44 results found
D'Arcy M, Mason PJ, Roda-Boluda DC, et al., 2018, Alluvial fan surface ages recorded by Landsat-8 imagery in Owens Valley, California, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol: 216, Pages: 401-414, ISSN: 0034-4257
Alluvial fans are important depositional landforms that offer valuable records of terrestrial sedimentation history if their surfaces can be mapped and dated accurately. Unfortunately, as this often depends on detailed field mapping and intensive absolute dating techniques, it can be a challenging, expensive and time-consuming exercise. In this study, we demonstrate that quantitative information about the ages of alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California, is recorded by Landsat-8 multispectral satellite imagery. We show that systematic changes in the wavelength-dependent brightness of fan surfaces occur gradually over a timescale of ~100 kyr in this semi-arid setting, and are highly correlated with known deposit ages. Using spectro-radiometry and X-ray diffraction analysis of sediment samples collected in the field, we interpret that surface reflectance evolves primarily in response to the in-situ production of secondary illite and iron oxide by weathering in this landscape. Furthermore, we demonstrate that first-order predictions of absolute fan surface age can be derived from multispectral imagery when an initial age calibration is available. These findings suggest that multispectral imagery, such as Landsat data, can be used (i) for preliminary mapping of alluvial fans prior to detailed field work and before choosing sampling sites for conventional dating techniques, and (ii) to extend age models to un-dated neighbouring surfaces with equivalent physical properties, once an age-brightness calibration has been established.
Lawrence J, Agar S, Ghail R, et al., 2018, PSInSAR remote sensing observations of deformation behaviour at Salisbury Plain, UK, Engineering in Chalk, Pages: 269-274
PSInSAR is a radar remote sensing approach that offers measurements of ground deformation over large areas at sub-mm precision. The technique has significant potential for granting insight into ongoing geological processes. Data recovery in rural areas is challenging due to the highly inconsistent radar scattering behaviour exhibited by vegetated ground, and thus a rural area of the UK – Salisbury Plain - was used as a case study to examine the challenges and potential for PSInSAR techniques in rural areas. Results showed regional uplift of clay formations relative to the Chalk, which was attributed to clay shrink-swell correlated with seasonal increases in groundwater levels.
Mason P, 2018, The Earth as a planet, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Pages: 5767-5769, ISSN: 0143-1161
Liu J, Mason PJ, Bryant EC, 2018, Regional assessment of geohazard recovery eight years after the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake: a remote-sensing investigation of the Beichuan region, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol: 39, Pages: 1671-1695, ISSN: 0143-1161
The earthquake of 12 May 2008 in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, devastated the entire Beichuan region. Sitting at the intersection of the Yingxiu-Beichuan and Pengguan faults, the region experienced seismic intensities of VIII–XI on the Liedu scale. High seismic intensity combined with inherent geomorphological and climatic susceptibility to slope failure resulted in widespread co-seismic geohazards (slope failures of various types), which decimated the region. The seismic characteristics of the Wenchuan earthquake and the co-seismic geohazard distribution in relation to various conditioning factors have previously been examined in depth. However, there has been a lack of regional assessment of temporal and spatial recovery from co-seismic geohazards. Triggered by the authors’ field observation of rapid recovery, this study presents a temporal series of geohazard maps, produced by manual interpretation of satellite imagery, to present an initial assessment of changes in geohazard occurrence in the Beichuan region since the Wenchuan earthquake. In particular, landscape recovery at the co-seismic geohazard sites, as indicated by re-vegetation, is analysed based on temporal/spatial characteristics of geohazard distribution, in relation to co-seismic deformation, distance from the rupture zone and slope angle. Eight years after the Wenchuan earthquake, the overall recovery stands at 65.48%, with approximately uniform annual rates of recovery at 13.45% a year between 2009 and 2011 and 10.56% a year between 2012 and 2016. Whilst co-seismic geohazards are concentrated on the hanging wall of the seismic fault, landscape recovery is more significant in the very highly deformed zone than in other areas. Recovery has been the greatest on slopes of <50° and peaks on 40°–50° slopes, where the area occupied by co-seismic geohazards was the largest. The block-slides and rock topples, which characterize high angle slopes, show much slower
Gupta S, Singh A, Thomsen KJ, et al., 2017, Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (~4.6–3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers. Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after ~8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than an active Himalayan river. Confinement of the Sutlej to its present incised course after ~8 ka likely reduced its propensity to re-route frequently thus enabling long-term stability for Indus settlements sited along the relict palaeochannel.
Neal LC, Wilkinson JJ, Mason PJ, et al., 2017, Spectral characteristics of propylitic alteration minerals as a vectoring tool for porphyry copper deposits, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol: 184, Pages: 179-198, ISSN: 0375-6742
Short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a quick and effective method of detecting and characterising hydrothermal alteration associated with ore deposits, and can identify not only mineral species but also changes in the major element composition of minerals. Porphyry deposits represent large accumulations of valuable metal in the Earth's crust and have extensive alteration signatures making them an attractive target for exploration, particularly by remote sensing which can cover large areas quickly. Reflectance spectroscopy has been widely applied in sericitic (phyllic), argillic and advanced argillic alteration domains because it is particularly effective in discriminating bright clay minerals. However, the propylitic domain has remained relatively unexplored because propylitic rocks are typically dark and produce relatively poorly-defined spectra.This study utilised an ASD TerraSpec 4 handheld spectrometer to collect SWIR spectra from rocks surrounding the Batu Hijau Cu-Au porphyry deposit in Indonesia, where previous work has identified systematic spatial variations in the chemistry of chlorite, a common propylitic alteration mineral. Spectra were collected from 90 samples and processed using The Spectral Geologist (TSG) software as well as the Halo mineral identifier to characterise mineralogy and extract the positions and depths of spectral absorption features, which were then correlated with major element geochemistry. Two diagnostic chlorite absorption features located at around 2250 nm and 2340 nm correlate with the Mg# (Mg/[Mg + Fe]) of chlorite, both in terms of wavelength position and depth. As the Mg# increases, the wavelengths of both features increase from 2249 nm to 2254 nm and from 2332 nm to 2343 nm respectively, and absorption depths also increase significantly. In the spatial dimension, these feature variations act as reasonably strong vectors to the orebody, showing systematic increases over a transect away from the porphyry centr
Ghail RC, Hall D, Mason PJ, et al., 2017, VenSAR on EnVision: taking Earth Observation radar to Venus, International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation, Vol: 64, Pages: 365-376, ISSN: 0303-2434
Venus should be the most Earth-like of all our planetary neighbours: its size, bulk composition and distance from the Sun are very similar to those of Earth. How and why did it all go wrong for Venus? What lessons can be learned about the life story of terrestrial planets in general, in this era of discovery of Earth-like exoplanets? Were the radically different evolutionary paths of Earth and Venus driven solely by distance from the Sun, or do internal dynamics, geological activity, volcanic outgassing and weathering also play an important part? EnVision is a proposed ESA Medium class mission designed to take Earth Observation technology to Venus to measure its current rate of geological activity, determine its geological history, and the origin and maintenance of its hostile atmosphere, to understand how Venus and Earth could have evolved so differently. EnVision will carry three instruments: the Venus Emission Mapper (VEM); the Subsurface Radar Sounder (SRS); and VenSAR, a world-leading European phased array synthetic aperture radar that is the subject of this article. VenSAR will obtain images at a range of spatial resolutions from 30 m regional coverage to 1 m images of selected areas; an improvement of two orders of magnitude on Magellan images; measure topography at 15 m resolution vertical and 60 m spatially from stereo and InSAR data; detect cm-scale change through differential InSAR, to characterise volcanic and tectonic activity, and estimate rates of weathering and surface alteration; and characterise of surface mechanical properties and weathering through multi-polar radar data. These data will be directly comparable with Earth Observation radar data, giving geoscientists unique access to an Earth-sized planet that has evolved on a radically different path to our own, offering new insights on the Earth-sized exoplanets across the galaxy.
Toms E, Mason PJ, Ghail RC, 2016, Drift-filled hollows in Battersea: investigation of the structure and geology along the route of the Northern Line Extension, London, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol: 49, Pages: 147-153, ISSN: 1470-9236
Drift filled hollows (DFHs) are a major subsurface hazard for engineering in London. They are characterised by a steeply inclined cone-shaped hollow into (sometimes through) the London Clay Formation, filled with unconsolidated fine to coarse-grained drift and often covered by terrace gravels, making them difficult to identify at the surface. Their origin remains uncertain but most likely formed towards the end of glacial epochs by meltwater scouring, perhaps of collapsed pingos. Usually associated with tributaries to the Thames, DFHs are particularly prevalent in the Battersea area, through which the Northern Line Extension (NLE) is to be built. This study uses 283 public borehole records and site reports to build a 3D geological ground model of two known DFHs in the Battersea area to develop a more complete understanding of their origin. We show that DFHs are likely older than previously assumed, dating from the end Anglian [MIS 12], ~300 ka ago, before the deposition of the River Terrace Deposits. The two DFHs modelled fall into distinct types: a small shallow DFH that is probably a purely scour feature in origin, and a larger, deeper DFH which probably formed by the scouring of a perhaps fault controlled pingo. It is unclear whether the faults controlled pingo formation passively by acting as a conduit for water, or in a more active sense by driving ground movements. Both DFHs represent a significant hazard for the NLE and require more detailed investigations to properly constrain their extent.
Van Dijk W, Densmore A, Singh A, et al., 2016, Linking the morphology of fluvial fan systems to aquifer stratigraphy in the Sutlej-Yamuna plain of northwest India, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol: 121, Pages: 201-222, ISSN: 0148-0227
The Indo-Gangetic foreland basin has some of the highest rates of groundwater extractionin the world, focused in the states of Punjab and Haryana in northwest India. Any assessment of theeffects of extraction on groundwater variation requires understanding of the geometry and sedimentaryarchitecture of the alluvial aquifers, which in turn are set by their geomorphic and depositional setting. Toassess the overall architecture of the aquifer system, we used satellite imagery and digital elevation modelsto map the geomorphology of the Sutlej and Yamuna fan systems, while aquifer geometry was assessedusing 243 wells that extend to ∼200 m depth. Aquifers formed by sandy channel bodies in the subsurfaceof the Sutlej and Yamuna fans have a median thickness of 7 and 6 m, respectively, and follow heavy-tailedthickness distributions. These distributions, along with evidence of persistence in aquifer fractions asdetermined from compensation analysis, indicate persistent reoccupation of channel positions and suggestthat the major aquifers consist of stacked, multistoried channel bodies. The percentage of aquifer material inindividual boreholes decreases down fan, although the exponent on the aquifer body thickness distributionremains similar, indicating that the total number of aquifer bodies decreases down fan but that individualbodies do not thin appreciably, particularly on the Yamuna fan. The interfan area and the fan marginal zonehave thinner aquifers and a lower proportion of aquifer material, even in proximal locations. We concludethat geomorphic setting provides a first-order control on the thickness, geometry, and stacking pattern ofaquifer bodies across this critical region.
Mason PJ, Ghail RC, Bischoff C, et al., 2015, Detecting and monitoring small-scale discrete ground movements across London, using Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI), XVI ECSMGE, Publisher: ICE Publishing
The geology of London is surprisingly poorly understood and, until recently, has been accepted as that of an unfaulted subsidingintraplate basin. The detection of deformation in such quiescent intraplate regions is, however, rather difficult since the movementrates are at least an order of magnitude less than those at plate margins. Growing evidence from across the capital indicates that London'sground conditions are considerably more complex than expected and that faulting is almost always involved.PSInSAR is a developing technique widely used to detect and monitor ground subsidence, especially in urban settings, the movements ofwhich may be up to tens of millimetres. This work focuses on the detection of smaller scale ground movements (of a few millimetres),which we believe are caused by fault-controlled intraplate adjustments, using PSInSAR.The London PSInSAR dataset derives from an imaging SAR archive spanning 18 years (1992 - 2000 and 2001 to 2010). Our preliminaryfindings have revealed systematic patterns of both vertical and horizontal ground displacement. These displacements appear to be faultconstrained and fit the predicted framework of Caledonian, Variscan/Alpine structures known to exist across southern Britain. More detailedanalysis has revealed some surprising patterns, which hint at discrete movements rather than continuous 'creep' over the 18 year period;we believe these are driven by basement faults beneath an inverting London basin.
Ghail RC, Mason PJ, Skipper JA, 2015, The geological context and evidence for incipient inversion of the London Basin, XVI ECSMGE 2015, Pages: 3523-3528
A reappraisal of ground investigation data across London reveal that a range of unexpected ground conditions, encountered in engineering works since Victorian times, may result from the effects of ongoing inversion of the London Basin. Site investigation borehole data and the distribution of river terrace deposits of the Thames and its tributaries reveal a complex pattern of block movements, tilting and dextral transcurrent displacement. Significant displacements (~10 m) observed in Thames terrace gravels in borehole TQ38SE1565 at the Lower Lea Crossing, showing that movement has occurred within the last ~100 ka. Restraining bends on reactivated transcurrent faults may ex-plain the occurrence of drift filled hollows, previously identified as fluvially scoured pingos, by faulting and upward migration of water on a flower structure under periglacial conditions. Mapping the location of these features constrains the location of active transcurrent faults and so helps predict the likelihood of encountering hazardous ground conditions during tunnelling and ground engineering.
Singh A, Gupta S, Sinha R, et al., Large–scale avulsion of the late Quaternary Sutlej river in the NW Indo–Gangetic foreland basin, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015
River avulsions are important processes in the spatial evolution of river systems in tectonically active sedimentary basins as they govern large–scale patterns of sediment routing. However, the pattern and timing of avulsions in large river systems are poorly documented and not well understood. Here we document late Quaternary paleo– river channel changes in the Indo–Gangetic basin of northwest India. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing and detailed sediment coring, we analyse the large–scale planform geometry, and detailed sedimentary andstratigraphic nature of a major fluvial sedimentary deposit in the shallow subsurface. This sediment body records aggradation of multiple fluvial channel fills. Satellite remote sensing analysis indicates the trace of the buried channel complex and demonstrates that it exists in region of the Himalayan foreland where no major rivers are currently present. Thus it records the former drainage pathway of a major river, which has since been diverted. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques to develop an age model for the stratigraphic succession and hence constrain the timing of river channel existence and diversion. Provenance analysis based on U–Pb dating of detrital zircons and detrital mica Ar–Ar ages indicate sediment sources in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline andLesser Himalayan Crystalline Series indicating that this paleo–river channel system formed a major perennial river derived from the main body of the Himalaya. Specifically we are able to fingerprint bedrock sources in thecatchment of the present–day Sutlej river indicating that the paleo–fluvial system represents the former course of the Sutlej river prior to a major nodal avulsion to its present day course. Our results indicate that on geologically relatively short time–scales, we observe dramatic along strike shifts in the location of major Himalayan rivers. Our sediment records
Turconi L, Tropeano D, Savio G, et al., 2015, Landscape analysis for multi-hazard prevention in Orco and Soana valleys, Northwest Italy, NATURAL HAZARDS AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, Vol: 15, Pages: 1963-1972, ISSN: 1561-8633
Ghail RC, Skipper J, Mason PJ, 2014, Identification of Ground Engineering Hazards in London Through the Use of Predictive 4D Geomodelling Tools, Switzerland, Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, Publisher: Springer International Publishing, Pages: 907-911
Unexpected ground conditions are responsible for a number of engineering problems and hazards across London. A major reason for the unexpected nature of these events is the historical proprietary approach to site investigation, which has restricted knowledge transfer and inhibited the development of a London-wide geological context. Recent changes mean that much of these data are now accessible in the public domain for site investigation and useful in predicting the engineering hazards resulting from complex and variable geology. We advocate applying predictive 4D modelling to better constrain geological structures, facies, fissures and groundwater flow, and adopting an iterative approach that both informs local site models and updates the regional context. Reverse normal faulting, indicative of basin inversion, pull-apart structures and periglacial scour/pingo features are identified in a pilot study regional model. Applying this model to a small site investigation predicted otherwise unexpected faulting, generating horizontal fissuring that causes water to flow along the length of the fault system. Widely adopting this approach in London and other urban areas may substantially reduce the risk of unexpected ground hazards.
Wu M-C, Liu J, Cosgrove J, et al., 2014, Modelling of Yingxiu-Seichuan fault zone based on refined DInSAR data of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, TECTONOPHYSICS, Vol: 630, Pages: 193-207, ISSN: 0040-1951
Barrott JJ, Dudeney AWL, Mason PJ, 2014, Spatial and temporal relationships between Eocene sand horizons and iron contamination in stream water in the Thames Basin west of London, UK, Geochemistry-Exploration Environment Analysis, Vol: 14, Pages: 33-44, ISSN: 1467-7873
Analyses of stream water samples associated with Tertiary (Eocene) sands of the Bracklesham Formation 30–60 km west of London showed numerous occurrences of groundwater containing elevated iron(II) concentrations (1–15 mg/l Fe), which oxidise to red-brown ferrihydrite in localised wetlands and streams and join onward flows towards the River Thames. GIS mapping of iron concentrations in relation to topographical and geological data within a 20×30 km project area indicated some 168 km of iron-contaminated water.The results are consistent with downward permeation of groundwater through contained Camberley, Windlesham and Bagshot sand horizons and predominant W-E groundwater flow of up to 35 km in the Bagshot horizon, which rests on impermeable London Clay. Glauconite, comprising up to 70% of the sand near the base of the Windlesham horizon, apparently provides the main source of soluble iron in the near-anoxic, near-neutral, conditions normally prevailing. Pyrite is also a possible source, especially where quarrying or other excavation releases water from previously isolated volumes, simultaneously causing elevated sulphate and acidity levels via relatively rapid sulphide oxidation. Mechanisms proposed are underpinned through comparison with reports on analogous systems in the UK and abroad.Streams and lakes in the vicinity of seepages are highly visible and of decreased biodiversity. However, because of their natural origin, they are not subject to the same public concern and environmental control as compositionally similar near-neutral water from many former coal mines elsewhere - where iron derives primarily from pyrite. Also, while comparatively persistent, they appear destined for rapid depletion in geological terms: the unusual isolation of the sands until the Quaternary indicates a short leaching period and suggests a reason why iron-rich water from natural ferruginous sands is seldom of sufficient significanc
Liu JG, Mason PJ, Yu E, et al., 2013, Earthquake damage zone GIS modelling: A modulation between co-seismic deformation and landslide susceptibility, Pages: 269-277
In mountainous regions, earthquake events are typical of naturally-occurring multiple hazards and are frequently the trigger for cascade effects which range from the destruction of the initial shock, to extensive and complex slope failures in the immediate, short and very long-term. The conventional seismic intensity zonationmethod cannot adequately characterise both the current damage level and long-term geohazards, while detailed information is critical in guiding postdisastermitigation and regional development. In studying themost severely damagedBeichuan area by the Mw7.9Wenchuan earthquake, we proceeded with a qualitative numerical method for earthquake damage zonemapping which is novel in its integration of the multi-variable GIS modelling of geohazard susceptibility with co-seismic deformation via amodulation. This new model, we call it earthquake damage, characterise not only the destruction immediately after an earthquake but also the potential for future damage as the consequences of the earthquake. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.
Wu M-C, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2013, Adaptive local kriging to retrieve slant-range surface motion maps of the Wenchuan earthquake, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 34, Pages: 7589-7606, ISSN: 0143-1161
Wu M-C, Liu J-G, Yan H, et al., 2012, Three-Dimensional Surface Displacement Map of The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Derived From Phase Correlation Sub-pixel Offset Method and Adaptive Local Kriging DInSAR Data, 2012 IEEE International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium, Pages: 3899-3902
Liu JG, Mason PJ, Yu E, et al., 2012, GIS modelling of earthquake damage zones using satellite remote sensing and DEM data, GEOMORPHOLOGY, Vol: 139, Pages: 518-535, ISSN: 0169-555X
EnVision is an ambitious but low-risk response to ESA’s call for a medium-size mission opportunity for a launch in 2022. Venus is the planet most similar to Earth in mass, bulk properties and orbital distance, but has evolved to become extremely hostile to life. EnVision’s 5-year mission objectives are to determine the nature of and rate of change caused by geological and atmospheric processes, to distinguish between competing theories about its evolution and to help predict the habitability of extrasolar planets. Three instrument suites will address specific surface, atmosphere and ionosphere science goals. The Surface Science Suite consists of a 2.2 m2 radar antenna with Interferometer, Radiometer and Altimeter operating modes, supported by a complementary IR surface emissivity mapper and an advanced accelerometer for orbit control and gravity mapping. This suite will determine topographic changes caused by volcanic, tectonic and atmospheric processes at rates as low as 1 mm a − 1. The Atmosphere Science Suite consists of a Doppler LIDAR for cloud top altitude, wind speed and mesospheric structure mapping, complemented by IR and UV spectrometers and a spectrophotopolarimeter, all designed to map the dynamic features and compositions of the clouds and middle atmosphere to identify the effects of volcanic and solar processes. The Ionosphere Science Suite uses a double Langmiur probe and vector magnetometer to understand the behaviour and long-term evolution of the ionosphere and induced magnetosphere. The suite also includes an interplanetary particle analyser to determine the delivery rate of water and other components to the atmosphere.
Bishop CA, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2011, Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral exploration in Pulang, Yunnan Province, China, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 32, Pages: 2409-2426, ISSN: 0143-1161
Ismail NAFB, Kamarudin SN, Rahim MSBM, et al., 2010, Visualisation of Earth Deformation in 2D, 2nd International Conference on Computational Intelligence Communication Systems and Networks (CICSyN), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 320-325
Liu JG, Mason P, 2009, Essential Image Processing and GIS for Remote Sensing, UK 9780470510322, Publisher: Wiley, ISBN: 9780470510322
Essential Image Processing and GIS for Remote Sensing is an accessible overview of the subject and successfully draws together these three key areas in a ...
Fourniadis IG, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2007, Regional assessment of landslide impact in the Three Gorges area, China, using ASTER data: Wushan-Zigui, LANDSLIDES, Vol: 4, Pages: 267-278, ISSN: 1612-510X
Fourniadis IG, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2007, Landslide hazard assessment in the Three Gorges area, China, using ASTER imagery: Wushan-Badong, GEOMORPHOLOGY, Vol: 84, Pages: 126-144, ISSN: 0169-555X
Fourniadis IG, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2007, Landslide hazard assessment in the Three Gorges area, China, using ASTER imagery, Geomorphology, Vol: 84, Pages: 126-144, ISSN: 0169-555X
Fourniadis IG, Liu JG, Mason PJ, 2007, Regional assessment of landslide impact in the Three Gorges area, China, using ASTER data: Wushan-Zigui, Landslides: Journal of the International Consortium of Landslides, Vol: 4, Pages: 267-278
Liu J G, Mason PJ MA J, 2006, Measurement of the left-lateral displacement of Ms 8.1 Kunlun earthquake on 14 November 2001 using Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol: 27, Pages: 1875-1891
Liu JG, Mason PJ, Ma JM, 2006, Measurement of the left-lateral displacement of Ms 8.1 Kunlun earthquake on 14 November 2001 using Landsat-7 ETM + imagery, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 27, Pages: 1875-1891, ISSN: 0143-1161
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