Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering




+44 (0)20 7594 9235p.kormushev Website




10-12 Prince's GardensSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Kormushev, P and Calinon, S and Saegusa, R and Metta, G},
doi = {10.1109/ICHR.2010.5686841},
pages = {417--423},
title = {Learning the skill of archery by a humanoid robot iCub},
url = {},
year = {2010}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - We present an integrated approach allowing the humanoid robot iCub to learn the skill of archery. After being instructed how to hold the bow and release the arrow, the robot learns by itself to shoot the arrow in such a way that it hits the center of the target. Two learning algorithms are proposed and compared to learn the bi-manual skill: one with Expectation-Maximization based Reinforcement Learning, and one with chained vector regression called the ARCHER algorithm. Both algorithms are used to modulate and coordinate the motion of the two hands, while an inverse kinematics controller is used for the motion of the arms. The image processing part recognizes where the arrow hits the target and is based on Gaussian Mixture Models for color-based detection of the target and the arrow's tip. The approach is evaluated on a 53-DOF humanoid robot iCub. ©2010 IEEE.
AU - Kormushev,P
AU - Calinon,S
AU - Saegusa,R
AU - Metta,G
DO - 10.1109/ICHR.2010.5686841
EP - 423
PY - 2010///
SP - 417
TI - Learning the skill of archery by a humanoid robot iCub
UR -
UR -
ER -