Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Prof of Infectious Disease & Vaccine Epidemiology



+44 (0)20 7594 3264n.grassly Website




G36Medical SchoolSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Kaliappan, SP and Venugopal, S and Giri, S and Praharaj, I and Karthikeyan, AS and Babji, S and John, J and Muliyil, J and Grassly, N and Kang, G},
doi = {10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.032},
journal = {Vaccine},
pages = {4979--4984},
title = {Factors determining anti-poliovirus type 3 antibodies among orally immunised Indian infants},
url = {},
volume = {34},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundAmong the three poliovirus serotypes, the lowest responses after vaccination with trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) are to serotype 3. Although improvements in routine immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities have greatly increased vaccine coverage, there are limited data on antibody prevalence in Indian infants.MethodsChildren aged 5–11 months with a history of not having received inactivated polio vaccine were screened for serum antibodies to poliovirus serotype 3 (PV3) by a micro-neutralisation assay according to a modified World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Limited demographic information was collected to assess risk-factors for a lack of protective antibodies. Student’s t-test, logistic regression and multilevel logistic regression (MLR) model were used to estimate model parameters.ResultsOf 8454 children screened at a mean age of 8.3 (standard deviation [SD]-1.8) months, 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4–88.8) had protective antibodies to PV3. The number of tOPV doses received was the main determinant of seroprevalence; the maximum likelihood estimate yields a 37.7% (95% CI: 36.2–38.3) increase in seroprevalence per dose of tOPV. In multivariable logistic regression analysis increasing age, male sex, and urban residence were also independently associated with seropositivity (Odds Ratios (OR): 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12–1.23) per month of age, 1.27 (1.11–1.46) and 1.24 (1.05–1.45) respectively).ConclusionSeroprevalence of antibodies to PV3 is associated with age, gender and place of residence, in addition to the number of tOPV doses received. Ensuring high coverage and monitoring of response are essential as long as oral vaccines are used in polio eradication.
AU - Kaliappan,SP
AU - Venugopal,S
AU - Giri,S
AU - Praharaj,I
AU - Karthikeyan,AS
AU - Babji,S
AU - John,J
AU - Muliyil,J
AU - Grassly,N
AU - Kang,G
DO - 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.032
EP - 4984
PY - 2016///
SN - 1873-2518
SP - 4979
TI - Factors determining anti-poliovirus type 3 antibodies among orally immunised Indian infants
T2 - Vaccine
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 34
ER -