513 results found
Elliott P, Aresu M, Gao H, et al., 2019, Use of TETRA personal radios and sickness absence in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces, Environmental Research, ISSN: 0013-9351
Davies G, Lam M, Harris SE, et al., 2019, Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function (vol 9, 2098, 2018), NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Freni-Sterrantino A, Ghosh RE, Fecht D, et al., 2019, Bayesian spatial modelling for quasi-experimental designs: An interrupted time series study of the opening of Municipal Waste Incinerators in relation to infant mortality and sex ratio., Environ Int, Vol: 128, Pages: 109-115
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on potential health risks from Municipal Waste Incinerators (MWIs), and previous studies on birth outcomes show inconsistent results. Here, we evaluate whether the opening of MWIs is associated with infant mortality and sex ratio in the surrounding areas, extending the Interrupted Time Series (ITS) methodological approach to account for spatial dependencies at the small area level. METHODS: We specified a Bayesian hierarchical model to investigate the annual risks of infant mortality and sex-ratio (female relative to male) within 10 km of eight MWIs in England and Wales, during the period 1996-2012. We included comparative areas matched one-to-one of similar size and area characteristics. RESULTS: During the study period, infant mortality rates decreased overall by 2.5% per year in England. The opening of an incinerator in the MWI area was associated with -8 deaths per 100,000 infants (95% CI -62, 40) and with a difference in sex ratio of -0.004 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01), comparing the period after opening with that before, corrected for before-after trends in the comparator areas. CONCLUSION: Our method is suitable for the analysis of quasi-experimental time series studies in the presence of spatial structure and when there are global time trends in the outcome variable. Based on our approach, we do not find evidence of an association of MWI opening with changes in risks of infant mortality or sex ratio in comparison with control areas.
Iwahori T, Miura K, Ueshima H, et al., 2019, Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and intake of sodium and potassium among men and women from multiethnic general populations: the INTERSALT Study., Hypertens Res
The Na/K ratio may be more strongly related to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease than sodium or potassium. The casual urine Na/K ratio can provide prompt on-site feedback, and with repeated measurements, may provide useful individual estimates of the 24-h ratio. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for sodium and potassium intake, but no generally accepted guideline prevails for the Na/K ratio. We used standardized data on 24 h and casual urinary electrolyte excretion obtained from the INTERSALT Study for 10,065 individuals aged 20-59 years from 32 countries (52 populations). Associations between the casual urinary Na/K ratio and the 24-h sodium and potassium excretion of individuals were assessed by correlation and stratification analyses. The mean 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 156.0 mmol/24 h and 55.2 mmol/24 h, respectively; the mean 24-h urinary Na/K molar ratio was 3.24. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) for the casual urinary Na/K ratio with 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 0.42 and -0.34, respectively, and these were 0.57 and -0.48 for the 24-h ratio. The urinary Na/K ratio predicted a 24-h urine Na excretion of <85 mmol/day (the WHO recommended guidelines) with a sensitivity of 99.7% and 94.0%, specificity of 39.5% and 48.0%, and positive predictive value of 96.3% and 61.1% at the cutoff point of 1 in 24 h and casual urine Na/K ratios, respectively. A urinary Na/K molar ratio <1 may be a useful indicator for adherence to the WHO recommended levels of sodium and, to a lesser extent, the potassium intake across different populations; however, cutoff points for Na/K ratio may be tuned for localization.
Karimi M, Castagné R, Delpierre C, et al., 2019, Early-life inequalities and biological ageing: a multisystem Biological Health Score approach in UnderstandingSociety., J Epidemiol Community Health
Social position is known to play a role in the quality of ageing, notably through the stimulation/dysregulation of key physiological systems in response to external stresses. Using data from one wave of Understanding Society including 9088 participants, we defined, as an extension of the allostatic load, a synthetic Biological Health Score (BHS) capturing the wear-and-tear of four physiological systems (endocrine, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic systems) and two organs (liver and kidney). We used 16 established blood-derived biomarkers of these systems to calculate the BHS and explored the relative contribution of socioeconomic position to the BHS and its main components across age groups. We identified a systematic decreasing education-related gradient of the BHS (p<0.001) leading to lower biological risk in participants with longer education. Education-related differences in the BHS were detected early in life, and were not attributable to lifestyle and behavioural factors. We found a consistent contribution of the inflammatory and metabolic systems to the overall score throughout from early adulthood onwards, while the contribution of the other four systems seems to vary across age groups and gender. Our findings highlight the social-to-biological processes ultimately leading to health inequalities, and suggest that such disparities can already be detected in the 20-40 years old age group and cannot be fully explained by lifestyle and behavioural factors. This may define early adulthood social condition as a precursor to accelerated biological ageing and as an important target for public health policies.
Piel F, Parkes B, Hambly P, et al., The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0: an open access tool for Environmental Public Health Tracking, International Journal of Epidemiology
Bentley AR, Sung YJ, Brown MR, et al., 2019, Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 51, Pages: 636-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Müller CP, Chu C, Qin L, et al., 2019, The Cortical Neuroimmune Regulator TANK Affects Emotional Processing and Enhances Alcohol Drinking: A Translational Study., Cereb Cortex, Vol: 29, Pages: 1736-1751
Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1.16 × 10-19) and regional methylation (P = 5.90 × 10-25). A tank knock out mouse model suggests a role of TANK in alcohol drinking, anxiety-related behavior, as well as alcohol exposure induced activation of insular cortex NF-κB. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies among up to 1896 adolescents reveal that TANK is involved in the control of brain activity in areas of aversive interoceptive processing, including the insular cortex, but not in areas related to reinforcement, reward processing or impulsiveness. Our findings suggest that the cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK is associated with enhanced aversive emotional processing that better protects from the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.
Mireku MO, Barker MM, Mutz J, et al., 2019, Processed data on the night-time use of screen-based media devices and adolescents' sleep quality and health-related quality of life, Data in Brief, Vol: 23, Pages: 103761-103761, ISSN: 2352-3409
Wen X, Zhou L, Stamler J, et al., 2019, Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure., J Hypertens, Vol: 37, Pages: 814-819
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). METHODS: Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level. RESULTS: The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK, and USA were -54.0 (-59.8, -48.3), 3.9 (0.6, 7.2), 2.9 (-1.8, 7.6), and -3.5 (-5.8, -1.1) mmol/day, respectively. The proportions of individual relative differences beyond ±40% were 34.3% for China, 16.9% for Japan, 24.2% for UK, and 21.3% for USA; the proportions of individual absolute differences greater than 51.3 mmol/day (3 g salt) were 58.6% for China, 32.8% for Japan, 25.4% for UK, and 31.9% for USA. The rate for misclassification of salt intake groups at individual level for China, Japan, UK, and USA were 71.4, 60.9, 58.7, and 60.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 24-h dietary recalls demonstrate greater agreement with the 24-h urine collections in estimating population sodium intake for Japan, UK, and USA, compared with China. The 24-h dietary recall has poor performance in assessing individual sodium intake in these four countries.
Bixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, et al., Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic, Nature
Takashima N, Ohkubo T, Miura K, et al., 2019, Factors associated with intra-individual visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure in four countries: the INTERMAP study, JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION, Vol: 33, Pages: 229-236, ISSN: 0950-9240
Middeldorp CM, Mahajan A, Horikoshi M, et al., 2019, The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 279-300, ISSN: 0393-2990
Mireku MO, Barker MM, Mutz J, et al., 2019, Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 124, Pages: 66-78, ISSN: 0160-4120
Justice AE, Karaderi T, Highland HM, et al., 2019, Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 51, Pages: 452-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Hodgson S, Fecht D, Gulliver J, et al., Availability, access, analysis and dissemination of small area data, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 1464-3685
In this era of ‘big data’, there is growing recognition of the value of environmental, health, social and demographic data for research. Open government data initiatives are growing in number and in terms of content. Remote sensing data are finding widespread use in environmental research, including in low- and middle-income settings. While our ability to study environment and health associations across countries and continents grows, data protection rules and greater patient control over the use of their data present new challenges to using health data in research. Innovative tools that circumvent the need for the physical sharing of data by supporting non-disclosive sharing of information, or that permit spatial analysis without researchers needing access to underlying patient data can be used to support analyses while protecting data confidentiality. User-friendly visualisations, allowing small area data to be seen and understood by non-expert audiences are revolutionising public and researcher interactions with data. The UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit’s Environment and Health Atlas for England and Wales, and the US National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network offer good examples. Open data facilitates user-generated outputs, and ‘mash-ups’, and user generated inputs from social media, mobile devices, and wearable tech are new data streams which will find utility in future studies, and bring novel dimensions with respect to ethical use of small area data.
Yu B, Zanetti KA, Temprosa M, et al., 2019, The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS): Metabolomics in 47 Prospective Cohort Studies, American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 0002-9262
Tzoulaki I, Karaman I, Dehghan A, et al., Serum metabolic signatures of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease, European Heart Journal, ISSN: 1522-9645
Aims: To characterise serum metabolic signatures associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary or carotid arteries and subsequently their association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We used untargeted one-dimensional (1D) serum metabolic profiling by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy among 3,867 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with replication among 3,569 participants from the Rotterdam and LOLIPOP Studies. Atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between NMR features and atherosclerosis accounting for multiplicity of comparisons. We then examined associations between metabolites associated with atherosclerosis and incident CVD available in MESA and Rotterdam and explored molecular networks through bioinformatics analyses. Overall, 30 NMR measured metabolites were associated with CAC and/or IMT, P =1.3x10-14 to 6.5x10-6 (discovery), P =4.2x10-14 to 4.4x10-2 (replication). These associations were substantially attenuated after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis revealed disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, branched-chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Analyses of incident CVD events showed inverse associations with creatine, creatinine and phenylalanine, and direct associations with mannose, acetaminophen-glucuronide and lactate as well as apolipoprotein B (P <0.05). Conclusion: Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis were largely consistent between the two vascular beds (coronary and carotid arteries) and predominantly tag pathways that overlap with the known cardiovascular risk factors. We present an integrated systems network that highlights a series of inter-connected pathways underlying atherosclero
Gao H, Aresu M, Vergnaud A-C, et al., 2019, Personal radio use and cancer risks among 48,518 British police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 120, Pages: 375-378, ISSN: 0007-0920
Toledano MB, Mutz J, Roosli M, et al., 2019, Cohort Profile: The Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 25-+, ISSN: 0300-5771
de Vries PS, Brown MR, Bentley AR, et al., 2019, Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Lipid Levels Incorporating Gene-Alcohol Interactions., Am J Epidemiol
An individual's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in Stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in Stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from five ancestry groups. Genetic main and interaction effects were jointly assessed by a 2 degrees of freedom (DF) test, and a 1 DF test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in Stage 1 and were evaluated in Stage 2, followed by combined analyses of Stage 1 and Stage 2. In the combined analysis of Stage 1 and Stage 2, 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2 DF tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (PCSK5, VEGFB, and A1CF) with a putative role in lipid metabolism based on existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.
Kilpelainen TO, Bentley AR, Noordam R, et al., 2019, Multi-ancestry study of blood lipid levels identifies four loci interacting with physical activity, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Erzurumluoglu AM, Liu M, Jackson VE, et al., 2019, Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci., Mol Psychiatry
Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
Kraja AT, Liu C, Fetterman JL, et al., 2019, Associations of Mitochondrial and Nuclear Mitochondrial Variants and Genes with Seven Metabolic Traits, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, Vol: 104, Pages: 112-138, ISSN: 0002-9297
Okami Y, Ueshima H, Nakamura Y, et al., 2019, The Relationship of Dietary Cholesterol with Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Confounding by Reverse Causality: The INTERLIPID Study, JOURNAL OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND THROMBOSIS, Vol: 26, Pages: 170-182, ISSN: 1340-3478
Ghosh RE, Freni-Sterrantino A, Douglas P, et al., 2019, Fetal growth, stillbirth, infant mortality and other birth outcomes near UK municipal waste incinerators; retrospective population based cohort and case-control study, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 122, Pages: 151-158, ISSN: 0160-4120
Giri A, Hellwege JN, Keaton JM, et al., 2019, Trans-ethnic association study of blood pressure determinants in over 750,000 individuals, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 51, Pages: 51-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Piel FB, Parkes BL, Daby H, et al., 2018, The challenge of opt-outs from NHS data: a small-area perspective, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 40, Pages: E594-E600, ISSN: 1741-3842
Campanella G, Gunter MJ, Polidoro S, et al., 2018, Epigenome-wide association study of adiposity and future risk of obesity-related diseases, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, Vol: 42, Pages: 2022-2035, ISSN: 0307-0565
Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, et al., 2018, Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits (vol 50, pg 1412, 2018), NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 1755-1755, ISSN: 1061-4036
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