410 results found
Acha S, Mariaud A, Shah N, et al., 2018, Optimal design and operation of distributed low-carbon energy technologies in commercial buildings, Energy, Vol: 142, Pages: 578-591, ISSN: 0360-5442
© 2017 The Authors Commercial buildings are large energy consumers and opportunities exist to improve the way they produce and consume electricity, heating and cooling. If energy system integration is feasible, this can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and emissions. In this context, this work expands on an existing integrated Technology Selection and Operation (TSO) optimisation model for distributed energy systems (DES). The model considers combined heat and power (CHP) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines, absorption chillers, photovoltaic panels and batteries with the aim of guiding decision makers in making attractive investments that are technically feasible and environmentally sound. A retrofit case study of a UK food distribution centre is presented to showcase the benefits and trade-offs that integrated energy systems present by contrasting outcomes when different technologies are considered. Results show that the preferred investment options select a CHP coupled either to an ORC unit or to an absorption chiller. These solutions provide appealing internal rates of return of 28–30% with paybacks within 3.5–3.7 years, while also decarbonising the building by 95–96% (if green gas is used to power the site). Overall, the TSO model provides valuable insights allowing stakeholders to make well-informed decisions when evaluating complex integrated energy systems.
Al-Ansari T, Korre A, Nie Z, et al., 2017, Integration of greenhouse gas control technologies within the energy, water and food nexus to enhance the environmental performance of food production systems, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 162, Pages: 1592-1606, ISSN: 0959-6526
Bhave A, Taylor RHS, Fennell P, et al., 2017, Screening and techno-economic assessment of biomass-based power generation with CCS technologies to meet 2050 CO2 targets, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 190, Pages: 481-489, ISSN: 0306-2619
Cardenas-Fernandez M, Bawn M, Hamley-Bennett C, et al., 2017, An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 202, Pages: 415-431, ISSN: 1359-6640
Chen W, Sharifzadeh M, Shah N, et al., 2017, Implication of Side Reactions in Iterative Biopolymer Synthesis: The Case of Membrane Enhanced Peptide Synthesis, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 56, Pages: 6796-6804, ISSN: 0888-5885
Del Rio-Chanona EA, Liu J, Wagner JL, et al., 2017, Dynamic modeling of green algae cultivation in a photobioreactor for sustainable biodiesel production., Biotechnol Bioeng
Biodiesel produced from microalgae has been extensively studied due to its potentially outstanding advantages over traditional transportation fuels. In order to facilitate its industrialization and improve the process profitability, it is vital to construct highly accurate models capable of predicting the complex behavior of the investigated biosystem for process optimization and control, which forms the current research goal. Three original contributions are described in this paper. Firstly, a dynamic model is constructed to simulate the complicated effect of light intensity, nutrient supply and light attenuation on both biomass growth and biolipid production. Secondly, chlorophyll fluorescence, an instantly measurable variable and indicator of photosynthetic activity, is embedded into the model to monitor and update model accuracy especially for the purpose of future process optimal control, and its correlation between intracellular nitrogen content is quantified, which to the best of our knowledge has never been addressed so far. Thirdly, a thorough experimental verification is conducted under different scenarios including both continuous illumination and light/dark cycle conditions to testify the model predictive capability particularly for long-term operation, and it is concluded that the current model is characterized by a high level of predictive capability. Based on the model, the optimal light intensity for algal biomass growth and lipid synthesis is estimated. This work, therefore, paves the way to forward future process design and real-time optimization.
Delangle A, Lambert RSC, Shah N, et al., 2017, Modelling and optimising the marginal expansion of an existing district heating network, ENERGY, Vol: 140, Pages: 209-223, ISSN: 0360-5442
Elahi N, Shah N, Korre A, et al., 2017, Multi-stage Stochastic Optimisation of a CO<inf>2</inf>Transport and Geological Storage in the UK, Pages: 6514-6525, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. Deterministic whole system multi-stage optimisation frameworks provide valuable insights into the cost effective design and operation of CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) systems. However commercial deployment of CCS faces significant technical and economic uncertainties, which necessitate flexibility in system development strategies as well as coordination of all aspects of a CCS system across both time and space. This paper builds on a whole system dynamic CCS optimisation tool developed at Imperial College and presents a mixed integer linear programming approach for multi-stage multi-scenario stochastic optimisation of a spatially explicit integrated CCS system under uncertainty. The model provides great advantages through flexible strategies for all potential system state changes at every stage and early one-fit-for-all investment solutions that minimise financial loss and offer operational flexibility. The model is showcased through a case study set in the UK between 2015-2050 focusing on the techno-economic performance of the CCS value chain and considering uncertainties in the financial market and the storage capacity within a portfolio of Southern North Sea saline aquifer and depleted oil and gas fields.
Farzad S, Mandegari MA, Guo M, et al., 2017, Multi-product biorefineries from lignocelluloses: a pathway to revitalisation of the sugar industry?, BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1754-6834
Foster E, Contestabile M, Blazquez J, et al., 2017, The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil fuel price responses, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 103, Pages: 258-264, ISSN: 0301-4215
Georgiou S, Acha S, Shah N, et al., 2017, Assessing, Benchmarking and Analyzing Heating and Cooling Requirements for Glasshouse Food Production: A Design and Operation Modelling Framework, Pages: 164-172, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Growing populations, increase in food demand, society's expectations for out of season products and the dependency of the food system on fossil fuels stress resources due to the requirements for national production and from importation of products from remote origins. Quantifying the use of resources in food production and their environmental impacts is key to identifying distinctive measures which can develop pathways towards low carbon food systems. In this paper, a modelling approach is presented which can quantify the energy requirements of heated glasshouse food production. Based on the outputs from the model, benchmarking and comparison among different glasshouse types and growers is possible. Additionally, the effect of spatial and annual weather trends on the heating and cooling requirements of glasshouses are quantified. Case study results indicate that a reduction in heating requirements of about 50%, and therefore an equivalent carbon footprint reduction, can be achieved by replacing a single glass sealed cover with a double glass sealed cover.
Hankin A, Shah N, 2017, Process exploration and assessment for the production of methanol and dimethyl ether from carbon dioxide and water, Sustainable Energy Fuels, Vol: 1, Pages: 1541-1556
Heuberger CF, Rubin ES, Staffell I, et al., 2017, Power capacity expansion planning considering endogenous technology cost learning, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 204, Pages: 831-845, ISSN: 0306-2619
Heuberger CF, Rubin ES, Staffell I, et al., 2017, Power Generation Expansion Considering Endogenous Technology Cost Learning, 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Publisher: Elsevier
We present a mixed-integer linear formulation of a long-term power generation capacityexpansion problem including endogenous learning of technology investment cost. Weconsider a national-scale power system composed of up to 2000 units of 15 differentpower supply technologies, including international interconnectors for electricity importand export, and grid-level energy storage. We reformulate the non-convex learning curvemodel into a piecewise linear representation of the cumulative investment cost as a functionof cumulative installed capacity. The model is applied to a power system representativeof Great Britain for the years 2015 to 2050. We find that the consideration oftechnology cost learning rate influences the optimal capacity expansion and has systemicimplications on the profitability of the power units.
Heuberger CF, Staffell I, Shah N, et al., 2017, An MILP Modeling Approach to Systemic Energy Technology Valuation in the 21<sup>st</sup>Century Energy System, Pages: 6358-6365, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. New cannot be measured with old. The transformation of the electricity system from a network of fossil-based dispatchable power plants to one with large amounts of intermittent renewable power generation, flexible loads and markets, requires a concurrent development of new evaluation tools and metrics. The focus of this research is to investigate the value of power technologies in order to support decision making on optimal power system design and operation. Technology valuation metrics need to consider the complexity and interdependency of environmental and security objectives, rather than focusing on individual cost-competitiveness of technologies outside of the power system. We present the System Value as a new technology valuation metric, based on a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) formulation of a national-scale electricity system. The Electricity System Optimization model is able to capture detailed technical operation of the individual power plants as well as environmental and security requirements on the system level. We present a case study on the System Value of onshore wind power plants in comparison with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) equipped gas-fired power plants in a 2035 UK electricity system. Under the given emission constraints, the deployment of both technologies reduce total system cost of electricity generation. In the case of CCS-equipped power plants the reductions in total system cost are 2 to 5 times higher than for the deployment of onshore wind capacity.
Heuberger CF, Staffell I, Shah N, et al., 2017, A systems approach to quantifying the value of power generation and energy storage technologies in future electricity networks, COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 107, Pages: 247-256, ISSN: 0098-1354
Heuberger CF, Staffell I, Shah N, et al., 2017, The changing costs of technology and the optimal investment timing in the power sector
Heuberger CF, Staffell I, Shah N, et al., 2017, What is the Value of CCS in the Future Energy System?, Pages: 7564-7572, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. Ambitions to produce electricity at low, zero, or negative carbon emissions are shifting the priorities and appreciation for new types of power generating technologies. Maintaining the balance between security of energy supply, carbon reduction, and electricity system cost during the transition of the electricity system is challenging. Few technology valuation tools consider the presence and interdependency of these three aspects, and nor do they appreciate the difference between firm and intermittent power generation. In this contribution, we present the results of a thought experiment and mathematical model wherein we conduct a systems analyses on the effects of gas-fired power plants equipped with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology in comparison with onshore wind power plants as main decarbonisation technologies. We find that while wind capacity integration is in its early stages of deployment an economic decarbonisation strategy, it ultimately results in an infrastructurally inefficient system with a required ratio of installed capacity to peak demand of nearly 2. Due to the intermi ttent nature of wind power generation, its deployment requires a significant amount of reserve capacity in the form of firm capacity. While the integration of CCS-equipped capacity increases total system cost significantly, this strategy is able to achieve truly low-carbon power generation at 0.04 t CO2 /MWh. Via a simple example, this work elucidates how the changing system requirements necessitate a paradigm shift in the value perception of power generation technologies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Karatayev M, Rivotti P, Sobral Mourão Z, et al., 2017, The water-energy-food nexus in Kazakhstan: Challenges and opportunities, Pages: 63-70, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The concept of the water, energy, food nexus is extremely relevant to Kazakhstan as the country faces population growth, economic progress and environmental challenges such as water scarcity, desertification, and climate change. Furthermore, poor sectoral coordination and inadequate infrastructure have caused unsustainable resource use and threaten the long-term water, energy and food security in Kazakhstan. This study presents the key elements required to implement a nexus-based resource management approach in Kazakhstan, by identifying linkages between water resources, energy production and agriculture. A case study illustrates how this methodology can be applied to quantify linkages between the water and energy sectors.
Khor CS, Elkamel A, Shah N, 2017, Optimization methods for petroleum fields development and production systems: a review, OPTIMIZATION AND ENGINEERING, Vol: 18, Pages: 907-941, ISSN: 1389-4420
Kong Q, Shah N, 2017, Development of an Optimization-Based Framework for Simultaneous Process Synthesis and Heat Integration, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 56, Pages: 5000-5013, ISSN: 0888-5885
Kucherenko S, Klymenko OV, Shah N, 2017, Sobol' indices for problems defined in non-rectangular domains, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Leeson D, Fennell P, Mac Dowell N, et al., 2017, Simultaneous design of separation sequences and whole process energy integration, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, Vol: 125, Pages: 166-180, ISSN: 0263-8762
Leeson D, Fennell P, Shah N, et al., 2017, A Techno-economic Analysis and Systematic Review of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Applied to the Iron and Steel, Cement, Oil Refining and Pulp and Paper Industries, Pages: 6297-6302, ISSN: 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. A systematic review into the literature surrounding industrial carbon capture has been performed, with a particular focus on costs per tonne of CO 2 avoided. The authors have reviewed 250 research articles in order to extract data regarding industrial CCS, focusing on four main carbon-emitting industries; the iron and steel industry, the refining industry, the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. Only 25 costs were returned as part of the search, and across the four industries they suggested that the cost of carbon capture on industries after conversion to 2013 US Dollars is $20-140 per tonne of CO 2 avoided. The highest costs were found using amine scrubbing, the most mature technology, with other less mature technologies reporting lower costs, for example, calcium looping applied to the cement industry was reported to have costs of in the range of $20-75 per tonne avoided, with the only lower costs reported being in the pulp and paper industry reported between $16 and $35. However, the paucity of costing data increases the uncertainty surrounding industrial CCS, meaning that more economic data are required before any conclusive decisions can be made.
Leeson D, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, et al., 2017, A Techno-economic analysis and systematic review of carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to the iron and steel, cement, oil refining and pulp and paper industries, as well as other high purity sources, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, Vol: 61, Pages: 71-84, ISSN: 1750-5836
Mac Dowell N, Fennell PS, Shah N, et al., 2017, The role of CO2 capture and utilization in mitigating climate change, NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, Vol: 7, Pages: 243-249, ISSN: 1758-678X
Mahdi S, Wang X, Shah N, 2017, Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration, ENGINEERING, Vol: 3, Pages: 244-256, ISSN: 2095-8099
Mariaud A, Acha S, Ekins-Daukes N, et al., 2017, Integrated optimisation of photovoltaic and battery storage systems for UK commercial buildings, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 199, Pages: 466-478, ISSN: 0306-2619
Pantaleo AM, Camporeale SM, Markides CN, et al., 2017, Energy performance and thermo-economic assessment of a microturbine-based dual-fuel gas-biomass trigeneration system, 8th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 764-772, ISSN: 1876-6102
Pantaleo AM, Camporeale SM, Miliozzi A, et al., 2017, Thermo-economic assessment of an externally fired hybrid CSP/biomass gas turbine and organic Rankine combined cycle, 8th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 174-181, ISSN: 1876-6102
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