444 results found
Aljuraiban GS, Stamler J, Chan Q, et al., 2018, Relations between dairy product intake and blood pressure: the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure, Journal of Hypertension, ISSN: 0263-6352
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that low-fat dairy consumption may lower risk of hypertension. Dairy products may be distinctly linked to health, because of differences in nutritional composition, but little is known about specific nutrients that contribute to the dairy-blood pressure (BP) association, nor to underlying kidney function. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations to BP of dairy product intakes, total and by type, from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2694 participants aged 40-59 years from the UK and the USA. Eight BP, four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine samples were collected during four visits. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle/dietary factors to estimate BP differences per 2SD higher intakes of total-and-individual-types of dairy were calculated. RESULTS: Multivariable linear regression coefficients were estimated and pooled. In contrast to total and whole-fat dairy, each 195 g/1000 kcal (2SD) greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with a lower SBP -2.31 mmHg and DBP -2.27 mmHg. Significant associations attenuated with adjustment for dietary phosphorus, calcium, and lactose, but strengthened with urinary calcium adjustment. Stratification by median albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR; high ACR indicates impaired kidney function) showed strong associations between low-fat dairy and BP in participants with low ACR (SBP: -3.66; DBP: -2.15 mmHg), with no association in participants with high ACR. CONCLUSION: Low-fat dairy consumption was associated with lower BP, especially among participants with low ACR. Dairy-rich nutrients including phosphorus and calcium may have contributed to the beneficial associations with BP.
Cai Y, Hodgson S, Blangiardo M, et al., 2018, Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: A joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 114, Pages: 191-201, ISSN: 0160-4120
Campanella G, Gunter MJ, Polidoro S, et al., 2018, Epigenome-wide association study of adiposity and future risk of obesity-related diseases., Int J Obes (Lond)
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for several common chronic diseases such as breast and colorectal cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, the biological basis for these relationships is not fully understood. To explore the association of obesity with these conditions, we investigated peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) DNA methylation markers for adiposity and their contribution to risk of incident breast and colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction. METHODS: DNA methylation profiles (Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) from 1941 individuals from four population-based European cohorts were analysed in relation to body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio within a meta-analytical framework. In a subset of these individuals, data on genome-wide gene expression level, biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism were also available. Validation of methylation markers associated with all adiposity measures was performed in 358 individuals. Finally, we investigated the association of obesity-related methylation marks with breast, colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction within relevant subsets of the discovery population. RESULTS: We identified 40 CpG loci with methylation levels associated with at least one adiposity measure. Of these, one CpG locus (cg06500161) in ABCG1 was associated with all four adiposity measures (P = 9.07×10-8 to 3.27×10-18) and lower transcriptional activity of the full-length isoform of ABCG1 (P = 6.00×10-7), higher triglyceride levels (P = 5.37×10-9) and higher triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 1.03×10-10). Of the 40 informative and obesity-related CpG loci, two (in IL2RB and FGF18) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer (inversely, P < 1.6×10-3) and one intergenic locus on chromosome 1 was inversely associated with myocardial infarcti
Castagne R, Gares V, Karimi M, et al., 2018, Allostatic load and subsequent all-cause mortality: which biological markers drive the relationship? Findings from a UK birth cohort, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 33, Pages: 441-458, ISSN: 0393-2990
Chekmeneva E, Dos Santos Correia G, Gómez-Romero M, et al., 2018, Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Direct Infusion-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Combined Exploratory and Targeted Metabolic Profiling of Human Urine., J Proteome Res
The application of metabolic phenotyping to epidemiological studies involving thousands of biofluid samples presents a challenge for the selection of analytical platforms that meet the requirements of high-throughput precision analysis and cost-effectiveness. Here direct infusion-nanoelectrospray (DI-nESI) was compared with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method for metabolic profiling of an exemplary set of 132 human urine samples from a large epidemiological cohort. Both methods were developed and optimized to allow the simultaneous collection of high-resolution urinary metabolic profiles and quantitative data for a selected panel of 35 metabolites. The total run time for measuring the sample set in both polarities by UPLC-HRMS was 5 days compared with 9 h by DI-nESI-HRMS. To compare the classification ability of the two MS methods, we performed exploratory analysis of the full-scan HRMS profiles to detect sex-related differences in biochemical composition. Although metabolite identification is less specific in DI-nESI-HRMS, the significant features responsible for discrimination between sexes were mostly the same in both MS-based platforms. Using the quantitative data, we showed that 10 metabolites have strong correlation (Pearson's r > 0.9 and Passing-Bablok regression slope of 0.8-1.3) and good agreement assessed by Bland-Altman plots between UPLC-HRMS and DI-nESI-HRMS and thus can be measured using a cheaper and less sample- and time-consuming method. A further twenty metabolites showed acceptable correlation between the two methods with only five metabolites showing weak correlation (Pearson's r < 0.4) and poor agreement due to the overestimation of the results by DI-nESI-HRMS.
Daniels SI, Chambers JC, Sanchez SS, et al., 2018, Elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in South Asian immigrants are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, Journal of the Endocrine Society, Vol: 2, Pages: 832-841, ISSN: 2472-1972
ObjectiveRates of diabetes mellitus are higher in South Asians than in other populations and persist after migration. One unexplored cause may be higher exposure to persistent organic pollutants associated with diabetes in other populations. We compared organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in South Asian immigrants and European whites to determine whether the disease was positively associated with OC pesticides in South Asians.Research Design and MethodsSouth Asians of Tamil or Telugu descent (n = 120) and European whites (n = 72) were recruited into the London Life Sciences Population Study cohort. Blood samples as well as biometric, clinical, and survey data were collected. Plasma levels of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), p,p′- dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, β-hexachlorohexane (HCH), and polychlorinated biphenyl-118 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. South Asian cases and controls were categorized by binary exposure (above vs below the 50th percentile) to perform logistic regression.ResultsTamils had approximately threefold to ninefold higher levels of OC pesticides, and Telugus had ninefold to 30-fold higher levels compared with European whites. The odds of exposure to p,p′-DDE above the 50th percentile was significantly greater in South Asian diabetes cases than in controls (OR: 7.00; 95% CI: 2.22, 22.06). The odds of exposure to β-HCH above the 50th percentile was significantly greater in the Tamil cases than in controls (OR: 9.35; 95% CI: 2.43, 35.97).ConclusionsSouth Asian immigrants have a higher body burden of OC pesticides than European whites. Diabetes mellitus is associated with higher p,p′-DDE and β-HCH concentrations in this population. Additional longitudinal studies of South Asian populations should be performed.
Davies G, Lam M, Harris SE, et al., 2018, Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Eriksen R, Gibson R, Lamb K, et al., 2018, Nutrient profiling and adherence to components of the UK national dietary guidelines association with metabolic risk factors for CVD and diabetes: Airwave Health Monitoring Study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 119, Pages: 695-705, ISSN: 0007-1145
Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, et al., 2018, Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits., Nat Genet
High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.
Feitosa MF, Kraja AT, Chasman DI, et al., 2018, Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries, PLOS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
Flannick J, Fuchsberger C, Mahajan A, et al., 2018, Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls (vol 4, 170179, 2017), SCIENTIFIC DATA, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2052-4463
Gulliver J, Elliott P, Henderson J, et al., 2018, Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC), ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 113, Pages: 10-19, ISSN: 0160-4120
Harada S, Hirayama A, Chan Q, et al., 2018, Reliability of plasma polar metabolite concentrations in a large-scale cohort study using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, PLOS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
Kaluarachchi M, Boulange CL, Karaman I, et al., 2018, A comparison of human serum and plasma metabolites using untargeted H-1 NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-MS, METABOLOMICS, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1573-3882
Malik R, Chauhan G, Traylor M, et al., 2018, Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 524-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Mireku MO, Mueller W, Fleming C, et al., 2018, Total recall in the SCAMP cohort: Validation of self-reported mobile phone use in the smartphone era, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 161, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0013-9351
Okami Y, Ueshima H, Nakamura Y, et al., 2018, The Relationship of Dietary Cholesterol with Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Confounding by Reverse Causality: The INTERLIPID Study., J Atheroscler Thromb
AIM: The positive relationship between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol has been questioned by a set of recent cohort studies. This study aimed to investigate how employment status and education years relate to the association between dietary cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a Japanese population. METHODS: A population-based, random sample, cross-sectional study (INTERLIPID) was performed. Among 1,145 Japanese individuals aged 40-59 years, 106 were excluded because of special diets, use of lipid-lowering drugs, hormone replacement, and missing data, leaving 1,039 individuals (533 men and 506 women). Dietary cholesterol was assessed from four 24-h dietary recalls, and LDL-C was measured enzymatically with an auto-analyzer. A standard questionnaire inquired about employment status and education years. RESULTS: In men, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher dietary cholesterol was associated with 3.16 mg/dL lower serum LDL-C (P=0.009; unadjusted model). After adjustment for covariates, higher serum LDL-C was estimated per 1 SD higher intake of dietary cholesterol in nonemployed men [self-employed, homemakers, farmers, fishermen, and retired employees; β=＋9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)=＋0.90-＋17.27] and less educated men (β=＋4.46, 95% CI=－0.97-＋9.90), whereas an inverse association was observed in employed men (β=－3.02, 95% CI=－5.49-－0.54) and more educated men (β=－3.66, 95% CI=－6.25-－1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In men who were nonemployed and less educated, a higher intake of dietary cholesterol was associated with elevated concentrations of serum LDL-C, whereas an inverse association was observed in men who were employed and more educated.
Pazoki R, Dehghan A, Evangelou E, et al., 2018, Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure and Lifestyle Factors Associations With Midlife Blood Pressure Levels and Cardiovascular Events, CIRCULATION, Vol: 137, Pages: 653-661, ISSN: 0009-7322
Piel FB, Parkes BL, Daby H, et al., 2018, The challenge of opt-outs from NHS data: a small-area perspective., J Public Health (Oxf)
Posma JM, Garcia-Perez I, Ebbels TMD, et al., 2018, Optimized Phenotypic Biomarker Discovery and Confounder Elimination via Covariate-Adjusted Projection to Latent Structures from Metabolic Spectroscopy Data, JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol: 17, Pages: 1586-1595, ISSN: 1535-3893
Schierding W, Antony J, Karhunen V, et al., 2018, GWAS on prolonged gestation (post-term birth): analysis of successive Finnish birth cohorts, JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Vol: 55, Pages: 55-63, ISSN: 0022-2593
Stamler J, Chan Q, Daviglus ML, et al., 2018, Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 71, Pages: 631-637, ISSN: 0194-911X
Sung YJ, Winkler TW, de las Fuentes L, et al., 2018, A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, Vol: 102, Pages: 375-400, ISSN: 0002-9297
Toledano MB, Auvinen A, Tettamanti G, et al., 2018, An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (COSMOS): Factors affecting validity of self-reported mobile phone use, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYGIENE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 221, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1438-4639
Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, et al., 2018, Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 26-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, et al., 2018, Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity (vol 50, pg 765, 2017), NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 765-766, ISSN: 1061-4036
Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, et al., 2018, Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity (vol 50, pg 26, 2018), NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 766-767, ISSN: 1061-4036
Tzoulaki I, Iliou A, Mikros E, et al., 2018, An Overview of Metabolic Phenotyping in Blood Pressure Research, CURRENT HYPERTENSION REPORTS, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1522-6417
Vergnaud A-C, Aresu M, Kongsgård HW, et al., 2018, Estimation of TETRA radio use in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces., Environ Res, Vol: 167, Pages: 169-174
BACKGROUND: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study aims to investigate the possible long-term health effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) use among the police forces in Great Britain. Here, we investigate whether objective data from the network operator could be used to correct for misreporting in self-reported data and expand the radio usage availability in our cohort. METHODS: We estimated average monthly usage of personal radio in the 12 months prior to enrolment from a missing value imputation model and evaluated its performance against objective and self-reported data. Factors associated with TETRA radio usage variables were investigated using Chi-square tests and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The imputed data were better correlated with objective than self-reported usage (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.72 vs. 0. 52 and kappa 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.55, 0.56] vs. 0.46 [0.45, 0.47]), although the imputation model tended to under-estimate use for higher users. Participants with higher personal radio usage were more likely to be younger, men vs. women and officer vs. staff. The median average monthly usage level for the entire cohort was estimated to be 29.3 min (95% CI: [7.2, 66.6]). CONCLUSION: The availability of objective personal radio records for a large proportion of users allowed us to develop a robust imputation model and hence obtain personal radio usage estimates for ~50,000 participants. This substantially reduced exposure misclassification compared to using self-reported data and will allow us to carry out analyses of TETRA usage for the entire cohort in future work.
Wark P, Frost G, Elliott P, et al., 2018, An online 24-hour recall tool (myfood24) is valid for dietary assessment in population studies: comparison with biomarkers and standard interviews., BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundOnline dietary assessment tools can reduce administrative costs and facilitate repeated dietary assessment during follow-up in large-scale studies. However, information on bias due to measurement error of such tools is limited. We developed an online 24-h recall (myfood24) and compared its performance with a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall, assessing both against biomarkers.MethodsMetabolically stable adults were recruited and completed the new online dietary recall, an interviewer-based multiple pass recall and a suite of reference measures. Longer-term dietary intake was estimated from up to 3 × 24-h recalls taken 2 weeks apart. Estimated intakes of protein, potassium and sodium were compared with urinary biomarker concentrations. Estimated total sugar intake was compared with a predictive biomarker and estimated energy intake compared with energy expenditure measured by accelerometry and calorimetry. Nutrient intakes were also compared to those derived from an interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-h recall.ResultsBiomarker samples were received from 212 participants on at least one occasion. Both self-reported dietary assessment tools led to attenuation compared to biomarkers. The online tools resulted in attenuation factors of around 0.2–0.3 and partial correlation coefficients, reflecting ranking intakes, of approximately 0.3–0.4. This was broadly similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based tool. Other nutrient estimates derived from myfood24 were around 10–20% lower than those from the interviewer-based tool, with wide limits of agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients were approximately 0.4–0.5, indicating consistent moderate agreement.ConclusionsOur findings show that, whilst results from both measures of self-reported diet are attenuated compared to biomarker measures, the myfood24 online 24-h recall is comparable to the more time-consuming a
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