Imperial College London

ProfessorPavlosAleiferis

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Chair in Thermofluids
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7032p.aleiferis

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Serena Dalrymple +44 (0)20 7594 7029

 
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Location

 

615City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

69 results found

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, Malcolm JS, 2017, Integral length scales and time scales of turbulence in an optical spark-ignition engine, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol: 98, Pages: 523-577, ISSN: 1573-1987

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, 2016, Multi-Hole Atomization of Gasoline-Butanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines, Fuel, ISSN: 1873-7153

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, 2016, Pressure-Swirl Atomization of Gasoline–Butanol, Gasoline–Ethanol, iso-Octane–Butanol and iso-Octane–Ethanol Blends, Energy and Fuels, ISSN: 0887-0624

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, OudeNijeweme D, Freeland Pet al., 2016, Insights into stoichiometric and lean combustion phenomena of gasoline–butanol, gasoline–ethanol, iso-octane–butanol and iso-octane–ethanol blends in an optical SI engine, Combustion Science and Technology, Vol: 189, Pages: 1013-1060, ISSN: 1563-521X

Introduction of novel fuels, such as mixtures of ethanol or butanol with hydrocarbons, requires new fundamental understanding of in-cylinder combustion properties in modern direct-injection spark-ignition engines since those can be quite sensitive to fuel properties. Gasoline and its blends with 25% ethanol and butanol at 25% and 16% per volume (the latter equivalent to 10% ethanol blending ratio in terms of oxygen content) were studied in comparison to gasoline, ethanol, and butanol combustion. The same alcohol blending ratios were also employed with iso-octane as the base component for direct comparison. Testing was performed at 1500 RPM with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure using 20°C or 80°C engine coolant temperature. Thermodynamic parameters were derived using in-cylinder pressure analysis for stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0) and lean (ϕ = 0.83) fueling over a range of spark advances. Additionally, high speed color and greyscale chemiluminescence imaging was conducted at gasoline’s maximum break torque spark timing, calculating flame growth speeds, flame roundness, and centroid motion. Laminar burning velocity data from the literature and in-cylinder flow measurements from the same engine were used for interpretation. Overall, the analysis showed small differences between gasoline and the blends in general, but showed changes for the pure alcohols with typically much faster flame progression for ethanol and issues with the combustion stability of butanol at low engine temperatures. Alcohol blending, particularly with iso-octane, showed some benefits at lean conditions.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, 2016, Gas Dynamics and Flow Characteristics of Under-Expanded Hydrogen and Methane Jets under Various Nozzle Pressure Ratios and Ambient Pressures, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 41, Pages: 6544-6566, ISSN: 1879-3487

The current study used large eddy simulations to investigate the sonic and mixing characteristics of turbulent under-expanded hydrogen and methane jets with various nozzle pressure ratios issued into various ambient pressures including elevated conditions relevant to applications in direct injection gaseous-fuelled internal combustion engines. Due to the relatively low density of most gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane, DI requires high injection pressures to achieve suitable mass flow rates for fast in-cylinder fuel delivery and rapid fuel-air mixing. Such pressures typically form an under-expanded fuel jet past the nozzle exit. Test cases of hydrogen injection with nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 10 issued into quiescent air with pressure P∞ ≈ 1, 5 and 10 bar were simulated. Direct comparison between hydrogen and methane jets with NPR = 8.5 and P∞ ≈ 1 was also made. The effect of ambient pressure on features of transient development of the near-nozzle shock structure and tip vortices (vortex ring) was investigated. It was observed that at constant NPR, higher ambient pressure resulted in slightly faster formation of the Mach reflection and shorter Mach disk settlement time. Different mechanisms were observed between hydrogen and methane with regards to transient formation of their initial tip vortex rings. It was found that the initial transient tip vortices of hydrogen jets may also contribute to the flow instabilities at the boundary of the intercepting shock and, unlike for methane, promote fuel-air mixing before the Mach reflection. It was also shown that the near-nozzle shock structure was only affected by NPR regardless of the ambient pressure. Furthermore, no flow recirculation zone was found just downstream of the Mach disk, a finding comparable to all previous experimental investigations. Also, it was observed that a locally richer mixture was created for jets with higher NPR or with higher ambient pressure at constant NPR.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, 2016, Numerical Modelling of Transient Under-Expanded Jets under Different Ambient Thermodynamic Conditions with Adaptive Mesh Refinement, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol: 61, Pages: 711-729, ISSN: 0142-727X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, 2016, On the Characteristics of Vortical Structures in the Shear Layers of Highly Under-Expanded Hydrogen and Methane Jets, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN: 1573-1987

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Price C, Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis P, Richardson Det al., 2016, An Approach to Modelling Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines, Atomization and Sprays, Vol: 26, Pages: 1197-1239, ISSN: 1936-2684

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Shukla J, Aleiferis PG, 2016, Spray Development with Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuels for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines, Fuel, ISSN: 1873-7153

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis P, Charalambides A, Hardalupas Y, Soulopoulos N, Taylor AMKP, Urata Yet al., 2015, Schlieren-based temperature measurement inside the cylinder of an optical spark ignition and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine, Applied Optics, Vol: 54, Pages: 4566-4579, ISSN: 1559-128X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, 2015, Flame Front Analysis of Ethanol, Butanol, iso-Octane and Gasoline in a Spark-Ignition Engine using Laser Tomography and Integral Length Scale Measurements, Combustion and Flame, Vol: 162, Pages: 4533-4552, ISSN: 1556-2921

Direct-injection spark-ignition engines have become popular due to their flexibility in injection strategies and higher efficiency; however, the high-pressure in-cylinder injection process can alter the airflow field by momentum exchange, with different effects for fuels of diverse properties. The current paper presents results from optical studies of stoichiometric combustion of ethanol, butanol, iso-octane and gasoline in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine run at 1500 RPM with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure and early intake stroke fuel injection for homogeneous mixture preparation. The analysis initially involved particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow field at ignition timing with and without fuelling for comparison. Flame chemiluminescence imaging was used to characterise the global flame behaviour and double-pulsed Laser-sheet flame tomography by Mie scattering to quantify the local topology of the flame front. The flow measurements with fuel injection showed integral length scales of the same order to those of air only on the tumble plane, but larger regions with scales up to 9 mm on the horizontal plane. Averaged length scales over both measurement planes were between 4 and 6 mm, with ethanol exhibiting the largest and butanol the smallest. In non-dimensional form, the integral length scales were up to 20% of the clearance height and 5–12% of the cylinder bore. Flame tomography showed that at radii between 8 and 12 mm, ethanol was burning the fastest, followed by butanol, iso-octane and gasoline. The associated turbulent burning velocities were 4.6–6.5 times greater than the laminar burning velocities and about 13–20% lower than those obtained by flame chemiluminescence imaging. Flame roundness was 10–15% on the tomography plane, with largest values for ethanol, followed by butanol, gasoline and iso-octane; chemiluminescence imaging showed larger roundness (18–25%), albeit with the same order amongst fuels. The

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Behringer MK, OudeNijeweme D, Freeland Pet al., 2015, Spray Imaging and Droplet Sizing of Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors with Gasoline-Butanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends, International Conference on Fuel Systems for IC Engines, Pages: 179-198

CONFERENCE PAPER

Aleiferis PG, van Romunde ZR, Larson G, Lawes M, Sheppard CGWet al., 2015, On the Effect of Ambient Turbulence and Thermodynamic Conditions on Fuel Spray Development for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol: 95, Pages: 29-60, ISSN: 1573-1987

High-pressure multi-hole injectors for direct-injection spark-ignition engines offer certain flexibility in spray directionality by selecting the number and angle of the nozzle’s holes to suit the design of a particular combustion chamber. However, the spray’s pattern can change significantly for injector-body temperatures representative of real engine operation at low-load conditions with injection strategies in the early intake stroke. This is due to rapid phase change effects from flash boiling of the high-volatility components of gasoline. This work presents results from an optical investigation into the effects of injector-body temperature and back pressure on the pattern of spray formation, especially when coupled to different levels of ambient turbulence. Specifically, gasoline and iso-octane fuels were tested in the range of 20–120 °C injector-body temperatures and for ambient pressures of 0.5–5.0 bar. Additionally, the ambient turbulence was varied in the range 0–4 m/s to observe its effect on flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling sprays. Results from a combination of high-speed shadowgraphy and simultaneous Schlieren and Mie scattering optical techniques are presented in terms of imaged spray areas and plume penetration. Calculations of the Stokes number are also discussed with respect to turbulence and fuel properties. The results demonstrate a marginal effect of the degree of turbulence intensity on non-flash-boiling sprays that maintained their nominal plume directionality throughout the injection event. However, a significant effect on the spray’s penetration and mixing at conditions of fuel flash-boiling was observed with increasing levels of turbulence intensity; the collapsed pattern of the spray’s formation exhibited much faster dispersion and mixing.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Butcher AJ, Aleiferis PG, Richardson D, 2015, Characterisation of Spray Development from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Multi-Hole Injectors in an Optical DISI Engine and in a Quiescent Injection Chamber, SAE Technical Papers, Vol: 2015-September

© 2015 SAE Japan. This paper addresses the need for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of fuel spray formation and mixture preparation in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Fuel injection systems for DISI engines undergo rapid developments in their design and performance, therefore, their spray breakup mechanisms in the physical conditions encountered in DISI engines over a range of operating conditions and injection strategies require continuous attention. In this context, there are sparse data in the literature on spray formation differences between conventionally drilled injectors by spark erosion and latest Laser-drilled injector nozzles. A comparison was first carried out between the holes of spark-eroded and Laser-drilled injectors of same nominal type by analysing their in-nozzle geometry and surface roughness under an electron microscope. Then the differences in their spray characteristics under quiescent conditions, as well as in a motoring optical engine, are discussed on the basis of high-speed imaging experiments and image processing methods. Specifically, the spray development mechanism was quantified by spray tip penetration and cone angle data under a range of representative low-load and high-low engine operating conditions (0.5 bar and 1.0 bar absolute, respectively), as well as at low and high injector body temperatures (20 °C and 90°C) to represent cold and warm engine-head conditions. Droplet sizing was also performed with the two injectors using Phase Doppler Anemometry in a quiescent chamber.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Charalambides AG, Hardalupas Y, Soulopoulos N, Taylor AMKP, Aleiferis PG, Urata Yet al., 2015, Using Infrared Laser Absorption to Measure Hydrocarbon Concentration in a Lean-Burn, Stratified-Charge, Spark-Ignition Engine, Combustion Science and Technology, Vol: 187, Pages: 679-696, ISSN: 1563-521X

The operating range of lean-burn spark-ignition (SI) engines is limited by the cycle-to-cycle variability of the fuel concentration at or near the spark plug at ignition timing. An experimental investigation was undertaken to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a spark-ignition engine, using the infrared (IR) laser absorption at 3392 nm. The purposes were to establish whether there is a correlation between time-resolved HC measurements for a range of global air-to-fuel (A/F) ratios (A/F = 15.5–23) with the strength of the firing stroke and to establish how this varies with fuel port-injection strategies against either open (injection timing 30° crank angle (CA) after intake top dead center) or closed-valves (injection timing 180°CA after intake top dead center), respectively resulting in stratified and near-homogeneous charge distributions. The results showed that IR line-of-sight (LOS) averaged A/F ratio measurements yielded a good agreement with the global A/F ratio readings obtained by the linear air-to-fuel (LAF) zirconia-based sensor. Furthermore, the cyclic variability of the measurements of the fuel concentration increased with increasing A/F ratio. At A/F = 23, closed-valve injection strategy resulted in small spatial stratification of the fuel charge with an ensemble-averaged correlation coefficient of fluctuations of the IR LOS A/F ratios with fluctuations of peak in-cylinder pressure of 0.37. For open-valve injection strategy, which resulted in axial fuel mixture charge-stratification but no radial charge-stratification, a maximum correlation coefficient of the IR LOS A/F ratios with fluctuations of peak pressure of 0.34 was measured (at the measurement location closest to the spark). This correlation was reduced to 0.17 at locations furthest from the spark plug. Finally, results showed that at A/F = 23, fuel stratification can be used to control lean-burn SI combustion, while at A/F = 15.5, no

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Papadopoulos N, Aleiferis P, 2015, Numerical Modelling of the In-Nozzle Flow of a Diesel Injector with Moving Needle during and after the End of a Full Injection Event, SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol: 8, Pages: 2285-2302, ISSN: 1946-3944

The design of a Diesel injector is a key factor in achieving higher engine efficiency. The injector's fuel atomisation characteristics are also critical for minimising toxic emissions such as unburnt Hydrocarbons (HC). However, when developing injection systems, the small dimensions of the nozzle render optical experimental investigations very challenging under realistic engine conditions. Therefore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used instead. For the present work, transient, Volume Of Fluid (VOF), multiphase simulations of the flow inside and immediately downstream of a real-size multi-hole nozzle were performed, during and after the injection event with a small air chamber coupled to the injector downstream of the nozzle exit. A Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach was used to account for turbulence. Grid dependency studies were performed with 200k-1.5M cells. Both k-ε and k-ω SST models were considered in the validation process, with the k-ω SST found to predict better the injector's flow rate. The cavitation models of Schnerr-Sauer and the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri were employed for validation against optical data of cavitation in a simplified nozzle geometry obtained from the literature. The Schnerr-Sauer model was in better agreement with the experiments, hence this model was subsequently employed for the real injector simulations. The motion of the injector needle was modeled by a dynamic grid methodology. An injection pressure of 400 bar was applied at the inlet of the injector. Two outlet pressures were examined, 60 bar and 1 bar. The results showed that the flow was far from steady-state during the injection event and that hysteresis existed between the needle opening and closing phases. This indicated the importance of transient simulations, contrary to widely-used steady state simulations at fixed needle lifts. The two outlet pressures resulted in very different final states of the flow-field in the nozzle. Specifica

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Price C, Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, Richardson Det al., 2015, Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays, SAE Technical Paper Series, ISSN: 0148-7191

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Ashrafi-Nik M, Ladommatos N, Dober G, Karimi Ket al., 2014, A Study of Droplet Collision Modelling for Spray Formation and Mixing with a Two-Row Group-Hole Injection Nozzle for Diesel Engines, Atomization and Sprays, Vol: 24, Pages: 1089-1135, ISSN: 1936-2684

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Hamzehloo A, 2014, Numerical Modelling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in DISI Hydrogen Engines with Various Injection Strategies, SAE Technical Paper Series, Vol: 2014, ISSN: 0148-7191

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Behringer M, Aleiferis P, OudeNijeweme D, Freeland Pet al., 2014, Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels, SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol: 7, Pages: 803-822, ISSN: 1946-3952

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, 2014, Large Eddy Simulation of Highly Turbulent Under-Expanded Hydrogen and Methane Jets for Gaseous-Fuelled Internal Combustion Engines, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 39, Pages: 21275-21296, ISSN: 0360-3199

Burning hydrogen in conventional internal combustion (IC) engines is associated with zero carbon-based tailpipe exhaust emissions. In order to obtain high volumetric efficiency and eliminate abnormal combustion modes such as preignition and backfire, in-cylinder direct injection (DI) of hydrogen is considered preferable for a future generation of hydrogen IC engines. However, hydrogen's low density requires high injection pressures for fast hydrogen penetration and sufficient in-cylinder mixing. Such pressures lead to chocked flow conditions during the injection process which result in the formation of turbulent under-expanded hydrogen jets. In this context, fundamental understanding of the under-expansion process and turbulent mixing just after the nozzle exit is necessary for the successful design of an efficient hydrogen injection system and associated injection strategies. The current study used large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate the characteristics of hydrogen under-expanded jets with different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR), namely 8.5, 10, 30 and 70. A test case of methane injection with NPR = 8.5 was also simulated for direct comparison with the hydrogen jetting under the same NPR. The near-nozzle shock structure, the geometry of the Mach disk and reflected shock angle, as well as the turbulent shear layer were all captured in very good agreement with data available in the literature. Direct comparison between hydrogen and methane fuelling showed that the ratio of the specific heats had a noticeable effect on the near-nozzle shock structure and dimensions of the Mach disk. It was observed that with methane, mixing did not occur before the Mach disk, whereas with hydrogen high levels of momentum exchange and mixing appeared at the boundary of the intercepting shock. This was believed to be the effect of the high turbulence fluctuations at the nozzle exit of the hydrogen jet which triggered Gortler vortices. Generally, the primary mixing was observed to

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hamzehloo A, Aleiferis PG, 2014, Large Eddy Simulation of Near-Nozzle Shock Structure and Mixing Characteristics of Hydrogen Jets for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines, 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics (HEFAT2014)

CONFERENCE PAPER

Oudenijeweme D, Freeland P, Behringer MK, Aleiferis PGet al., 2014, Developing Low Gasoline Particulate Emission Engines Through Improved Fuel Delivery, SAE Technical Paper Series, Vol: 2014, ISSN: 0148-7191

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Serras-Pereira J, Aleiferis PG, Richardson D, 2014, An Experimental Database on the Effects of Single- and Split-Injection Strategies on Spray formation and Spark Discharge in an Optical Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Fuelled with Gasoline, iso-Octane and Alcohols, International Journal of Engine Research, Vol: 16, Pages: 851-896, ISSN: 1468-0874

This article presents results from a comprehensive optical study of a direct-injection spark-ignition research engine running on gasoline, iso-octane, ethanol, n-butanol and E10 fuels injected from a multi-hole central vertically positioned injector. The analysis was based on images of spray development, spark discharge and combustion to understand the effects of early and late injection strategies on in-cylinder phenomena. Specifically, `single'-injection strategies from early to late intake stroke as well as multiple `split' injection events with triple pulses in the early intake stroke or double pulses in the intake stroke and late compression stroke were investigated. The engine was run at 1500 r/min at part- and full-load conditions (0.5 and 1.0 bar inlet plenum pressure, respectively). Engine coolant temperatures of 20°C–90°C were employed to understand how fuel volatility was related to the phenomena observed. The sprays were imaged over a series of cycles primarily by laser sheet illumination on one vertical and two horizontal planes to identify three-dimensional aspects of the spray's development and its interactions with the incoming flow, valves, piston and liner. There was a clear fuel-impingement trade-off between early and late injection timings. The spark discharge was also imaged with all injection strategies and clear differences were observed. Selective combustion imaging provided insights into the flame's growth and motion with early and double early–late split injection strategies. The double earlylate injection strategy demonstrated the potential for control of the mixture formation and flow field over the early flame development stage of combustion.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Kountouriotis A, Charalambides AG, 2013, Numerical Investigation of VOC Levels in the Area of Petrol Stations, Science of the Total Environment, Vol: 470-471, Pages: 1205-1224, ISSN: 0048-9697

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Serras-Pereira J, Richardson D, 2013, Characterisation of Flame Development with Ethanol, Butanol, iso-Octane, Gasoline and Methane in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine, Fuel, Vol: 109, Pages: 256-278, ISSN: 0016-2361

Research into novel internal combustion engines requires consideration of the diversity in future fuels that may contain significant quantities of bio-components in an attempt to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicles and contribute to energy sustainability. However, most biofuels have different chemical and physical properties to those of typical hydrocarbons; these can lead to different mechanisms of mixture preparation and combustion. The current paper presents results from an optical study of combustion in a direct-injection spark-ignition research engine with gasoline, iso-octane, ethanol and butanol fuels injected from a centrally located multi-hole injector. Methane was also employed by injecting it into the inlet plenum of the engine to provide a benchmark case for well-mixed ‘homogeneous’ charge preparation. Crank-angle resolved flame chemiluminescence images were acquired and post-processed for a series of consecutive cycles for each fuel, in order to calculate in-cylinder rates of flame growth and motion. In-cylinder pressure traces were used for heat release analysis and for comparison with the image-processing results. All tests were performed at 1500 RPM with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure. Stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0) and lean (ϕ = 0.83) conditions were considered. The combustion characteristics were analysed with respect to laminar and turbulent burning velocities obtained from combustion bombs in the literature and from traditional combustion diagrams in order to bring all data into the context of current theories and allow insights by making comparisons were appropriate.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, Serras-Pereira J, Walmsley HL, Davies TJ, Cracknell RFet al., 2013, Heat Flux Characteristics of Spray Wall Impingement with Ethanol, Butanol, iso-Octane, Gasoline and E10 Fuels, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol: 44, Pages: 662-683, ISSN: 0142-727X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aleiferis PG, van Romunde ZR, 2013, An Analysis of Spray Development with iso-Octane, n-Pentane, Gasoline, Ethanol and n-Butanol from a Multi-Hole Injector Under Hot Fuel Conditions, Fuel, Vol: 105, Pages: 143-168, ISSN: 0016-2361

High-pressure multi-hole injectors for direct-injection spark-ignition engines offer some great benefits in terms of fuel atomisation, as well as flexibility in fuel targeting by selection of the number and angle of the nozzle’s holes. However, very few data exist for injector-body temperatures representative of engine operation with various fuels, especially at low-load conditions with early injection strategies that can also lead to phase change due to fuel flash boiling upon injection. The challenge is further complicated by the predicted fuel stocks which will include a significant bio-derived component presenting the requirement to manage fuel flexibility. The physical/chemical properties of bio-components, like various types of alcohols, can differ markedly from gasoline and it is important to study their effects in direct comparison to liquid hydrocarbons. This work outlines results from an optical investigation (high-speed imaging and droplet sizing) into the effects of fuel properties, temperature and pressure conditions on the extent of spray formation. Specifically, gasoline, iso-octane, n-pentane, ethanol and n-butanol were tested at 20, 50, 90 and 120 °C injector body temperatures for ambient pressures of 0.5 bar and 1.0 bar in order to simulate early homogeneous injection strategies for part-load and wide open throttle engine operation; some test were also carried out at 180 °C, 0.3 bar. Droplet sizing was also performed for gasoline, iso-octane and n-pentane using Phase Doppler and Laser Diffraction techniques in order to understand the effects of low- and high-volatility components on the atomisation of the multi-component gasoline. The boiling points and distillation curves of all fuels, their vapour pressures and bubble points, as well as density, viscosity and surface tension were obtained and the Reynolds, Weber and Ohnesorge numbers were considered in the analysis.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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