823 results found
Allione A, Pardini B, Viberti C, et al., 2018, The prognostic value of basal DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients affected by bladder cancer., Urol Oncol
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies of the urinary tract, with the highest lifetime treatment costs per patient of all cancers, due to the high rate of recurrences requiring continuous surveillance. An early diagnosis is essential to improve survival of patients with BC. Noninvasive and sensitive molecular biomarkers are needed to improve current strategies for the detection and monitoring of BC. Previous studies suggested that elevated DNA damage levels and suboptimal nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) may be associated with BC. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated basal DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 146 newly diagnosed patients with BC and 155 controls using a modified comet assay able to evaluate NER activity after challenging cells by benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE). RESULTS: We found an association between DNA damage levels in PBMCs of BC cases and patients' outcomes. Basal DNA damage at diagnosis was significantly increasing with tumor grades (trend test, P = 0.02) and risk classes (trend test, P = 0.02). The overall survival analysis showed that DNA damage in patients at BC diagnosis was significantly higher in subjects with a shorter survival time (hazard ratio = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-10.6; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, we suggest that DNA damage levels measured in PBMCs of patients with BC may potentially represent a prognostic marker associated with poor survival; further validation is needed to better stratify patients with BC for clinical trials.
Andersen ZJ, Pedersen M, Weinmayr G, et al., 2018, Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), NEURO-ONCOLOGY, Vol: 20, Pages: 420-432, ISSN: 1522-8517
Castagné R, Garès V, Karimi M, et al., 2018, Allostatic load and subsequent all-cause mortality: which biological markers drive the relationship? Findings from a UK birth cohort., Eur J Epidemiol
The concept of allostatic load (AL) refers to the idea of a global physiological 'wear and tear' resulting from the adaptation to the environment through the stress response systems over the life span. The link between socioeconomic position (SEP) and mortality has now been established, and there is evidence that AL may capture the link between SEP and mortality. In order to quantitatively assess the role of AL on mortality, we use data from the 1958 British birth cohort including eleven year mortality in 8,113 adults. Specifically, we interrogate the hypothesis of a cumulative biological risk (allostatic load) reflecting 4 physiological systems potentially predicting future risk of death (N = 132). AL was defined using 14 biomarkers assayed in blood from a biosample collected at 44 years of age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that higher allostatic load at 44 years old was a significant predictor of mortality 11 years later [HR = 3.56 (2.3 to 5.53)]. We found that this relationship was not solely related to early-life SEP, adverse childhood experiences and young adulthood health status, behaviours and SEP [HR = 2.57 (1.59 to 4.15)]. Regarding the ability of each physiological system and biomarkers to predict future death, our results suggest that the cumulative measure was advantageous compared to evaluating each physiological system sub-score and biomarker separately. Our findings add some evidence of a biological embodiment in response to stress which ultimately affects mortality.
Courtin E, Muennig P, Verma N, et al., 2018, Conditional Cash Transfers And Health Of Low-Income Families In The US: Evaluating The Family Rewards Experiment., Health Aff (Millwood), Vol: 37, Pages: 438-446
Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards was the first conditional cash transfer, randomized controlled trial for low-income families in the United States. From 2007 to 2010, Family Rewards offered 2,377 New York City families cash transfers that were conditional upon their investments in education, preventive health care, and parental employment. Their health and other outcomes were compared to those of a control group of 2,372 families. The experiment led to a modest improvement in health insurance coverage and a large increase in the use of preventive dental care. It improved parents' perception of their own health and levels of hope, mainly through improvements in reported financial well-being. While the program's impacts on physical health were weaker, our study might not have captured effects on chronic disease risk that take longer to accrue. In the context of New York City's operating social-safety-net programs, conditional cash transfers may have led to positive, albeit modest, improvements in the health of poor families.
Dossus L, Franceschi S, Biessy C, et al., 2018, Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: The EPIC study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 142, Pages: 1332-1342, ISSN: 0020-7136
Dugué P-A, Bassett JK, Joo JE, et al., 2018, Association of DNA Methylation-Based Biological Age With Health Risk Factors and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality., Am J Epidemiol, Vol: 187, Pages: 529-538
Measures of biological age based on blood DNA methylation, referred to as age acceleration (AA), have been developed. We examined whether AA was associated with health risk factors and overall and cause-specific mortality. At baseline (1990-1994), blood samples were drawn from 2,818 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia). DNA methylation was determined using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California). Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of AA with health risk factors. Cox models were used to assess the association of AA with mortality. A total of 831 deaths were observed during a median 10.7 years of follow-up. Associations of AA were observed with male sex, Greek nationality (country of birth), smoking, obesity, diabetes, lower education, and meat intake. AA measures were associated with increased mortality, and this was only partly accounted for by known determinants of health (hazard ratios were attenuated by 20%-40%). Weak evidence of heterogeneity in the association was observed by sex (P = 0.06) and cause of death (P = 0.07) but not by other factors. DNA-methylation-based AA measures are associated with several major health risk factors, but these do not fully explain the association between AA and mortality. Future research should investigate what genetic and environmental factors determine AA.
Espin-Perez A, Font-Ribera L, van Veldhoven K, et al., 2018, Blood transcriptional and microRNA responses to short-term exposure to disinfection by-products in a swimming pool, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 110, Pages: 42-50, ISSN: 0160-4120
Ferrero G, Cordero F, Tarallo S, et al., 2018, Small non-coding RNA profiling in human biofluids and surrogate tissues from healthy individuals: description of the diverse and most represented species, ONCOTARGET, Vol: 9, Pages: 3097-3111, ISSN: 1949-2553
Gulliver J, Morley D, Dunster C, et al., 2018, Land use regression models for the oxidative potential of fine particles (PM2.5) in five European areas, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 160, Pages: 247-255, ISSN: 0013-9351
Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, et al., 2018, Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 142, Pages: 874-882, ISSN: 0020-7136
Krauskopf J, Caiment F, van Veldhoven K, et al., 2018, The human circulating miRNome reflects multiple organ disease risks in association with short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution., Environ Int, Vol: 113, Pages: 26-34
Traffic-related air pollution is a complex mixture of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). PM exposure contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases including several types of cancer, as well as pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Also exposure to NO2 has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality. In search of an early diagnostic biomarker for improved air pollution-associated health risk assessment, recent human studies have shown that certain circulating miRNAs are altered upon exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. Here, we present for the first time a global analysis of the circulating miRNA genome in an experimental cross-over study of a human population exposed to traffic-related air pollution. By utilizing next-generation sequencing technology and detailed real-time exposure measurements we identified 54 circulating miRNAs to be dose- and pollutant species-dependently associated with PM10, PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles and NO2 already after 2 h of exposure. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that these circulating miRNAs actually reflect the adverse consequences of traffic pollution-induced toxicity in target tissues including the lung, heart, kidney and brain. This study shows the strong potential of circulating miRNAs as novel biomarkers for environmental health risk assessment.
Liu S, Grigoryan H, Edmands WMB, et al., 2018, Cys34 Adductomes Differ between Patients with Chronic Lung or Heart Disease and Healthy Controls in Central London, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 52, Pages: 2307-2313, ISSN: 0013-936X
Robinson O, Keski-Rahkonen P, Chatzi L, et al., 2018, Cord Blood Metabolic Signatures of Birth Weight: A Population-Based Study., J Proteome Res, Vol: 17, Pages: 1235-1247
Birth weight is an important indicator of maternal and fetal health and a predictor of health in later life. However, the determinants of variance in birth weight are still poorly understood. We aimed to identify the biological pathways, which may be perturbed by environmental exposures, that are important in determining birth weight. We applied untargeted mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics to 481 cord blood samples collected at delivery in four birth cohorts from across Europe: ENVIRONAGE (Belgium), INMA (Spain), Piccolipiu (Italy), and Rhea (Greece). We performed a metabolome-wide association scan for birth weight on over 4000 metabolic features, controlling the false discovery rate at 5%. Annotation of compounds was conducted through reference to authentic standards. We identified 68 metabolites significantly associated with birth weight, including vitamin A, progesterone, docosahexaenoic acid, indolelactic acid, and multiple acylcarnitines and phosphatidylcholines. We observed enrichment (p < 0.05) of the tryptophan metabolism, prostaglandin formation, C21-steroid hormone signaling, carnitine shuttle, and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways. Vitamin A was associated with both maternal smoking and birth weight, suggesting a mediation pathway. Our findings shed new light on the pathways central to fetal growth and will have implications for antenatal and perinatal care and potentially for health in later life.
Sanikini H, Yuan J-M, Butler LM, et al., 2018, Body mass index and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis based on nested case-control studies from four cohort studies., BMC Cancer, Vol: 18
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been proposed as a potential protective factor against lung cancer. We examined the association between BMI and lung cancer risk in a pooled analysis based on nested case-control studies from four cohort studies. METHODS: A case-control study was nested within four cohorts in USA, Europe, China and Singapore that included 4172 cases and 8471 control subjects. BMI at baseline was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2), and classified into 4 categories: underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obese (≥30). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Considering all participants, and using normal weight as the reference group, a decreased risk of lung cancer was observed for those who were overweight (OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.86) and obese (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82). In the stratified analysis by smoking status, the decreased risk for lung cancer was observed among current, former and never smokers (P for interaction 0.002). The adjusted ORs for overweight and obese groups were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68-0.92) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.93) for current smokers, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53-0.93) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37-0.80) for former smokers, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59-0.99), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.44-1.14) for never smokers, respectively. While no statistically significant association was observed for underweight subjects who were current smokers (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 0.98-1.58), former smokers (OR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.61) and never smokers (OR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.5.-1.28). CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide additional evidence that obesity is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. Further biological studies are needed to address this association.
Thurston GD, De Matteis S, Murray K, et al., 2018, Maximizing the Public Health Benefits from Climate Action., Environ Sci Technol
Turner MC, Vineis P, Seleiro E, et al., 2018, EXPOsOMICS: final policy workshop and stakeholder consultation, BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1471-2458
Van Baak TE, Coarfa C, Dugue P-A, et al., 2018, Epigenetic supersimilarity of monozygotic twin pairs, GENOME BIOLOGY, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1474-760X
de Pablo P, Romaguera D, Fisk HL, et al., 2018, High erythrocyte levels of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid are associated with lower risk of subsequent rheumatoid arthritis in a southern European nested case-control study., Ann Rheum Dis
OBJECTIVES: Findings relating to dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mixed. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA is an accurate objective biomarker of PUFA status; however, there are little data on erythrocyte membrane PUFA and risk of RA. The objective was therefore to compare erythrocyte membrane PUFA between pre-RA individuals and matched controls from a population-based sample, and specifically to test the hypothesis that higher levels of longer chain n-3 PUFA are associated with lower risk of RA. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a large European prospective cohort study of apparently healthy populations. We undertook a nested case-control study by identifying RA cases with onset after enrolment (pre-RA) in four EPIC cohorts in Italy and Spain. Confirmed pre-RA cases were matched with controls by age, sex, centre, and date, time and fasting status at blood collection. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of PUFA with the development of RA, adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, waist circumference, education level, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake. RESULTS: The study analysed samples from 96 pre-RA subjects and 258 matched controls. In this analysis, the median time to diagnosis (defined as time between date of blood sample and date of diagnosis) was 6.71 years (range 0.8-15). A significant inverse association was observed with n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA) levels and pre-RA in the fully adjusted model (highest tertile: OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.75; P for trend 0.01). No association was observed with any individual n-3 PUFA, total n-3 PUFA or total n-3:n-6 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Erythrocyte levels of the n-6 PUFA LA were inversely associated with risk of RA, whereas no associations were observed for other n-6 or n-3 PUFA. Further work is warranted to replicate these findings and
van Veldhoven K, Keski-Rahkonen P, Barupal DK, et al., 2018, Effects of exposure to water disinfection by-products in a swimming pool: A metabolome-wide association study, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 111, Pages: 60-70, ISSN: 0160-4120
Ambatipudi S, Horvath S, Perrier F, et al., 2017, DNA methylome analysis identifies accelerated epigenetic ageing associated with postmenopausal breast cancer susceptibility, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 75, Pages: 299-307, ISSN: 0959-8049
Andersen ZJ, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G, et al., 2017, Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0091-6765
Baglietto L, Ponzi E, Haycock P, et al., 2017, DNA methylation changes measured in pre-diagnostic peripheral blood samples are associated with smoking and lung cancer risk, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 140, Pages: 50-61, ISSN: 0020-7136
Barrera-Gomez J, Agier L, Portengen L, et al., 2017, A systematic comparison of statistical methods to detect interactions in exposome-health associations, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1476-069X
Bernatsky S, Velásquez García HA, Spinelli JJ, et al., 2017, Lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma., Lupus Sci Med, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2053-8790
Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL. Methods: GWAS data on European Caucasians from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) provided a total of 3857 DLBCL cases and 7666 general-population controls. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among the 28 SLE-related SNPs investigated, the two most convincingly associated with risk of DLBCL included the CD40 SLE risk allele rs4810485 on chromosome 20q13 (OR per risk allele=1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16, p=0.0134), and the HLA SLE risk allele rs1270942 on chromosome 6p21.33 (OR per risk allele=1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, p=0.0362). Of additional possible interest were rs2205960 and rs12537284. The rs2205960 SNP, related to a cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily TNFSF4, was associated with an OR per risk allele of 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.0549. The OR for the rs12537284 (chromosome 7q32, IRF5 gene) risk allele was 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18, p=0.0765. Conclusions: These data suggest several plausible genetic links between DLBCL and SLE.
Boccardi M, Gallo V, Yasui Y, et al., 2017, The biomarker-based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. 2-lessons from oncology, NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING, Vol: 52, Pages: 141-152, ISSN: 0197-4580
Carayol M, Leitzmann MF, Ferrari P, et al., 2017, Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort, JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol: 16, Pages: 3137-3146, ISSN: 1535-3893
Chatziioannou A, Georgiadis P, Hebels DG, et al., 2017, Blood-based omic profiling supports female susceptibility to tobacco smoke-induced cardiovascular diseases, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
Duell EJ, Lujan-Barroso L, Sala N, et al., 2017, Plasma microRNAs as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 141, Pages: 905-915, ISSN: 0020-7136
Ek WE, Tobi EW, Ahsan M, et al., 2017, Tea and coffee consumption in relation to DNA methylation in four European cohorts, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 26, Pages: 3221-3231, ISSN: 0964-6906
Ezzati M, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al., 2017, Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults, LANCET, Vol: 390, Pages: 2627-2642, ISSN: 0140-6736
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