58 results found
Huang M, Sha G, Huthwaite P, et al., 2020, Maximizing the accuracy of finite element simulation of elastic wave propagation in polycrystals, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 148, Pages: 1890-1910, ISSN: 0001-4966
© 2020 Acoustical Society of America. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) modelling, with representation of materials at grain scale in realistic sample volumes, is capable of accurately describing elastic wave propagation and scattering within polycrystals. A broader and better future use of this FE method requires several important topics to be fully understood, and this work presents studies addressing this aim. The first topic concerns the determination of effective media parameters, namely, scattering induced attenuation and phase velocity, from measured coherent waves. This work evaluates two determination approaches, through-transmission and fitting, and it is found that these approaches are practically equivalent and can thus be used interchangeably. For the second topic of estimating modelling errors and uncertainties, this work performs thorough analytical and numerical studies to estimate those caused by both FE approximations and statistical considerations. It is demonstrated that the errors and uncertainties can be well suppressed by using a proper combination of modelling parameters. For the last topic of incorporating FE model information into theoretical models, this work presents elaborated investigations and shows that to improve agreement between the FE and theoretical models, the symmetry boundary conditions used in FE models need to be considered in the two-point correlation function, which is required by theoretical models.
Mid-infrared signals in the 2–5 μm wavelength range have been transmitted through samples of polymer pipes, as commonly used in the water supply industry. It is shown that simple through-transmission images can be obtained using a broad spectrum source and a suitable camera. This leads to the possibility of tomography, where images are obtained as the measurement system is rotated with respect to the axis of the pipe. The unusual 3D geometry created by a source of finite size and the imaging plane of a camera, plus the fact that refraction at the pipe wall would cause significant ray bending, meant that the reconstruction of tomographic images had to be considered with some care. A result is shown for a thinning defect on the inner wall of a polymer water pipe, demonstrating that such changes can be reconstructed successfully.
Eckel S, Zscherpel U, Huthwaite P, et al., 2020, Radiographic film system classification and noise characterisation by a camera-based digitisation procedure, Independent Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E) International, Vol: 111, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0963-8695
Extracting statistical characteristics from radiographic films is vital for film system classification and contrast sensitivity evaluation and serves as a basis for film noise simulation. A new method for digitising radiographic films in order to extract these characteristics is presented. The method consists of a camera-based setup and image processing procedure to digitise films. Correct optical density values and granularity can be extracted from the digitised images, which are equal to results obtained by standardised measurement procedures. Specific statistical characteristics of film noise are theoretically derived and subsequently verified by the obtained data, including characteristics such as Gaussianity and spatial spectral characteristics of the optical density fluctuations. It is shown that the presented method correctly measures the granularity of film noise and can therefore replace time-consuming microdensitometer measurements traditionally required for film system classifications. Additionally, the inherent unsharpness of film systems was investigated and compared with literature data. This comparison serves as another validation approach of the presented method.
Haslinger SG, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2020, Elastic shear wave scattering by randomly rough surfaces, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 137, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0022-5096
Characterizing cracks within elastic media forms an important aspect of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) where techniques such as time-of-flight diffraction and pulse-echo are often used with the presumption of scattering from smooth, straight cracks. However, cracks are rarely straight, or smooth, and recent attention has focussed upon rough surface scattering primarily by longitudinal wave excitations.We provide a comprehensive study of scattering by incident shear waves, thus far neglected in models of rough surface scattering despite their practical importance in the detection of surface-breaking defects, using modelling, simulation and supporting experiments. The scattering of incident shear waves introduces challenges, largely absent in the longitudinal case, related to surface wave mode-conversion, the reduced range of validity of the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) as compared with longitudinal incidence, and an increased importance of correlation length.The expected reflection from a rough defect is predicted using a statistical model from which, given the angle of incidence and two statistical parameters, the expected reflection amplitude is obtained instantaneously for any scattering angle and length of defect. If the ratio of correlation length to defect length exceeds a critical value, which we determine, there is an explicit dependence of the scattering results on correlation length, and we modify the modelling to find this dependence. The modelling is cross-correlated against Monte Carlo simulations of many different surface profiles, sharing the same statistical parameter values, using numerical simulation via ray models (KA) and finite element (FE) methods accelerated with a GPU implementation. Additionally we provide experimental validations that demonstrate the accuracy of our predictions.
Jones GA, Huthwaite P, 2020, Fast binary CT using Fourier null space regularization (FNSR), INVERSE PROBLEMS, Vol: 36, ISSN: 0266-5611
Shi F, Huthwaite P, 2019, Waveform-based geometrical inversion of obstacles, Physical Review Applied, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2331-7019
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) can produce previously unobtainable levels of accuracy and is revolutionizing the field of wave imaging. The basic principle is that a numerically produced data set is matched to the measured waveforms, enabling a high-resolution image to be produced since the model being inverted fully captures the physical behavior without approximation. This is achieved by gradually updating the numerical model using optimization algorithms. Currently, most FWI methods aim to recover material properties of a medium containing penetrable scatterers; however, there are many applications that, instead, require the boundary shapes of impenetrable objects to be reconstructed. Conventional velocity-style FWI will be trapped in local minima, with such problems being due to the extremely sharp contrast at the boundary. We propose a FWI procedure to directly recover the geometrical parameters of impenetrable obstacles via shape optimizations. The geometry is reconstructed by iteratively deforming the boundary of the target, following the negative direction of the geometrical boundary gradient. The boundary gradient is calculated from the shape derivatives of mass and stiffness matrices of a finite-element (FE) representation, when distorting the elements attached at the boundary. In addition, multiple-scattering events, which are more likely to occur between impenetrable obstacles, can be utilized automatically to provide substantial information for the inversion. Numerical and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of the procedure for an example taken from the field of nondestructive evaluation, giving sizing within fractions of a wavelength for the tested cases; this step change in accuracy could be critical in sizing defects, enabling significantly more reliable decisions to be made about whether it is safe to continue using a component. Mathematical derivations and physical reasons for the success of our approach are illustrated.
Eckel S, Huthwaite P, Zscherpel U, et al., 2020, Realistic film noise generation based on experimental noise spectra, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol: 29, Pages: 2987-2998, ISSN: 1057-7149
Generating 2D noise with local, space-varying spectral characteristics is vital where random noise fields with spatially heterogeneous statistical proper-ties are observed and need to be simulated. A realistic, non-stationary noise generator relying on experimental data is presented. That generator is desired in areas such as photography and radiography. For example, before performing actual X-ray imaging in practice, output imag-es are simulated to assess and improve setups. For that purpose, realistic film noise modelling is crucial because noise downgrades the detectability of visual signals. The presented film noise synthesiser improves the realism and value of radiographic simulations significantly, allowing more realistic assessments of radiographic test setups. The method respects space-varying spectral characteristics and probability distributions, locally simulating noise with re-alistic granularity and contrast. The benefits of this ap-proach are to respect the correlation between noise and image as well as internal correlation, the fast generation of any number of unique noise samples, the exploitation of real experimental data, and its statistical non-stationarity. The combination of these benefits is not available in exist-ing work. Validation of the new technique was undertaken in the field of industrial radiography. While applied to that field here, the technique is general and can also be utilised in any other field where the generation of 2D noise with local, space-varying statistical properties is necessary.
Haslinger SG, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Appraising Kirchhoff approximation theory for the scattering of elastic shear waves by randomly rough defects, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol: 460, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0022-460X
Rapid and accurate methods, based on the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), are developed to evaluate the scattering of shear waves by rough defects and quantify the accuracy of this approximation. Defect roughness has a strong effect on the reflection of ultrasound, and every rough defect has a different surface, so standard methods of assessing the sensitivity of inspection based on smooth defects are necessarily limited. Accurately resolving rough cracks in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) inspections often requires shear waves since they have higher sensitivity to surface roughness than longitudinal waves. KA models are attractive, since they are rapid to deploy, however they are an approximation and it is important to determine the range of validity for the scattering of ultrasonic shear waves; this range is found here. Good agreement between KA and high fidelity finite element simulations is obtained for a range of incident/scattering angles, and the limits of validity for KA are found to be much stricter than for longitudinal wave incidence; as the correlation length of rough surfaces is reduced to the order of the incident shear wavelength, a combination of multiple scattering and surface wave mode conversion leads to KA predictions diverging from those of the true diffuse scattered fields.
Elliott JB, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Sizing Subwavelength Defects With Ultrasonic Imagery: An Assessment of Super-Resolution Imaging on Simulated Rough Defects, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, Vol: 66, Pages: 1634-1648, ISSN: 0885-3010
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, 2019, Automated and antidispersive coherent and incoherent noise reduction of waveforms that contain a reference pulse, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 105, Pages: 35-45, ISSN: 0963-8695
Shipway NJ, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, et al., 2019, Performance based modifications of random forest to perform automated defect detection for fluorescent penetrant inspection, Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0195-9298
The established Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) has previously been shown to be effective at performing automated defect detection for test pieces which have been processed using fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI). The work presented here investigates three methods (two previously proposed in other fields, one novel method) of modifying the FPI RF based on the individual performance of decision trees within the RF. Evaluating based on the 2 Score, which is the harmonic mean of precision and recall which places a larger weighting on recall, it is possible to reduce the RF in size by up to 50%, improving speed and memory requirements, whilst still gain equivalent results to a full RF. Introducing a performance based weighting or retraining decision trees which fall below a certain performance level however, offers no improvement on results for the increased computation time required to implement.
Shipway N, Barden T, Huthwaite P, et al., 2019, Automated defect detection for Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection using Random Forest, NDT and E International, ISSN: 0963-8695
Eckel SF, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, et al., 2018, Establishment and validation of the channelized hotelling model observer for image assessment in industrial radiography, NDT and E International, Vol: 98, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0963-8695
A new method for industrial radiography is presented to assess image quality objectively. The assessment is performed by a modelled observer developed to interpret radiographic images in order to rate the detectability of structural defects. For the purpose of qualifying radiographic NDE procedures, computational tools simulate the image, but should additionally automatically assess the associated image quality instead of relying on human interpretation. The Channelized Hotelling Model Observer (CHO) approach, originally developed for medical imaging, is here developed for industrial NDE applications to measure objectively the defect's detectability. A validation study based on a comparison of the model's efficiency of observing circular and elongated flaws shows that the CHO outperforms other detectability models used by industry. Furthermore, the model's reliability was verified by comparing it to psychophysical data.
Zhang C, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, 2018, Eliminating backwall effects in the phased array imaging of near backwall defects, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 144, Pages: 1075-1088, ISSN: 0001-4966
Ultrasonic array imaging is widely used to provide high quality defect detection and characterization. However, the current imaging techniques are poor at detecting and characterizing defects near a surface facing the array, as the signal scattered from the defect and the strong reflection from the planar backwall will overlap in both time and frequency domains, masking the presence of the defect. To address this problem, this paper explores imaging algorithms and relevant methods to eliminate the strong artefacts caused by the backwall reflection. The half-skip total focusing method (HSTFM), the factorization method (FM) and the time domain sampling method (TDSM) are chosen as the imaging algorithms used in this paper. Then, three methods, referred to as full matrix capture (FMC) subtraction, weighting function filtering, and the truncation method, are developed to eliminate or filter the effects caused by the strong backwall reflection. These methods can be applied easily with few tuning parameters or little prior knowledge. The performances of the proposed imaging techniques are validated in both simulation and experiments, and the results show the effectiveness of the developed methods to eliminate the artefacts caused by the backwall reflections when imaging near backwall defects.
Phillips R, Duxbury D, Huthwaite P, et al., 2018, Simulating the ultrasonic scattering from complex surface-breaking defects with a three-dimensional hybrid model, NDT and E International, Vol: 97, Pages: 32-41, ISSN: 0963-8695
Modelling is increasingly relied on for the design and qualification of ultrasonic inspections applied to safety-critical components. Numerical methods enable the simulation of the ultrasonic interaction with realistic defect morphologies; however, the computational requirements often limit their deployment. The hybrid simulation technique, which combines semi-analytical and numerical methods, realises the potential of high fidelity numerical modelling without the limiting computational factors. The inspection of thick section components for near-backwall surface-breaking defects results in large propagation distances, making them a key application of hybrid modelling. This work presents a methodology for efficiently simulating the ultrasonic inspection of complex surface-breaking defects using a hybrid model. The model is initially verified against full numerical simulation; further validation is presented by comparison to an experimental scan over an artificially machined surface-breaking notch. The potential of the new hybrid method is then demonstrated by carrying out a Monte Carlo analysis on the scattered field from surface-breaking defects with randomly rough surfaces and the results are compared to the Kirchhoff approximation.
Shi F, Huthwaite P, 2018, Ultrasonic wave-speed diffraction tomography with undersampled data using virtual transducers, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol: 65, Pages: 1226-1238, ISSN: 0885-3010
Ultrasonic diffraction tomography (DT) offers a way to achieve high-resolution imaging of the wavespeed map, and hence has strong potential applications in medical diagnosis and Nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Ideal images can be obtained with a complete array of sensors surrounding the scatterer, provided that the measurement data are fully sampled in space, obeying the Nyquist criterion. Spatial undersampling causes the image to be distorted and introduce unwanted circular artefacts. In this paper we propose an iteration approach using virtual transducers to achieve high-resolution tomographic imaging with undersampled measurements. At each iteration stage, the extent constraint estimated from the shape of the object of interest is applied on the image space to obtain a regularized image, based on which the ultrasonic measurement data at virtual transducers are calculated using a forward model. The full dataset composed of original and virtual measurements is then used for tomography in the next stage. A final image with sufficiently high resolution is obtained after only a few iterations. The new imaging method yields improvements in the robustness and accuracy of ultrasonic tomography with undersampled data.We present numerical results using complicated wavespeed maps from realistic corrosion profiles. In addition, an experiment using guided ultrasonic waves is performed to further evaluate the imaging method.
Zhang C, Huthwaite P, Lowe M, 2018, The application of the Factorization Method to the subsurface imaging of surfacebreaking cracks, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol: 65, Pages: 497-512, ISSN: 0885-3010
A common location for cracks to appear is at the surface of a component; at the near surface, many nondestructive evaluation techniques are available to inspect for these, but at the far surface this is much more challenging. Ultrasonic imaging is proposed to enable far surface defect detection, location, and characterization. One specific challenge here is the presence of a strong reflection from the backwall, which can often mask the relatively small response from a defect. In this paper, the factorization method (FM) is explored for the application of subsurface imaging of the surface-breaking cracks. In this application, the component has two parallel surfaces, the crack is initiated from the far side and the phased array is attached on the near side. Ideally, the pure scattered field from a defect is needed for the correct estimation of the scatterer through the FM algorithm. However, the presence of the backwall will introduce a strong specular reflection into the measured data which should be removed before applying the FM algorithm. A novel subtraction method was developed to remove the backwall reflection. The performance of the FM algorithm and this subtraction method were tested with the simulated and experimental data. The experimental results showed a good consistency with the simulated results. It is shown that the FM algorithm can generate high-quality images to provide a good detection of the crack and an accurate sizing of the crack length. The subtraction method was able to provide a good backwall reflection removal in the case of small cracks (1-3 wavelengths).
Jones GA, Huthwaite P, 2017, Limited view X-ray tomography for dimensional measurements, NDT and E International, Vol: 93, Pages: 98-109, ISSN: 0963-8695
The growing use of complex and irregularly shaped components for safety-critical applications has increasingly led to the adoption of X-ray CT as an NDE inspection tool. Standard X-ray CT methods require thousands of projections, each regularly distributed evenly through 360∘ to produce an accurate image. The time consuming acquisition of thousands of projections can lead to significant bottlenecks. Recent developments in medical imaging driven by both increasing computational power and the desire to reduce patient X-ray exposure have led to the development of a number of limited view CT methodologies. Thus far these limited view algorithms have been applied to basic synthetic data derived from simple medical phantoms. Here, we use experimental data to rigorously test the capability of limited view algorithms to accurately reconstruct and precisely measure the dimensional features of an additive manufactured sample and a turbine blade. Our findings highlight the importance of prior information in producing accurate reconstructions capable of significantly reducing X-ray projections by at least an order of magnitude. In the turbine blade example a dramatic reduction in projections from 5000 to 24 was observed while still demonstrating the same level of accuracy as standard CT methods. The findings of the study also suggest the importance of sample complexity and the presence of sparsity in the X-ray projections in order to maximise the capabilities of these limited algorithms. With the ever increasing computational power limited view CT algorithms offer a method for reducing data acquisition time and alleviating manufacturing throughput bottlenecks without compromising image accuracy and quality.
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2017, A multiband approach for accurate numerical simulation of frequency dependent ultrasonic wave propagation in the time domain, JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Vol: 142, Pages: 1270-1280, ISSN: 0001-4966
Finite element (FE) simulations are popular for studying propagation and scattering of ultrasonic waves in nondestructive evaluation. For a large number of degrees of freedom, time domain FE simulations are much more efficient than the equivalent frequency domain solution. However, unlike frequency domain simulations, time domain simulations are often poor at representing the speed and the attenuation of waves if the material is strongly damping or highly dispersive. Here, the authors demonstrate efficient and accurate representation of propagated and scattered waves, achieved by combining a set of time domain solutions that are obtained for a set of frequency ranges known as bands, such that, in combination, the authors' multiband solution accurately represents the whole wave spectrum. Consequently, high accuracy is achieved, at minor computational cost, using a modest number of bands. The multiband technique is implemented for ultrasonic wave propagation in highly attenuating polyethylene material, using three frequency bands, and can yield a reduction in empirical acoustic properties fractional error compared with respective time domain simulations, in propagation duration, of a factor of 1.4, and in full-width-half-maximum, of a factor of 10. Last, the accuracy of this approach is further exemplified in a wave scattering simulation.
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Huthwaite P, et al., 2017, Ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity of high-density polyethylene pipe material, JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Vol: 141, Pages: 1535-1545, ISSN: 0001-4966
Knowledge of acoustic properties is crucial for ultrasonic or sonic imaging and signal detection in nondestructive evaluation (NDE), medical imaging, and seismology. Accurately and reliably obtaining these is particularly challenging for the NDE of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), such as is used in many water or gas pipes, because the properties vary greatly with frequency, temperature, direction and spatial location. Therefore the work reported here was undertaken in order to establish a basis for such a multiparameter description. The approach is general but the study specifically addresses HDPE and includes measured data values. Applicable to any such multiparameter acoustic properties dataset is a devised regression method that uses a neural network algorithm. This algorithm includes constraints to respect the Kramers-Kronig causality relationship between speed and attenuation of waves in a viscoelastic medium. These constrained acoustic properties are fully described in a multidimensional parameter space to vary with frequency, depth, temperature, and direction. The resulting uncertainties in acoustic properties dependence on the above variables are better than 4% and 2%, respectively, for attenuation and phase velocity and therefore can prevent major defect imaging errors.
Huthwaite P, 2017, Ultrasonic finite element simulations on GPUs with Pogo
Haith MI, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, 2016, Defect characterisation from limited view pipeline radiography, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 86, Pages: 186-198, ISSN: 0963-8695
This work presents a method of characterising pipeline defects using a small number of radiographs taken at different angles around the pipe. The method relies on knowledge of the setup geometry and use of multiple images, and does not require calibration objects to be included in the setup. It is aimed at use in situations where access is difficult such as in subsea pipeline inspections. Given a set of radiographs, a background subtraction method is used to extract defects in the images. Using a ray tracing algorithm and knowledge of the experimental setup, the range of possible locations of the defect in 3D space is then calculated. Constraints are applied on potential defect shapes and positions to further refine the defect range. The method is tested on simulated and experimental flat bottomed hole defects and simulated corrosion patch defects with lateral and axial sizes ranging from 12.5 to 33.8 mm and thickness between 3 mm and 16 mm. Results demonstrate a good, consistent ability to calculate lateral and axial defect dimensions to within ±3 mm of the true size. Defect thickness calculations are more difficult and as such errors are more significant. In most cases defect thickness is calculated to within 4 mm of the actual value, often closer. Errors in thickness are due to overestimation, meaning the calculation could be used to place a maximum limit on potential defect size rather than as an actual estimate of the thickness. This would still be useful, for example in deciding whether a defect requires further investigation.
Huthwaite P, 2016, Eliminating incident subtraction in diffraction tomography, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, Vol: 472, ISSN: 1471-2946
Diffraction tomography is a powerful algorithm for producing high-resolution quantitative reconstructions across a wide range of applications. A major drawback of the method is that it operates on the scattered field, which cannot generally be directly measured, but must instead be calculated by subtracting the incident field, i.e. the equivalent field with no scatterer present. Unfortunately, often the incident field is not measurable and hence must be estimated, causing errors. This paper highlights an important, but not widely recognized, result: for particular widely used formulations of the algorithm, the subtraction of the incident field is unnecessary, and the algorithm can actually be applied directly to measured signals. The theory behind this is derived, showing that the incident field will vanish under far-field conditions, and the result is demonstrated in practice. Tests with subsampled arrays show that aliasing artefacts can appear, but can be removed with a filter at the expense of resolution. The incident field also has no effect for a variety of array configurations tested. Finally, the performance in the presence of both correlated and uncorrelated errors is confirmed, in all cases demonstrating that the incident field has a negligible effect on the final reconstruction.
Haith MI, Ewert U, Hohendorf S, et al., 2016, Radiographic modelling for NDE of subsea pipelines, NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 86, Pages: 113-122, ISSN: 0963-8695
This work presents an investigation of the accuracy of a radiographic simulation model applied to subsea pipeline inspections. Experimental measurements of a sample in a water tank are used to develop a set of calibrated simulation parameters for the modelling software aRTist. Image quality parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, contrast and basic spatial resolution are compared with the aim of matching simulated values to experimental results. With this method signal-to-noise ratio was successfully matched while differences were still found in contrast-to-noise ratio comparisons. This means that measurements depending on absolute intensity are not accurate enough, however wall thickness measurements in tangential images, which are not based on absolute intensity, were found to produce similar results in simulated and experimental cases. The differences in contrast and intensity are thought to be due to detector backscatter and additional scatter from out-of-setup objects within the exposure bay, due to a lack of source collimation. These would affect the experimental results but were not included in the simulated setup. This was investigated by including different proportions of peripheral water and other objects in the modelled setup and examining the effect on image quality parameters. Results show that this additional scatter has a significant impact on the radiograph, particularly on image contrast, and is therefore the likely cause of differences between experimental and simulated images. This implies that it will be very difficult to completely match simulated to experimental results, as including all possible scattering objects in the model would be very complex. An improvement could be made by using real subsea data to estimate this additional scattering, which could then be used to calibrate the model. However there would still be significant uncertainty in the ability of the model to accurately produce realistic intensity and contrast.
Huthwaite P, 2016, Guided wave tomography with an improved scattering model, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, Vol: 472, ISSN: 1471-2946
Producing accurate thickness maps of corrosion damage is of great importance for assessing life in the petrochemical industry. Guided wave tomography provides a solution for this, by sending guided waves through the region of interest, then using tomographic imaging techniques to reconstruct the thickness map, importantly eliminating the need to take measurements at all points across the surface. However, to achieve accurate maps, the imaging algorithm must account for the way in which the guided waves interact with corrosion defects, and the complex scattering which occurs. Traditional approaches have exploited the dispersive nature of guided waves: a velocity map is produced from a dataset, then converted to thickness using the dispersion relationship. However, these relationships are derived for plates of constant thickness, which is not the case in the majority of defects, causing significant inaccuracies to exist in the images. This paper develops a more sophisticated inversion solution which accounts for the full-guided wave scattering, enabling more accurate images with resolution better than a wavelength, compared with two wavelengths previously. This is demonstrated with simulated and experimental data. The speed and stability of the algorithm in the presence of random noise and systematic errors is also demonstrated.
Seher M, Huthwaite P, Lowe MJS, 2016, Experimental Studies of the Inspection of Areas With Restricted Access Using A0 Lamb Wave Tomography, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol: 63, Pages: 1455-1467, ISSN: 0885-3010
Corrosion damage in inaccessible regions presents a significant challenge to the petrochemical industry, and determining the remaining wall thickness is important to establish the remaining service life. Guided wave tomography is one solution to this and involves transmitting Lamb waves through the area of interest and, subsequently, using the received signals to reconstruct a thickness map of the remaining wall thickness. This avoids the need to access all points on the surface, making the technique well suited to inspection for areas with restricted access. The influence of these areas onto the ability to detect and size surface conditions, such as corrosion damage, using guided wave tomography is assessed. For that, a guided wave tomography system is employed, which is based on low-frequency A0 Lamb waves that are excited and detected with two arrays of electromagnetic acoustic transducers. Two different defect depths are considered with different contrasts relative to the nominal wall thickness, both of which are smoothly varying and well-defined. The influence of areas with restricted surface access, support locations, pipe clamps, and STOPAQ(R) coatings is experimentally tested, and their influence assessed through comparison to a baseline reconstruction without the respective restriction in place, demonstrating only a small influence on the detected value of the remaining wall thickness.
Van Pamel A, Huthwaite P, Brett CR, et al., 2016, Numerical simulations of ultrasonic array imaging of highly scattering materials, NDT & E International, Vol: 81, Pages: 9-19, ISSN: 0963-8695
Huthwaite P, 2016, Improving accuracy through density correction in guided wave tomography, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 472, ISSN: 1364-5021
The accurate quantification of wall loss caused by corrosion is critical to the reliable life estimation of pipes and pressure vessels. Traditional thickness gauging by scanning a probe is slow and requires access to all points on the surface; this is impractical in many cases as corrosion often occurs where access is restricted, such as beneath supports where water collects. Guided wave tomography presents a solution to this; by transmitting guided waves through the region of interest and exploiting their dispersive nature, it is possible to build up a map of thickness. While the best results have been seen when using the fundamental modes A0 and S0 at low frequency, the complex scattering of the waves causes errors within the reconstruction. It is demonstrated that these lead to an underestimate in wall loss for A0 but an overestimate for S0. Further analysis showed that this error was related to density variation, which was proportional to thickness. It was demonstrated how this could be corrected for in the reconstructions, in many cases resulting in the near-elimination of the error across a range of defects, and greatly improving the accuracy of life estimates from guided wave tomography.
Van Pamel A, Brett CR, Huthwaite P, et al., 2015, Finite element modelling of elastic wave scattering within a polycrystalline material in two and three dimensions, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol: 138, Pages: 2326-2336, ISSN: 0001-4966
Finite element modelling is a promising tool for further progressing the development of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation of polycrystalline materials. Yet its widespread adoption has been held back due to a high computational cost, which has restricted current works to relatively small models and to two dimensions. However, the emergence of sufficiently powerful computing, such as highly efficient solutions on graphics processors, is enabling a step improvement in possibilities. This article aims to realise those capabilities to simulate ultrasonic scattering of longitudinal waves in an equiaxed polycrystalline material in both two (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The modelling relies on an established Voronoi approach to randomly generate a representative grain morphology. It is shown that both 2D and 3D numerical data show good agreement across a range of scattering regimes in comparison to well-established theoretical predictions for attenuation and phase velocity. In addition, 2D parametric studies illustrate the mesh sampling requirements for two different types of mesh to ensure modelling accuracy and present useful guidelines for future works. Modelling limitations are also shown. It is found that 2D models reduce the scattering mechanism in the Rayleigh regime.
Egerton JS, Lowe MJS, Halai HV, et al., 2015, Improved FE Simulation of Ultrasound in Plastics, 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE), Publisher: American Institute of Physics (AIP), ISSN: 1551-7616
Some UK and US nuclear power stations have begun introducing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes to certain cooling water circuits. HDPE offers improved performance over existing pipe materials, such as cast iron, by not corroding in-ternally or externally, yet occasional defects form in HDPE pipe fusion joints at the production stage. This necessitates suitable volumetric NDE to safely and reliably assess joint integrity. Ultrasonic NDE is the most viable current technique, but improved inspection capability is needed, given that the challenges of NDE of plastics differ significantly from those of metals. This also necessitates an accurate and reliable wave propagation simulation technique, such as finite-element (FE) modelling. Accurate FE modelling of ultrasound in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) must account for frequency-dependent behaviour but, the most ap-parent way to do so – frequency domain FE modelling – is prohibitively computationally expensive and potentially impossible to solve for all but the smallest models. Here we present a multiband time domain FE simulation technique to address this. The proposed multiband technique is a computationally efficient and accurate approach to time domain FE modelling of ultrasonic wave propagation. It could, for example, be used to validate the NDE of a large range of candidate fusion joint defects in HDPE. The proposed model uses a small number of time domain FE simulations at individual frequency bands that together cover the bandwidth of interest. The frequency dependence of acoustic properties of ultrasound is accurately represented for HDPE and could readily be applied to other media.
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