Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Chair in Thermofluids



+44 (0)20 7594 7032p.aleiferis




Ms Serena Dalrymple +44 (0)20 7594 7029




615City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Aleiferis, PG and Serras-Pereira, J and van, Romunde Z and Caine, J and Wirth, M},
doi = {10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.12.019},
journal = {Combustion and Flame},
pages = {735--756},
title = {Mechanisms of Spray Formation and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector with E85 and Gasoline},
url = {},
volume = {157},
year = {2010}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The spray formation and combustion characteristics of gasoline and E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) have been investigated using a multi-hole injector with asymmetric nozzle-hole arrangement. Experiments were carried out in a quiescent optical chamber using high-speed shadowgraphy (9 kHz) to characterise the spray sensitivity to both injector temperature and ambient pressure in the range of 20–120 °C and 0.5, 1.0 bar. Spray-tip penetrations and ‘umbrella’ spray cone angles were calculated for all conditions. Phase Doppler Anemometry was also used to measure droplet sizes in the core of one of the spray plumes, 25 mm below the injector tip. To study the effect of fuel properties on vaporisation and mixture preparation under realistic operating conditions, a separate set of experiments was carried out in a direct-injection spark-ignition optical engine. The engine was run at 1500 RPM under cold and fully warmed-up conditions (20 °C and 90 °C) at part load and full load (0.5 and 1.0 bar intake pressure). Floodlit laser Mie-scattering images of the sprays on two orthogonal planes corresponding to the swirl and tumble planes of in-cylinder flow motion were acquired to study the full injection event and post-injection mixing stage. These were used to make comparisons with the static chamber sprays and to quantify the liquid-to-vapour phase evaporation process for both fuels by calculating the projected ‘footprint’ of the sprays at different conditions. Analysis of the macroscopic structure and turbulent primary break-up properties of the sprays was undertaken in light of jet exit conditions described in terms of non-dimensional numbers. The effects on stoichiometric combustion were investigated by imaging the natural flame chemiluminescence through the engine’s piston crown (swirl plane) and by post-processing to derive flame growth rates and trajectories of flame motion.
AU - Aleiferis,PG
AU - Serras-Pereira,J
AU - van,Romunde Z
AU - Caine,J
AU - Wirth,M
DO - 10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.12.019
EP - 756
PY - 2010///
SN - 0010-2180
SP - 735
TI - Mechanisms of Spray Formation and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector with E85 and Gasoline
T2 - Combustion and Flame
UR -
UR -
VL - 157
ER -