Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Prof of Infectious Disease & Vaccine Epidemiology



+44 (0)20 7594 3264n.grassly Website




G36Medical SchoolSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Praharaj, I and Parker, EPK and Giri, S and Allen, D and Silas, S and Revathi, R and Kalliappan, S and John, J and Prasad, J and Kampmann, B and Iturriza-Gómara, M and Grassly, N and Kang, G},
doi = {infdis/jiy568},
journal = {Journal of Infectious Diseases},
pages = {1178--1186},
title = {Influence of nonpolio enteroviruses and the bacterial gut microbiota on oral poliovirus vaccine response: A study from south India},
url = {},
volume = {219},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundOral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in low- or middle-income than in high-income countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (aged 6–11 months) receiving monovalent type 3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes were identified by means of VP1 sequencing. In 120 infants, the prevaccination bacterial microbiota was characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.ResultsWe detected 56 NPEV serotypes on the day of vaccination. Concurrent NPEVs were associated with a reduction in OPV seroconversion, consistent across species (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.57 [.36–.90], 0.61 [.43–.86], and 0.69 [.41–1.16] for species A, B, and C, respectively). Recently acquired enterovirus infections, detected at vaccination but not 14 days earlier, had a greater interfering effect on monovalent type 3 OPV seroresponse than did persistent infections, with enterovirus detected at both time points (seroconversion in 44 of 127 infants [35%] vs 63 of 129 [49%]; P = .02). The abundance of specific bacterial taxa did not differ significantly according to OPV response, although the microbiota was more diverse in nonresponders at the time of vaccination.ConclusionEnteric viruses have a greater impact on OPV response than the bacterial microbiota, with recent enterovirus infections having a greater inhibitory effect than persistent infections.
AU - Praharaj,I
AU - Parker,EPK
AU - Giri,S
AU - Allen,D
AU - Silas,S
AU - Revathi,R
AU - Kalliappan,S
AU - John,J
AU - Prasad,J
AU - Kampmann,B
AU - Iturriza-Gómara,M
AU - Grassly,N
AU - Kang,G
DO - infdis/jiy568
EP - 1186
PY - 2019///
SN - 0022-1899
SP - 1178
TI - Influence of nonpolio enteroviruses and the bacterial gut microbiota on oral poliovirus vaccine response: A study from south India
T2 - Journal of Infectious Diseases
UR -
UR -
VL - 219
ER -