induced CYP1A2 in both cell lines but CYP1B1 was selectively induced in ER-α(+) cells. ER-α inhibition in MCF-7 cells attenuated PhIP-mediated micronuclei formation and CYP1B1 induction. PhIP-induced CYP2E1 and ROS via ER-α-STAT-3 pathway, but only in ER-α (+) MCF-7 cells. Importantly, simultaneous treatments of physiological concentrations ethanol (10-3-10-1 M) with PhIP (10-7-10-4 M) increased oxidative stress and genotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, compared to the individual chemicals. Collectively, these data offer a mechanistic basis for the increased risk of breast cancer associated with dietary cooked meat and ethanol lifestyle choices.

Journal article

Cohen SM, Eisenbrand G, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IMCM, Davidsen JM, Harman CL, Taylor SVet al., 2018, Updated procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol: 113, Pages: 171-178, ISSN: 0278-6915

An effective and thorough approach for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes (NFCs) was published in 2005 by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). An updated procedure is provided here, which maintains the essential concepts of the use of the congeneric group approach and the reliance on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept. The updated procedure emphasizes more rigorous considerations of unidentified constituents and the genotoxic potential of constituents. The update of the previously established procedure is the first step in a multi-year project to conduct safety re-evaluations for more than 250 NFCs that have uses that are currently considered Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the FEMA Expert Panel. In addition, this procedure can be more generally employed in the safety evaluation of NFCs.

Journal article

Saleh AF, Bachman M, Priestley CC, Gooderham NJ, Andersson P, Henry SP, Edmunds N, Fellows MDet al., 2018, 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) nucleosides are not phosphorylated or incorporated into the genome of Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells, Toxicological Sciences, Vol: 163, Pages: 70-78, ISSN: 1096-0929

Nucleoside analogues with 2'-modified sugar moieties are often used to improve the RNA target affinity and nuclease resistance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in preclinical and clinical development. Despite their enhanced nuclease resistance, oligonucleotides could slowly degrade releasing nucleoside analogues that have the potential to become phosphorylated and incorporated into cellular DNA and RNA. For the first time, the phosphorylation and DNA and RNA incorporation of 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (2'-O-MOE) nucleoside analogues have been investigated. Using LC/MS/MS, we showed that enzymes in the nucleotide salvage pathway including deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase (TK1) displayed poor reactivity toward 2'-O-MOE nucleoside analogues. On the other hand, 2'-fluoro (F) nucleosides, regardless of the nucleobase, were efficiently phosphorylated to their monophosphate forms by dCK and TK1. Consistent with their efficient phosphorylation by dCK and TK1, 2'-F nucleosides analogues were incorporated into cellular DNA and RNA while no incorporation was detected with 2'-O-MOE nucleoside analogues. In conclusion, these data suggest that the inability of dCK and TK1 to create the monophosphates of 2'-O-MOE nucleoside analogues reduces the risk of their incorporation into cellular DNA and RNA.

Journal article

Harling L, Athanasiou T, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Gooderham N, Lambert Jet al., 2017, Pre-operative serum VCAM-1 as a biomarker of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting, Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1749-8090

ObjectiveSystemic inflammation is a recognised contributory factor in the pathogenesis of de novo post-operative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. This study aims to determine whether serum soluble vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) may predict the onset of POAF in patients under going coronary artery bypass grafting.Methods34 patients undergoing non-emergent, on-pump CABG were prospectively recruited. Plasma was obtained at 24 h pre-operatively and at 48 and 96 h post-operatively. POAF was defined by continuous Holter recording. Inter-group comparisons were performed using student t-test or ANOVA as appropriate.ResultsThirteen (13/34) patients developed POAF at a mean of 2.5 days post-operatively. Serum sVCAM-1 was significantly increased in the pre-operative serum of POAF when compared to non-POAF patients (p = 0.022). No significant difference was observed between the groups at 48 h (p = 0.073) or 96 h (p = 0.135) post-operatively. sVCAM-1 had a sensitivity of 60.0% and specificity of 77.27%, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 75.2% in predicting POAF.ConclusionssVCAM-1 concentration in the pre-operative serum of patients undergoing CABG may accurately predict the onset of de novo POAF. As such, serum sVCAM-1 may be used as a predictive biomarker for this common arrhythmia. Further work must now perform prospective, targeted validation of these results in a larger patient cohort.

Journal article

Kamola PJ, Maratou K, Wilson PA, Rush K, Mullaney T, McKevitt T, Evans P, Ridings J, Chowdhury P, Roulois A, Fairchild A, McCawley S, Cartwright K, Gooderham NJ, Gant TW, Moores K, Hughes SA, Edbrooke MR, Clark K, Parry JDet al., 2017, Strategies for in vivo screening and mitigation of hepatotoxicity associated with antisense drugs, Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, Vol: 8, Pages: 383-394, ISSN: 2162-2531

Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) gapmers downregulate gene expression by inducing enzyme-dependent degradation of targeted RNA and represent a promising therapeutic platform for addressing previously undruggable genes. Unfortunately, their therapeutic application, particularly that of the more potent chemistries (e.g., locked-nucleic-acid-containing gapmers), has been hampered by their frequent hepatoxicity, which could be driven by hybridization-mediated interactions. An early de-risking of this liability is a crucial component of developing safe, ASO-based drugs. To rank ASOs based on their effect on the liver, we have developed an acute screen in the mouse that can be applied early in the drug development cycle. A single-dose (3-day) screen with streamlined endpoints (i.e., plasma transaminase levels and liver weights) was observed to be predictive of ASO hepatotoxicity ranking established based on a repeat-dose (15 day) study. Furthermore, to study the underlying mechanisms of liver toxicity, we applied transcriptome profiling and pathway analyses and show that adverse in vivo liver phenotypes correlate with the number of potent, hybridization-mediated off-target effects (OTEs). We propose that a combination of in silico OTE predictions, streamlined in vivo hepatotoxicity screening, and a transcriptome-wide selectivity screen is a valid approach to identifying and progressing safer compounds.

Journal article

Akingbasote JA, Foster AJ, Jones HB, David R, Gooderham NJ, Wilson ID, Gerry Kenna Jet al., 2016, Improved hepatic physiology in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN™) mice dosed orally with fenclozic acid, Toxicology Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 81-88, ISSN: 2045-4538

Hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase null (HRN™) mice exhibit no functional expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) when compared to wild type (WT) mice, but have normal hepatic and extrahepatic expression of other biotransformation enzymes. We have assessed the utility of HRN™ mice for investigation of the role of metabolic bioactivation in liver toxicity caused by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) fenclozic acid. In vitro studies revealed significant NADPH-dependent (i.e. P450-mediated) covalent binding of [14C]-fenclozic acid to liver microsomes from WT mice and HRN™ mice, whereas no in vitro covalent binding was observed in the presence of the UDP-glucuronyltransferase cofactor UDPGA. Oral fenclozic acid administration did not alter the liver histopathology or elevate the plasma liver enzyme activities of WT mice, or affect their hepatic miRNA contents. Livers from HRN™ mice exhibited abnormal liver histopathology (enhanced lipid accumulation, bile duct proliferation, hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration) and plasma clinical chemistry (elevated alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities). Modest apparent improvements in these abnormalities were observed when HRN™ mice dosed orally with fenclozic acid for 7 days at 100 mg/kg/day. Previously we observed more marked effects on liver histopathology and integrity in HRN™ mice dosed orally with the NSAID diclofenac for 7 days at 30 mg/kg/day. We conclude that HRN™ mice are valuable for assessing P450-related hepatic drug biotransformation, but not for drug toxicity studies due to underlying liver dysfunction. Nonetheless, HRN™ mice may provide novel insights into the role of inflammation in liver injury, thereby aiding its treatment.

Journal article

Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IM, Smith RL, Bastaki M, Harman CL, McGowen MM, Valerio LG, Taylor SVet al., 2016, Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients., Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol: 99, Pages: 40-59, ISSN: 1873-6351

This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of intended use. Re-evaluation of GRAS status for flavorings is based on updated considerations of exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology and includes a comprehensive review of the scientific information on the flavorings and structurally related substances. Of the 12 substituted thiophenes reviewed here, 11 were reaffirmed as GRAS based on their rapid absorption, metabolism and excretion in humans and animals; the low estimated dietary exposure from flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels; and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. For one of the substituted thiophenes, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene, it was concluded that more detailed exposure information, comparative metabolism studies and comprehensive toxicity data, including an in-depth evaluation of the mechanism of action for any adverse effects observed, are required for continuation of its FEMA GRAS™ status. In the absence of these data, the compound was removed from the FEMA GRAS list.

Journal article

Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IM, Smith RL, Bastaki M, Harman CL, McGowen MM, Taylor SVet al., 2016, FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol: 98, Pages: 201-209, ISSN: 1873-6351

p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was requested by the European Food Safety Authority. Previous genotoxicity studies on the substance gave mixed results, but both positive and negative results were hampered by not always being performed to any standard guideline. The new test battery data indicated some evidence of mutagenicity in vitro, but an in vivo comet/micronucleus combination assay performed in rats was concluded by the study directors to not result in any biologically relevant positive responses. However, EFSA concluded that the in vivo assay gave evidence that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al was of potential genotoxic concern. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) has reviewed the newly available data and considered its interpretation relative to standard guidelines such as that established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and has concluded that the results in the comet/micronucleus combination assay are consistent with the interpretation by the study directors; namely, that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al does not appear to have any in vivo genotoxic potential.

Journal article

Saleh AF, Fellows MM, Ying L, Gooderham NJ, Priestley CCet al., 2016, The lack of mutagenic potential of a guanine-rich triplex forming oligonucleotide in physiological conditions, Toxicological Sciences, Vol: 155, Pages: 101-111, ISSN: 1096-6080

Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) bind in the major groove of DNA duplex in a sequence-specific manner imparted by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. There have been several reports demonstrating the ability of guanine-rich TFOs to induce targeted mutagenesis on an exogenous plasmid or an endogenous chromosomal locus. In particular, a 30mer guanine-rich triplex forming oligonucleotide, AG30, optimally designed to target the supFG1 reporter gene was reported to be mutagenic in the absence of DNA reactive agents in cultured cells and in vivo Here, we investigated the mutagenic potential of AG30 using the supFG1 shuttle vector forward mutation assay under physiological conditions. We also assessed the triplex binding potential of AG30 alongside cytotoxic and mutagenic assessment. In a cell free condition, AG30 was able to bind its polypurine target site in the supFG1 gene in the absence of potassium chloride and also aligned with a 5-fold increase in the mutant frequency when AG30 was pre-incubated with the supFG1 plasmid in the absence of potassium prior to transfection into COS-7 cells. However, when we analysed triplex formation of AG30 and the supFG1 target duplex at physiological potassium levels, triplex formation was inhibited due to the formation of competing secondary structures. Subsequent assessment of mutant frequency under physiological conditions, by pre-transfecting COS-7 cells with the supFG1 plasmid prior to AG30 treatment led to a very small increase (1.4-fold) in the mutant frequency. Transfection of cells with even higher concentrations of AG30 did result in an elevated mutagenic response but this was also seen with a scrambled sequence, and was therefore considered unlikely to be biologically relevant as an associated increase in cytotoxicity was also apparent. Our findings also provide further assurance on the low potential of triplex-mediated mutation as a consequence of unintentional genomic DNA binding by therapeutic antisense oligonucleotides.

Journal article

Aigner A, Buesen R, Gant T, Gooderham N, Greim H, Hackerm├╝ller J, Hubesch B, Laffont M, Marczylo E, Meister G, Petrick JS, Rasoulpour RJ, Sauer UG, Schmidt K, Seitz H, Slack F, Sukata T, van der Vies SM, Verhaert J, Witwer KW, Poole Aet al., 2016, Advancing the use of noncoding RNA in regulatory toxicology: Report of an ECETOC workshop, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol: 82, Pages: 127-139, ISSN: 1096-0295

The European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) organised a workshop to discuss the state-of-the-art research on noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) as biomarkers in regulatory toxicology and as analytical and therapeutic agents. There was agreement that ncRNA expression profiling data requires careful evaluation to determine the utility of specific ncRNAs as biomarkers. To advance the use of ncRNA in regulatory toxicology, the following research priorities were identified: (1) Conduct comprehensive literature reviews to identify possibly suitable ncRNAs and areas of toxicology where ncRNA expression profiling could address prevailing scientific deficiencies. (2) Develop consensus on how to conduct ncRNA expression profiling in a toxicological context. (3) Conduct experimental projects, including, e.g., rat (90-day) oral toxicity studies, to evaluate the toxicological relevance of the expression profiles of selected ncRNAs. Thereby, physiological ncRNA expression profiles should be established, including the biological variability of healthy individuals. To substantiate the relevance of key ncRNAs for cell homeostasis or pathogenesis, molecular events should be dose-dependently linked with substance-induced apical effects. Applying a holistic approach, knowledge on ncRNAs, 'omics and epigenetics technologies should be integrated into adverse outcome pathways to improve the understanding of the functional roles of ncRNAs within a regulatory context.

Journal article

Osborne M, Haltalli M, Currie R, Wright J, Gooderham NJet al., 2016, Transdifferentiated rat pancreatic progenitor cells (AR42J-B13/H) respond to phenobarbital in a rat hepatocyte-specific manner, Toxicology, Vol: 363-364, Pages: 10-18, ISSN: 1879-3185

Phenobarbital (PB) is known to produce species-specific effects in the rat and mouse, being carcinogenic in certain mouse strains, but only in rats if treated after a DNA damaging event. PB treatment in the rat and mouse also produces disparate effects on cell signalling and miRNA expression profiles. These responses are induced by short term and prolonged PB exposure, respectively, with the latter treatments being difficult to examine mechanistically in primary hepatocytes due to rapid loss of the original hepatic phenotype and limited sustainability in culture. Here we explore the rat hepatocyte-like B13/H cell line as a model for hepatic response to PB exposure in both short-term and longer duration treatments. We demonstrate that PB with Egf treatment in the B13/H cells, resulted in a significant increase in Erk activation, as determined by the ratio of phospho-Erk to total Erk, compared to Egf alone. We also show that an extended treatment with PB in the B13/H cells produces a miRNA response similar to that seen in the rat in vivo, via the time-dependent induction of miR-182/96. Additionally, we confirm that B13/H cells respond to Car activators in a typical rat-specific manner. These data suggest that the B13/H cells produce temporal responses to PB that are comparable to those reported in short-term primary rat hepatocyte cultures and in the longer term are similar to those in the rat in vivo. Finally, we also show that Car-associated miR-122 expression is decreased by PB treatment in B13/H cells, a PB-induced response that is common to the rat, mouse and human. We conclude that the B13/H cell system produces a qualitative response comparable to the rat, which is different to the response in the mouse, and that this model could be a useful tool for exploring the functional consequences of PB-sensitive miRNA changes and resistance to PB-mediated tumours in the rat.

Journal article

Harling L, Lambert J, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Gooderham N, Athanasiou Tet al., 2016, Elevated serum microRNA 483-5p levels may predict patients at risk of post-operative atrial fibrillation, European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Vol: 51, Pages: 73-78, ISSN: 1873-734X

Objective: Atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the commonest post-operative cardiac arrhythmia, affecting approximately 1 in 3 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although its aetiology is complex, atrial substrate changes may pre-dispose to its onset. This study aims to ascertain the atrial microRNA signature of POAF and determine the potential for circulating microRNA as a pre-operative biomarker for this arrhythmia.Methods: 34 patients undergoing non-emergent, on-pump CABG were prospectively recruited. Right atrial biopsies were taken intra-operatively and snap frozen for RNA extraction. Plasma was obtained at 24 hours pre-operatively and at 2 and 4-days post-operatively. POAF was defined by continuous Holter recording. Inter-group comparisons were performed using student t-test or ANOVA as required. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pre-operative serum miRNA as a POAF biomarker. Results: 16 microRNA were differentially expressed in the atrial myocardium of POAF patients when compared to those maintaining sinus rhythm (SR). MiR-208a was the most under-expressed (FC:2.458) and miR-483-5p the most over-expressed (FC:1.804). Mir-483-5p also demonstrated significant overexpression in the pre-operative serum of these patients, with ROC analysis demonstrating an overall predictive accuracy of 78%. Conclusions: This study provides the first description of atrial myocardial and circulating plasma microRNA in POAF patients. Our findings suggest POAF may be associated with pre-existing atrial substrate differences predisposing to arrhythmogenesis. Moreover, this study highlights the potential for miR-483-5p in biomarker development. Further work must now perform prospective, targeted validation of these results in a larger patient cohort.

Journal article

Zaman J, Harling L, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Gooderham N, Athanasiou T, Peters Net al., 2016, Post-operative atrial fibrillation is associated with a pre-existing structural and electrical substrate in human right atrial myocardium, International Journal of Cardiology, Vol: 220, Pages: 580-588, ISSN: 1874-1754

BackgroundPost-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a major health economic burden. However, the precise mechanisms in POAF remain unclear. In other forms of AF, sites of high dominant frequency (DF) in sinus rhythm (SR) may harbour ‘AF nests’. We studied AF inducibility in relation to substrate changes using epicardial electrograms and cardiomyocyte calcium handling in the atria of AF naïve patients.MethodBipolar electrograms were recorded from the lateral right atrial (RA) wall in 34 patients undergoing coronary surgery using a high-density array in sinus rhythm (NSR). RA burst pacing at 200/500/1000 ms cycle lengths (CL) was performed, recording episodes of AF > 30 s. Co-localised RA tissue was snap frozen for RNA and protein extraction.ResultsElectrograms prolonged during AF (76.64 ± 29.35 ms) vs. NSR/pacing (p < 0.001). Compared to NSR, electrogram amplitude was reduced during AF and during pacing at 200 ms CL (p < 0.001). Electrogram DF was significantly lower in AF (75.87 ± 23.63 Hz) vs. NSR (89.33 ± 25.99 Hz) (p < 0.05), and NSR DF higher in AF inducible patients at the site of AF initiation (p < 0.05). Structurally, POAF atrial myocardium demonstrated reduced sarcolipin gene (p = 0.0080) and protein (p = 0.0242) expression vs. NSR. Phospholamban gene and protein expression was unchanged. SERCA2a protein expression remained unchanged, but MYH6 (p = 0.0297) and SERCA2A (p = 0.0343) gene expression was reduced in POAF.ConclusionsHuman atrial electrograms prolong and reduce in amplitude in induced peri-operative AF vs. NSR or pacing. In those sustaining AF, high DF sites in NSR may indicate ‘AF nests’. This electrical remodelling is accompanied by structural remodelling with altered expression of cardiomyocyte calcium handling detectable before POAF. These novel upstream substrate changes offer a novel mechanism and manifestation of human POAF.

Journal article

Gooderham N, Ross P, Keltie S, 2016, Toxicology Research: Publishing research that is excellent and innovative, that drives toxicology and has international impact, Toxicology Research, Vol: 5, Pages: 371-372, ISSN: 2045-452X

Journal article

David R, Ebbels T, Gooderham N, 2016, Synergistic and Antagonistic Mutation Responses of Human MCL-5 Cells to Mixtures of Benzo[a]pyrene and 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: Dose-Related Variation in the Joint Effects of Common Dietary Carcinogens., Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 124, Pages: 88-96, ISSN: 1552-9924

BACKGROUND: Chemical carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) may contribute to the etiology of human diet-associated cancer. Individually, these are genotoxic, but the consequences of exposure to mixtures of these chemicals have not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVES: To determine the mutagenic response to mixtures of BaP and PhIP at concentrations relevant to human exposure (mM to sub-nM). METHODS: Human MCL-5 cells (metabolically competent) were exposed to BaP or PhIP individually or in mixtures. Mutagenicity was assessed at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus, CYP1A activity and message determined by Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and Q-PCR respectively, and cell cycle measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Mixtures gave modified dose-responses compared to the individual chemicals; a remarkable increased mutant frequency (MF) at low concentration combinations (not mutagenic individually), and decreased MF at higher concentration combinations, compared to the calculated predicted additive MF of the individual chemicals. EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA levels correlated with TK MF supporting involvement of the CYP1A family in mutation. Moreover, a cell cycle G2/M phase block was observed at high dose combinations, consistent with DNA damage sensing and repair. CONCLUSIONS: Mixtures of these genotoxic chemicals produced mutation responses that differed from expectations for additive effects of the individual chemicals. The increase in MF for some combinations of chemicals at low concentrations that were not genotoxic for the individual chemicals, and the non-monotonic dose response, may be important for understanding the mutagenic potential of food and the etiology of diet-associated cancers.

Journal article

Sathyapalan T, David R, Gooderham NJ, Atkin SLet al., 2015, Increased expression of circulating miRNA-93 in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may represent a novel, non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis., Scientific Reports, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2045-2322

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a novel class of small noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. There is increasing evidence of their importance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to determine if miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 are differentially expressed in the circulation of women with PCOS compared to age matched women. A case-control study comparing women with PCOS (n = 25) to age and weight matched controls (n = 24) without PCOS was performed. MiRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were determined by total RNA reverse transcription. Both miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were significantly increased relative to the control group (p < 0.01, p = 0.029 respectively). In both groups there was no correlation of either miRNA-93 or miRNA-223 with insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β or testosterone levels. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for miR-223 and miR-93 was 0.66 and 0.72 respectively, suggesting miR-93 is a more efficient biomarker than miR-223 for diagnosis of PCOS. The combination of the two miRNAs together, tested using multiple logistic regression analysis, did not improve the diagnostic potential. In conclusion, circulating miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were higher in women with PCOS compared to age and weight matched controls independent of insulin resistance and testosterone levels, and miR-93 may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker for PCOS.

Journal article

David RM, Gooderham NJ, 2015, Using 3D MCF-7 mammary spheroids to assess the genotoxicity of mixtures of the food-derived carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, Toxicology Research, Vol: 5, Pages: 312-317, ISSN: 2045-452X

Genotoxic carcinogens are present in the human diet, and two important examples are benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). BaP is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated by incomplete combustion of organic substances, thus contaminating numerous foodstuffs, and PhIP is a heterocyclic amine formed when meat is cooked. Genotoxicity testing of chemical carcinogens has focussed largely on individual chemicals, particularly in relation to diet, despite mixtures representing a more realistic exposure scenario. We have previously shown that exposure of MCL-5 cells to BaP-PhIP mixtures produces a TK mutation dose response that differs from the predicted additive response, using traditional regulatory-like two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. There is a large gap between 2D cell culture and the whole animal, and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, shown to better represent in vivo tissue structure, may bridge the gap. The aim of the current study was to use 3D spheroids to characterise the DNA damage response following exposure to mixtures of the mammary carcinogens BaP and PhIP. Mammary MCF-7 cells were grown in 3D spheroids, exposed (24 h) to BaP (10-10 to 10-5 M) or PhIP (10-9 to 10-4 M) individually or in mixtures and DNA damage assessed by micronucleus (MN) formation. A dose-dependent increase in MN was observed for the individual chemicals in 3D cell culture. In line with our previous 2D TK mutation data, 3D mixture exposures gave a modified DNA damage profile compared to the individual chemicals, with a potent response at low dose combinations and a decrease in MN with higher concentrations of BaP in the mixture. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (CYP1A) activity increased with increasing concentration of BaP in the mixture, and for combinations with 10 μM BaP, CYP1A1 mRNA induction was sustained up to 48 h. These data suggest mixtures of genotoxic chemicals give DNA damage responses that differ considerably from those produc

Journal article

Kamola PJ, Kitson JD, Turner G, Maratou K, Eriksson S, Panjwani A, Warnock LC, Douillard Guilloux GA, Moores K, Koppe EL, Wixted WE, Wilson PA, Gooderham NJ, Gant TW, Clark KL, Hughes SA, Edbrooke MR, Parry JDet al., 2015, In silico and in vitro evaluation of exonic and intronic off-target effects form a critical element of therapeutic ASO gapmer optimization., Nucleic Acids Research, Vol: 43, Pages: 8638-8650, ISSN: 1362-4962

With many safety and technical limitations partly mitigated through chemical modifications, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are gaining recognition as therapeutic entities. The increase in potency realized by 'third generation chemistries' may, however, simultaneously increase affinity to unintended targets with partial sequence complementarity. However, putative hybridization-dependent off-target effects (OTEs), a risk historically regarded as low, are not being adequately investigated. Here we show an unexpectedly high OTEs confirmation rate during screening of fully phosphorothioated (PS)-LNA gapmer ASOs designed against the BACH1 transcript. We demonstrate in vitro mRNA and protein knockdown of off-targets with a wide range of mismatch (MM) and gap patterns. Furthermore, with RNase H1 activity residing within the nucleus, hybridization predicted against intronic regions of pre-mRNAs was tested and confirmed. This dramatically increased ASO-binding landscape together with relatively high potency of such interactions translates into a considerable safety concern. We show here that with base pairing-driven target recognition it is possible to predict the putative off-targets and address the liability during lead design and optimization phases. Moreover, in silico analysis performed against both primary as well as spliced transcripts will be invaluable in elucidating the mechanism behind the hepatoxicity observed with some LNA-modified gapmers.

Journal article

Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Hecht SS, Marnett LJ, Rietjens IMCM, Smith RL, Bastaki M, McGowen MM, Harman CL, Taylor SVet al., 2015, GRAS 27 flavoring substances, Food Technology, Vol: 69, ISSN: 0015-6639

Journal article

Patel SA, Gooderham NJ, 2015, IL6 mediates immune and colorectal cancer cell crosstalk via miR-21 and miR-29b., Molecular Cancer Research, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1557-3125

Tumors are surrounded and infiltrated by a variety of stromal cell types including fibroblasts, immune cells and vascular endothelial cells, which interact with malignant cells to generate the tumor microenvironment (TME). This complex environment is thought to be regulated by the tumor in order to promote its survival and progression, and thus constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. However, intercellular communication within the microenvironment is not yet well understood. The current study investigates the mechanism by which cancer and immune cells communicate using an in vitro co-culture model. It is demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL6), a proinflammatory cytokine, secreted by immune cells promotes colorectal cancer cell invasiveness. Additionally, in the presence of IL6, the cancer cells were able to secrete circulating microRNAs (miRs) miR-21 and miR-29b to further induce immune cell IL6 production. Activated immune cells were also found to release miR-21 into the tumor microenvironment. Taken together, these mechanistic findings provide a better understanding of intercellular communication between immune and cancer cells in the TME and offer insight into some of the key players that mediate this crosstalk. IMPLICATIONS: This study demonstrates that co-cultured cancer and immune cells communicate via IL6 and circulating miRs to sustain chronic inflammation and promote pro-metastatic cancer cell behavior. In addition, critical players are identified that mediate intercellular communication in the TME and suggest possible therapeutic approaches that target the microenvironment.

Journal article

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